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Major players in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market are Almirall S.A., AstraZeneca PLC, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, GSK PLC., Novartis AG, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

New York, June 08, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treatment Global Market Report 2023" - www.reportlinker.com/p06466548/?utm_source=GNW
, Astellas Pharma Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A, Mylan N.V., Orion Corporation, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., Circassia Group PLC, Kyowa Kirin Co. Ltd., Circassia Group PLC, and Sanofi S.A.

The global chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market is expected to grow from $19.18 billion in 2022 to $20.08 billion in 2023 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.71%. The Russia-Ukraine war disrupted the chances of global economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, at least in the short term. The war between these two countries has led to economic sanctions on multiple countries, a surge in commodity prices, and supply chain disruptions, causing inflation across goods and services and affecting many markets across the globe. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market is expected to reach $24.52 billion in 2027 at a CAGR of 5.12%.

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market includes revenues earned by entities by providing services such as oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, medication services, endobronchial valve therapy and non-invasive ventilation services.The market value includes the value of related goods sold by the service provider or included within the service offering.

Only goods and services traded between entities or sold to end consumers are included.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment refers to medical care given to a patient that helps manage the symptoms, slow the progression, and improve the overall quality of life of individuals with COPD. COPD is a progressive respiratory disease characterized by airflow obstruction, chronic inflammation, and damage to the lung tissue.

North America was the largest region in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market in 2022.Asia-Pacific is expected to be the fastest-growing region in the forecast period.

The regions covered in this report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa.

The main types of drugs used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment are combination therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors, mucokinetics, and other drug classes.A combination therapy refers to a therapeutic intervention in which more than one therapy is administered to the patient.

Combination therapy includes treatment plans that call for giving patients a variety of tablets, each carrying a specific medication. It used to treat such diseases as chronic bronchitis and emphysema and majorly used by hospitals, clinics, and homecare.

The increasing prevalence of lung disease is expected to propel the growth of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market.Lung disease is a disorder that affects the lungs and keeps them from functioning properly.

The most common lung diseases are asthma, COPD, and lung cancer.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment is primarily used to treat lung disease, decrease the condition’s progression, control the symptoms, and avoid lung damage by employing inhalers and drugs.

For instance, in September 2022, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), a US-based non-profit organization, lung cancer had caused more than 2.2 million new cases and 1.80 million deaths globally in 2020, accounting for 1 in 4 cancer deaths. And 3.2 million people per year die from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which affects an estimated 200 million people. Additionally, asthma affected 262 million people globally in 2022. These numbers are expected to rise in the future. Therefore, the increasing prevalence of lung disease is driving the growth of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market.

Product innovation is a key trend gaining popularity in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market.Major companies operating in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market are focusing on developing innovative products to sustain their position in the market.

For instance, in April 2022, GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK), a UK-based pharmaceutical and biotechnology company, launched Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol), the first single-inhaler triple treatment (SITT) for patients in India with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Trelegy Ellipta is used as a maintenance medication to treat and prevent the signs and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people 18 years of age and older.

It performs similarly to natural corticosteroid hormones, reducing immune system activity by attaching to receptors (targets) on particular immune cell types. Additionally, it helps reduce swelling of the airways in the lungs to make breathing easier.

In July 2020, PAOG, a US-based biopharmaceutical technology company, acquired Resprx for $200 billion.With this acquisition, PAOG has the opportunity to strengthen its long-term medicinal cannabis goal by entering the cannabis biopharmaceutical sector.

Resprx, a US-based biopharmaceutical technology company, that provide cannabis-based COPD treatment.

The countries covered in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market report are Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, USA.

The market value is defined as the revenues that enterprises gain from the sale of goods and/or services within the specified market and geography through sales, grants, or donations in terms of the currency (in USD, unless otherwise specified).

The revenues for a specified geography are consumption values that are revenues generated by organizations in the specified geography within the market, irrespective of where they are produced. It does not include revenues from resales along the supply chain, either further along the supply chain or as part of other products.

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market research report is one of a series of new reports that provides chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market statistics, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment industry global market size, regional shares, competitors with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market share, detailed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market segments, market trends and opportunities, and any further data you may need to thrive in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment industry. This chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market research report delivers a complete perspective of everything you need, with an in-depth analysis of the current and future scenario of the industry.
Read the full report: www.reportlinker.com/p06466548/?utm_source=GNW

About Reportlinker
ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

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CONTACT: Clare: [email protected] US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001

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New York, June 08, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Treatment Global Market Report 2023" - www.reportlinker.com/p06466548/?utm_source=GNW
, Astellas Pharma Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A, Mylan N.V., Orion Corporation, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., Circassia Group PLC, Kyowa Kirin Co. Ltd., Circassia Group PLC, and Sanofi S.A.

The global chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market is expected to grow from $19.18 billion in 2022 to $20.08 billion in 2023 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.71%. The Russia-Ukraine war disrupted the chances of global economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, at least in the short term. The war between these two countries has led to economic sanctions on multiple countries, a surge in commodity prices, and supply chain disruptions, causing inflation across goods and services and affecting many markets across the globe. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market is expected to reach $24.52 billion in 2027 at a CAGR of 5.12%.

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market includes revenues earned by entities by providing services such as oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, medication services, endobronchial valve therapy and non-invasive ventilation services.The market value includes the value of related goods sold by the service provider or included within the service offering.

Only goods and services traded between entities or sold to end consumers are included.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment refers to medical care given to a patient that helps manage the symptoms, slow the progression, and improve the overall quality of life of individuals with COPD. COPD is a progressive respiratory disease characterized by airflow obstruction, chronic inflammation, and damage to the lung tissue.

North America was the largest region in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market in 2022.Asia-Pacific is expected to be the fastest-growing region in the forecast period.

The regions covered in this report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa.

The main types of drugs used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment are combination therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors, mucokinetics, and other drug classes.A combination therapy refers to a therapeutic intervention in which more than one therapy is administered to the patient.

Combination therapy includes treatment plans that call for giving patients a variety of tablets, each carrying a specific medication. It used to treat such diseases as chronic bronchitis and emphysema and majorly used by hospitals, clinics, and homecare.

The increasing prevalence of lung disease is expected to propel the growth of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market.Lung disease is a disorder that affects the lungs and keeps them from functioning properly.

The most common lung diseases are asthma, COPD, and lung cancer.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment is primarily used to treat lung disease, decrease the condition’s progression, control the symptoms, and avoid lung damage by employing inhalers and drugs.

For instance, in September 2022, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), a US-based non-profit organization, lung cancer had caused more than 2.2 million new cases and 1.80 million deaths globally in 2020, accounting for 1 in 4 cancer deaths. And 3.2 million people per year die from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which affects an estimated 200 million people. Additionally, asthma affected 262 million people globally in 2022. These numbers are expected to rise in the future. Therefore, the increasing prevalence of lung disease is driving the growth of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market.

Product innovation is a key trend gaining popularity in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market.Major companies operating in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market are focusing on developing innovative products to sustain their position in the market.

For instance, in April 2022, GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK), a UK-based pharmaceutical and biotechnology company, launched Trelegy Ellipta (fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol), the first single-inhaler triple treatment (SITT) for patients in India with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Trelegy Ellipta is used as a maintenance medication to treat and prevent the signs and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people 18 years of age and older.

It performs similarly to natural corticosteroid hormones, reducing immune system activity by attaching to receptors (targets) on particular immune cell types. Additionally, it helps reduce swelling of the airways in the lungs to make breathing easier.

In July 2020, PAOG, a US-based biopharmaceutical technology company, acquired Resprx for $200 billion.With this acquisition, PAOG has the opportunity to strengthen its long-term medicinal cannabis goal by entering the cannabis biopharmaceutical sector.

Resprx, a US-based biopharmaceutical technology company, that provide cannabis-based COPD treatment.

The countries covered in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market report are Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, USA.

The market value is defined as the revenues that enterprises gain from the sale of goods and/or services within the specified market and geography through sales, grants, or donations in terms of the currency (in USD, unless otherwise specified).

The revenues for a specified geography are consumption values that are revenues generated by organizations in the specified geography within the market, irrespective of where they are produced. It does not include revenues from resales along the supply chain, either further along the supply chain or as part of other products.

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market research report is one of a series of new reports that provides chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market statistics, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment industry global market size, regional shares, competitors with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market share, detailed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market segments, market trends and opportunities, and any further data you may need to thrive in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment industry. This chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment market research report delivers a complete perspective of everything you need, with an in-depth analysis of the current and future scenario of the industry.
Read the full report: www.reportlinker.com/p06466548/?utm_source=GNW

About Reportlinker
ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

__________________________


        

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“The quality of the air we breathe is very important because, in addition to cigarette smoke, it is the second determinant of some chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. And the inseparable combination of ‘respiratory health and the environment’ will be the protagonist of the 24th national congress of Italian Pneumology”. So at Adnkronos Salute Mauro Carone, Director UOC Pulmonology and Respiratory Rehabilitation Irccs Maugeri Bari and president of the congress promoted by Aipo Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists to be held in Bari, at the Fiera del Levante, from 9 to 11 June.

“For this edition we thought of the term ‘PneumoLogic’ – explains Carone – because we live in an era in which we are merging technological and bioinformatics capabilities with current medical knowledge. A fusion of reason, logic, humanism and technology that must lead to the improvement of care for our patients. What we have called ‘the Enlightenment of pulmonology’”.

During the meeting “we will talk about the reorganization of pulmonology – continues Carone – especially after the Covid-19 and the establishment of semi-intensive respiratory therapy sections; of the new Lea, of the Pnrr and of the state of implementation of healthcare interventions with the need for correct hospital-territory integration. But there will also be space to talk about the impact of pollution and climate change on respiratory health and for initiatives in favor of the environment”. Among these, the planting of trees within the municipality where the works are carried out. “We started last year in Catania – recalls the pulmonologist – where we placed 150 trees and shrubs. We will do the same thing this year in Bari where another 150 trees will be planted in San Francesco Park. For us, the combination of respiratory and environmental health is fundamental, you cannot have good respiratory health if there is not good environmental health”.

On the last day of the congress, starting at 17, a talk show open to citizens on the effects of air pollution and climate change on human health will be held in the exhibition pavilion. “Experts of international renown and representatives of local institutions will be present – ​​objective: to understand how to contribute to avoiding and combating environmental pollution”.

“Also pay attention to the quality of sleep – warns the expert – which is very important for our body. There are some chronic respiratory diseases related to sleep apnea that do not allow us to breathe well to the point of causing damage not only to the respiratory system but also to the cardiovascular system. All this can cause serious problems for our patients, repeated sleep apnea for many years can in fact lead to daytime hyper-somnolence, thus causing road accidents, accidents at work, increasing the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. Therefore, a correct quality of sleep, which must be measured and treated with special tests and tools, allows you to avoid all these risks and to lead a life as normal as possible”.

The Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists has gone further in recent years: “We have also opened up to society, becoming supporters of Save the children – concludes Carone – because the general health of the population is equally fundamental especially for those who live in more disadvantaged conditions who are the people who most need an intervention by a pulmonologist for chronic respiratory diseases”.

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ROCHESTER, N.Y. — Local doctors are recommending people stay indoors as much as possible because of our air quality.

Those with an underlying respiratory issue should take extra precautions and pay extra attention to their breathing.

News10NBC’s Patrick Moussignac explains how you can protect you and your family.

Doctors say even if you’re in good health, you should take the air quality alert seriously. 

Doctors explain the remnants of the Canadian wildfires can cause inflammation in a person’s respiratory system and affect their lung function. Healthy people may notice their eyes are irritated — their throat is scratchy — or their nose itchy. 

But this smoke is especially concerning for people who have asthma, shortness of breath, or emphysema and COPD. 

News10NBC asked Doctor Michael Kamali from the University of Rochester Medical Center if people should wear a mask on a day like Wednesday.

“I would say try it on,” says Kamali. “If it feels better and you’re breathing in and the air feels better then great. Then it’s working for you — utilize it — but it’s not an absolute that you have to wear a mask if you’re outside.”

To learn more about the air quality index where you live, click here.

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Wildfires are tearing through the forests of eastern Canada, and over the past few days, their smoke has drifted into much of the airspace in the northeastern US.

Almost everyone spending time outdoors has been sensing the change in air quality in their eyes and airways, and it’s a big strain on health.

“Particles, gases, volatile organic compounds in the air can cause inflammation in everyone,” said Daniel Croft, a pulmonologist and air quality researcher at the University of Rochester Medical Center in upstate New York. “This is a health risk for all people.” (Michael Kamali, who directs emergency medicine at the medical center, said in a press conference that there has already been an uptick in visits to urgent care centers and emergency rooms.)

As with any health risk, the threat is worse for some than for others — at least, in the short term. Smoky air is more likely to trigger acute and potentially life-threatening symptoms in people with lung and heart conditions. And certain people are likelier to breathe high doses of polluted air, making them more vulnerable to its effects.

These higher-risk groups might be the first to develop symptoms due to air pollution. With wildfire smoke now affecting parts of the world not used to seeing it, it’s worth knowing who’s at highest risk for acute symptoms, how to recognize red flags, and how to keep yourself safe. Here’s what you need to know.

Who’s most likely to develop acute symptoms due to wildfire smoke?

Breathing polluted air affects the body in a few different ways. Larger pieces of particulate matter — tiny particles of soot and dust — can irritate the linings of people’s airways in their noses, mouths, throats, and lungs. And smaller bits, along with toxic gases and molecules called volatile organic compounds, can sneak from the lungs into the bloodstream, where they can travel to other organs and cause a wide range of short- and long-term problems.

Some people are more likely than others to develop symptoms in the minutes to hours following smoke exposure, said Croft. At the top of the list are those with chronic lung diseases that cause their airways to react more strongly when they’re exposed to irritants, or who have less lung capacity to compensate for episodes of lung irritation. This includes people with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, often known as emphysema or chronic bronchitis). People with heart disease are also at higher risk, as the toxins in air pollution can trigger heart attacks or stroke.

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, older people, whose immune systems are less well equipped to deal with airway irritation, are also more likely to experience symptoms even if they have healthy hearts and lungs. Children are more likely to develop symptoms because they often spend a lot of time playing outside — and because their proportions are different from adults, they inhale more air per pound of body weight than big people do. And people who work outdoors are also at higher risk because they have so much more exposure time.

Pregnant people take more breaths per minute, which raises their risk of inhaling particulate matter on smoky days. Breathing in lots of smoke while pregnant has been associated with lower birth weights and higher rates of preterm birth, and there’s evidence suggesting there could be direct effects of the inhaled toxins on developing fetuses.

And because low-income people are more likely to have untreated heart and lung disease — and often have less access to preventive measures — they’re also at higher than average risk when air quality plummets.

What are the symptoms of air pollution-related effects, and when should you seek care for them?

Any number of symptoms can occur in people who breathe smoky air, regardless of their baseline health. Common ones are irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, trouble breathing, and chest tightness. Although these symptoms are annoying, they’re concerning only in the sense that they indicate airway irritation, which if repeated and prolonged, can raise the risk for longer-term consequences of air pollution exposure.

People with asthma and COPD may have additional symptoms of exposure — usually the same ones they get in response to other triggers (like viral infections or allergens). Wheezers will wheeze, coughers will cough, and whatever other symptoms a person typically gets will be aggravated.

For those with asthma and COPD, medications used to treat episodic worsening of these conditions — albuterol for asthma attacks, for example — should also work to resolve symptoms triggered by smoke exposure. Albuterol may also be useful as “pre-treatment” before going outside (masked, of course) for people with these conditions. Croft recommends that during wildfire season, people who use these medications should do their best to ensure they have an ample supply so they don’t run out in the middle of a coughing or wheezing fit.

There are some red flags that suggest a person might need some extra medical care to get through smoke-related symptoms. One is being unable to catch your breath, which might feel like having such trouble breathing that you can’t speak. Another is coughing that doesn’t stop.

Low blood oxygen levels even when breathing normally — measured with home oxygen saturation monitors that clip onto the end of a finger, which many people acquired during Covid — are also a signal to seek medical care.

For people who use albuterol for quick relief of asthma or COPD exacerbations, it should raise concern if those medications stop working. And for those who occasionally check their lung function by blowing air into a peak flow meter, seeing an unchanged peak flow measurement after an albuterol dose is also something to look out for.

How can you reduce the health impacts of polluted air?

Staying indoors as much as possible with the windows closed is the best way to avoid breathing polluted air. Whether you’re in a building or in a vehicle, roll up the windows and turn on the air conditioning or the fan.

Central air conditioning units usually have an air filter built in, so turning it on will circulate most of the outside air past a filter before it enters your living space. Even in homes with central heating but not cooling, running the fan (with the heat off) circulates air past the furnace filter, which still improves its quality. Unfortunately, window air conditioning units don’t do much filtration — so while they might cool you down, they won’t do much to remove pollutants from the air.

Home air purifiers usually have finer filters than central air conditioning units, so can remove smaller bits of particulate matter from the air. These can be very helpful for removing smoky, sooty bits from indoor air, which may be particularly important for keeping people with lung and heart conditions safe. (Croft notes it’s important to turn off the ionizing function if your purifier has one, as this function can increase air levels of ozone, another lung irritant.)

And if you must go outdoors, use an N95 mask or one with even better filtration capacity, said Croft, and try to avoid strenuous exercise or other activities that would require you to take lots of deep breaths outdoors. There’s no need to avoid errands that don’t require lots of outdoor time, like grocery store trips, but limit outdoor playtime for children to the extent possible.

“There really is no safe level of air pollution,” said Croft. He uses the AirNow website or app to track air quality on a daily basis; as soon as the air quality metrics depart the safe green zone, he says, people should layer on all the protections they can. “Even at low levels of air pollutions, there can be harmful effects to the body.”

“Whether you have lung disease or not,” said Croft, “it’s important to just keep yourself safe.”

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BATAVIA — The grungy smell was impossible to miss Tuesday in much of the GLOW region.

Similar to burning leaves or maybe a burnt house. Look down the street and the view might be marred by a slight, smoky haze.

The Canadian wildfires and the impact they had on air quality in the Rochester area this week could have affected anyone. However, a Rochester Regional Health doctor said Tuesday, the air quality especially affected people with chronic lung conditions.

Chief of RRH Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology Dr. S. Shahzad Mustafa said the air quality on Tuesday in Rochester and much of the Northeast and the Midwest is being affected by the Canadian wildfires in Quebec.

“What that means is the air quality index is a measure of the pollutants in the air, not so much allergens,” he said. “That air quality can therefore affect your respiratory status, particularly individuals who have chronic respiratory conditions — asthma, emphysema, things like that.”

The air quality is lower than typical, especially for our area, for not a huge metropolitan area and it could have an impact on individual’s respiratory status, especially individuals with chronic lung conditions, he said.

“It can affect anyone, but the folks who are going to be most prone to having respiratory symptoms are anyone with an underlying health condition ...” Mustafa said. “We want to keep things in perspective. Although the air quality is suboptimal and not what we’re used to around here, the impact it has, the degree of impairment it has, should be modest for most individuals, but you want to be aware of it.”

Regarding schools that canceled outdoor sports and activities Tuesday, Mustafa said he doesn’t claim to be an air quality expert, but with Tuesday being an atypical day, doing that is a reasonable approach.

“It’s short-term. It shouldn’t be long-lasting,” he said.

According to an update Tuesday afternoon by Gov. Kathy Hochul’s office, more than 100 wildfires currently burning in Quebec were causing hazy conditions across much of the state.

The Batavia City School District canceled all of its outdoor activities Tuesday based on the recommendation of the Genesee County Health Department. But there were no concerns with indoor air quality, Superintendent Jason Smith said.

Genesee County Public Health Educator Kaitlin Pettine said that the department was in touch with the school district Tuesday and told it that Western New York was still in Moderate Air Quality Alert status.

“We told the school district that they could cancel afternoon activities out of an abundance of caution, but this was not a mandate or a recommendation at this point,” Pettine said. “We have not talked with any other school districts at this time. Monroe County is in the Orange Level, so many school districts have cancelled after school activities in Monroe County. We would recommend that very young people and those with respiratory health issues such as heart disease and asthma, may want to limit strenuous activity outdoors.”

Finger Lakes Raceway also canceled its races in Ontario County.

In Steuben County, the Health Department warned residents to be aware of unhealthy air quality due to wildfires. Unhealthy air quality can be dangerous for those with asthma, respiratory issues, and for children and seniors who are more vulnerable to air pollution than adults.

“We have been working with our schools to make sure children stay healthy,” said Public Health Director Darlene Smith. “When the air quality is at an unhealthy level, it’s important for everyone to consider what outdoor activities can be rescheduled for when the air quality is better.”

The department said that to find information on local current air quality measures, updated hourly, go to airnow.gov. When air quality is deemed unhealthy, it is recommended to avoid strenuous outdoor activities and to generally limit active time outdoors.

County Public Health Education Coordinator Lorelei Wagner said school districts were reaching out to the Health Department regularly on Tuesday and a superintendents’ call was set up.

“They’re all just trying to decide what would be the safest and healthiest routes for their schools and their children,” she said. “I know some schools canceled some games and sports after school. Each school was able to determine what would work best for their community.

“We have obviously heard some concerns about how it looks outside, how it smells, people wondering what’s going on,” she said.

Wagner said the department was telling people about airnow.gov.’s updates.

“We did share that with everyone so they can check that whenever they want and make decisions ... based on what the air quality is,” she said.

In the meantime, an air quality advisory has been issued for Wednesday in Western New York.

The affected area includes Genesee, Livingston, Orleans and Wyoming counties.

It’s expected the region will continue to be impacted by fine particulate matter, according to the state Department of Environmental Conservation.

The region continues to be affected by smoke and haze from wildfires in Canada.

Exposure can cause short-term health effects such as irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; coughing, sneezing, and a runny nose; and shortness of breath.

Exposure to elevated levels of fine particulate matter can also worsen medical conditions such as asthma and heart disease. People with heart or breathing problems, and children and the elderly may be particularly sensitive.

Going indoors may reduce exposure. Some other ways to reduce exposure are to minimize outdoor and indoor sources and avoid strenuous activities in areas where fine particle concentrations are high.

(Includes reporting by Matt Surtel.)

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

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Introduction

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the world and is associated with increasing economic costs and social burdens.1,2 Although spirometry is the gold standard for the clinical measurement of COPD, it does not provide sufficient essential information on exacerbation, leading to worsening respiratory impairment and prognosis.3

Exacerbation of COPD decreases the quality-of-life, causes respiratory dysfunction, and adversely affects prognosis. Numerous studies have discussed exacerbation and risk factors. The prognostic factors of COPD vary between smoking status, degree of dyspnea, severity of airflow limitation, degree of emphysema, exercise tolerability, and physical inactivity.4–6 Recent reports have also described the impact of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)7 and the existence of asthmatic components.8

The nutritional status of a patient has also been established as a prognostic factor for various chronic diseases.9 Since Japan and Western countries have entered the era of an unprecedented ultra-aging society,10 there has been a focus on nutritional status as a risk factor for chronic diseases, especially in elderly patients.11 For example, malnutrition is common in elderly patients with heart failure, with evidence showing that nutritional status is strongly linked to their prognosis.12

In 1980, Buzby et al suggested the concept of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI).13 Subsequently, Onodera et al proposed that PNI could be calculated easily using serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count and showed that the index was a risk indicator for postoperative complications and prognosis for patients undergoing gastrointestinal cancer surgery.14 Subsequent studies reported a relationship between PNI and clinical outcomes in various other malignant diseases.15–17

Nutritional status has also been reported to be a significant prognostic indicator in patients with COPD.18 Previously, the body mass index (BMI) was the health indicator mainly used to assess prognosis in COPD.19 It remains unclear, however, whether the PNI is related to COPD exacerbations and prognosis of elderly patients.

Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PNI was associated with exacerbation and to clarify the clinical value of assessing the immune-nutritional status in elderly patients with COPD.

Methods

Subjects

This prospective, observational study enrolled 139 subjects who presented to Chiba University Hospital from March 2014 to June 2019 for management of COPD. The subjects were required to meet all of the following inclusion criteria: (a) ≥ 40 years; (b) smoking history ≥ 10 pack-years; (c) COPD diagnosed or suspected to have COPD based on subjective symptoms/other findings/pulmonary function tests/imaging findings; (d) no history of acute exacerbation or hospitalization within 2 months. Exclusion criteria were any of the following: (a) obvious respiratory diseases other than COPD; (b) any malignancy within the past 3 years; (c) severe heart failure; (d) currently receiving oral systemic corticosteroids; (e) deemed unsuitable for inclusion by investigators for any other reason.

At enrollment, eight subjects were excluded for the following reasons: one never-smoked without a history of smoking; three with malignant neoplasms; one prescribed a steroid and an immunosuppressive agent; one with severe heart failure; and one with a tracheostomy. During the follow-up period, one subject was excluded as they decided to withdraw from participating in the study. 40 subjects were excluded by the end of follow-up due to discrepancies in each data set, such as a discontinuation of hospital visits, confirmation of worsening symptoms, COPD assessment test (CAT), pulmonary function tests, and chest CT scans. Finally, 91 subjects with COPD were enrolled in the study (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Flow chart of the study subjects.

The diagnosis of COPD was made comprehensively by respiratory specialists according to the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS),20 that included the subject’s smoking history, respiratory symptoms including dyspnea, cough and sputum, physical examination, spirometry results. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using a Fudac-60 (Fukuda Denshi, Tokyo, Japan) and included forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), which were expressed as their predicted values based on the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guidelines.21 The subjects underwent a CAT, PFTs, laboratory tests, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) at the time of enrollment. The CAT is a simple tool for comprehensively evaluating the clinical symptoms of subjects with COPD,22,23 and consists of eight items rated on a scale of 0 to 5, and is an excellent indicator for assessing respiratory and extrapulmonary symptoms.

This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The Ethics Committee of the Chiba University School of Medicine approved the study protocol (approval number, 857). Written, informed consent was obtained from all the study subjects.

Calculation of the Prognostic Nutritional Index

As an immune-nutritional index, the PNI was calculated as follows, in accordance with the original description of Onodera et al14 10 x serum albumin level (g/dL) + 0.005 x total lymphocyte count (×103/μL). Originally, the PNI was used to assess surgical risk for gastrointestinal malignancies, with a resection anastomosis contraindicated in subjects with PNI values ≤ 40.

MDCT Scanning and CT Measurements of Low Attenuation Volume

All CT studies were performed on a 64-MDCT Aquilion ONE and Aquilion PRIME (Canon Medical Systems, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan) at full inspiration, with no contrast medium being used. The CT parameters used were as follows: collimation 120kV; CT-AEC; gantry rotation time, 0.5s; and beam pitch, 0.70–0.83. All the images were reconstructed using standard reconstruction algorithms, with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm and a reconstruction interval of 0.5 mm. The reconstructed CT images were transferred to a commercial workstation (Ziostation2, Ziosoft Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Total lung volume (LV) and low attenuation volume (LAV) were measured based on a threshold of −950 Hounsfield units (HU). LAV% was calculated as 100%×LAV/LV.24

Clinical Events

We investigated the clinical events during a two-year observation period. The clinical events were identified as COPD exacerbations. An exacerbation was defined as a worsening of COPD requiring a change in therapy, the use of antibiotics or steroids, and/or hospital admission.25

Statistical Analysis

The results were expressed as means ± standard deviation (± SD) or as medians (interquartile range [IQR]) as appropriate. Categorical data were expressed as the number (%). After confirming the normality of the study parameter data, the correlations between PNI and CAT, and LAV%, and FEV1%pred were assessed by Spearman rank correlation analysis, as appropriate. For clinical outcome, comparisons between the subject groups with or without an exacerbation requiring treatment changes were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and the chi-square test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.

For the selection of variables in the multivariate analysis, we used those that showed a causal relationship with COPD exacerbations based on previous reports7,25–27 and those that were significant in our univariate analysis. The association of selected variables with clinical outcome was assessed by univariate logistic regression analysis, and significant variables in this analysis then entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis.

The variables selected were age, CAT as a comprehensive indicator of subjective symptoms, NLR as an indicator of the level of inflammation, PNI as an indicator of nutrition and immunity, FEV1% pred as an indicator of airflow limitation to measure disease severity, and LAV% as an imaging indicator to determine the degree of emphysema. In accordance with previous reports, CAT was treated as a continuous variable in the analysis.28,29

In the group with subjects aged > 75 years, we also calculated the areas under the receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis for using PNI and CAT to predict COPD exacerbation, with the optimal cut-off of the PNI and CAT determined by the Youden index. In addition, based on Akaike’s information criterion,30 we examined whether PNI improved the predictive accuracy of the analytical model for exacerbations in the elderly group. The original model was constructed with items that were significant in the univariate analysis. A statistically significant increase in the global chi-square of the model was interpreted as indicating an increase in prognostic value.31,32 All the statistical analyses were performed by JMP Pro version 14.0 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). For all the statistical analyses, the level of significance was set at p <0.05.

Results

Subject Characteristics

The clinical characteristics of all the subjects are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Characteristics of the Total Subjects (Comparison of the Group Aged<75 Years vs the Group Aged ≧75 Years)

In the total subjects (n=91), 34 subjects were aged ≥75 years (33 males and 1 female; mean age, 78.3 ± 3.2 years) and 57 subjects were aged < 75 years (54 males and 3 females; mean age, 67.2 ± 6.2 years). There were no differences between the two groups for sex, body weight, height, BMI, and CAT score. For the pulmonary function tests, VC and FVC were lower in subjects ≥75 years than in those aged <75 years. LAV% in the group aged ≥75 years was also lower than that measured in subjects <75 years. For nutritional status, there was no significant difference in PNI between the two groups, although albumin was slightly lower in the group aged ≥75 years. An exacerbation occurred in 21 of 57 of the younger subjects (36.8%) compared to 10 of the 34 older subjects (29.4%). The median duration of follow-up was 735 days.

Comparisons of the clinical indices in subjects aged ≥75 years with or without an exacerbation are shown in Table 2. In the exacerbation group, the CAT score was significantly higher and PNI was significantly lower compared to those measured in the non-exacerbation group. The serum albumin levels were also significantly different between the two groups.

Table 2 Characteristics of COPD Subjects in the Group Aged ≧75 Years (Comparison of the Exacerbation and Non-Exacerbation Groups)

Comparisons of the clinical indices in subjects aged <75 years with or without an exacerbation are shown in Table 3. In the exacerbation group, the CAT score, LAV%, WBC count, and neutrophil count were significantly higher than those measured in the non-exacerbation group. The BMI was significantly lower in the exacerbation group than in the non-exacerbation group. Obstructive impairment was also significantly more severe in the exacerbation group compared to that observed in the non-exacerbation group.

Table 3 Characteristics of COPD Subjects in the Group Aged <75 Years (Comparison of the Exacerbation and Non-Exacerbation Groups)

Associations Between the Prognostic Nutritional Index and Airflow Limitation and Pulmonary Emphysema

The associations between the PNI and other clinical indices in the entire cohort of subjects are shown in Figure 2. The PNI showed no significant association with CAT (r= −0.20, p=0.06). Similarly, there was no significant correlation between PNI and either FEV1%pred (r= 0.03, p=0.78) or LAV% (r=0.03, p= 0.75).

Figure 2 The relationship between PNI and CAT and FEV1%pred and LAV% in all the subjects.

Abbreviations: PNI, prognostic nutritional index; CAT, COPD assessment test; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; LAV%, low attenuation volume percentage.

Notes: The associations between the PNI and other clinical indices are shown for the entire cohort of subjects (n=91).

Clinical Factors Associated with Exacerbation Events

The results of the univariate and multivariate analyses for exacerbation in the two groups grouped according to age are shown in Table 4 and Table 5.

Table 4 Results of the Logistic Analysis of COPD Exacerbation in the ≧75 Year Age Group

Table 5 Results of the Logistic Analysis of COPD Exacerbation in the<75 Year Age Group

In the group aged ≥75 years, univariate analysis showed that CAT (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03–1.29, p = 0.013), NLR (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.01–2.86, p =0.046), and PNI (OR = 0.74, 95% CI =0.58–0.96, p = 0.023) were associated significantly with exacerbation. Multivariate analysis identified CAT as an independent factor for exacerbation (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.00–1.33, p = 0.047), while PNI showed a trend of being associated with exacerbation (OR = 0.73, 95% CI =0.52–1.02, p = 0.063).

ROC curve analysis was performed for the group ≥75 years of age to evaluate the accuracy of CAT and PNI and to identify the value of the cut-off points. ROC curve analysis in the group ≥75 years of age demonstrated that the optimal cut-off values for CAT and PNI to predict events were 14.0 (sensitivity, 0.80; 1-specificity, 0.21; area under the curve [AUC], 0.79; Figure 3a) and 48.85 (sensitivity, 0.90; 1-specificity, 0.33; AUC, 0.82; Figure 3b), respectively.

Figure 3 Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis of CAT and PNI in the group ≥75 years of age.

Abbreviations: PNI, prognostic nutritional index; CAT, COPD assessment test.

Notes: ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CAT (a) and PNI (b) for COPD exacerbation in the group ≥75 years of age. (n=34).

In the group aged <75 years, univariate analysis showed that CAT (OR = 1.083, 95% CI = 1.00–1.17, p= 0.038), FEV1% pred (OR = 0.957, 95% CI = 0.931–0.986, p = 0.003) and LAV% (OR = 1.077, 95% CI = 1.032–1.123, p = 0.0007) were associated significantly with exacerbation. Multivariate analysis identified LAV% as an independent factor for exacerbation (OR = 1.074, 95% CI = 1.003–1.149, p = 0.031).

Incremental Value of the PNI in Elderly Subjects with COPD

The incremental value of the PNI in the group ≥75 years of age is shown in Figure 4. CAT was selected as the conventional variable for the prognostic model from Table 4 (Model 1). The addition of PNI to the conventional variable significantly improved the prognostic utility of the model (Model 2, p = 0.0084).

Figure 4 The incremental benefit of adding PNI to the CAT, to predict exacerbation events in the group ≥75 years of age.

Abbreviations: CAT, COPD assessment test; PNI, prognostic nutritional index.

Notes: Model 1, based on CAT, was improved significantly by the addition of the PNI (model 2) in the group ≥75 years of age (n=34).

Discussion

The key findings of this study were as follows. There were differences in factors related to COPD exacerbations between subjects aged ≥75 years and those aged < 75 years. High CAT values were associated with exacerbation in elderly subjects with COPD, while a combined model of CAT and PNI more accurately predicted COPD exacerbations. In other words, a low PNI in combination with a high CAT increased the risk of an exacerbation in elderly subjects with COPD.

The PNI was calculated using serum albumin levels and the total circulating lymphocyte count. The PNI score has been validated and reported to correlate significantly with subjective global assessment (SGA), a well-established nutritional index and also other nutritional screening tools.33–35 While the SGA is a simple, inexpensive, and quick assessment, it is a subjective assessment that requires skill and experience. In contrast, the PNI is based on the results of peripheral blood tests, thereby allowing a physician to easily and objectively assess the immune-nutritional status of their patients.

Many earlier studies have described that nutrition and immune status are associated closely with tumor progression and prognosis. The PNI reflects both the nutritional and immunological status of patients with a variety of malignancies.36,37 In the respiratory field, the PNI of pretreatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer has been shown to have prognostic value.38 Recently, it was reported that a lower PNI at the time of admission was related to the risk of mortality in subjects with severe COVID-19.39,40 Regarding chronic respiratory diseases, the present study has shown that the PNI score raised the risk of exacerbation in elderly with COPD.

The CAT is a simple tool for comprehensive evaluation of the clinical symptoms in COPD patients.22 The CAT consists of eight items and is an excellent indicator for assessing respiratory symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, and dyspnea associated with exercise, and extra-pulmonary symptoms, such as activity, insomnia, and energy level. The CAT scores were increased by greater than five points during exacerbations.26 In the present study, the PNI was not associated with CAT in all the subjects. Yoshikawa et al reported that nutritional status using the Mini-nutritional Assessment Short-form predicted COPD exacerbations independently of CAT.41 The present study also showed no significant relationship between PNI and either FEV1%pred and low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%). These findings might indicate that PNI may be an independent predictor from CAT, the degree of obstructive impairment, and emphysema, which have conventionally been reported as predictive factors.42

A cut-off value of 40 for the PNI has been proposed for perioperative evaluation of gastrointestinal cancers.14 In the current study, the cut-off value for PNI for the presence of exacerbations in subjects aged ≥ 75 years was set at 48.85, a value higher than that used for other diseases. A prognostic pretreatment cut-off of 45.5 was used for lung cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors.43 Recently, a lower cut-off value of 33 was used for survival in patients with severe COVID-related pneumonia.39 Since COPD is a gradually progressive disease, the serum albumin levels and lymphocyte counts were obtained at the time of consultation, and we speculate that this may be one of the reasons for the higher cut-off values compared to those used for other diseases. Therefore, patients with COPD should be cautioned against exacerbations even if the initial PNI value is higher than previously reported for other diseases.

In the group aged < 75 years, the conventional variables, such as emphysema and the degree of airflow limitation, contributed to exacerbations.25 Most previous studies have focused on relatively young to middle-aged patients, with only a minority carried out in older subjects.44

In the present study we identified prognostic factors for elderly subjects and showed that the complex of subjective symptom scores and immune-nutritional status contributed more to exacerbations than the severity of COPD. The prognosis of elderly patients with chronic diseases is not necessarily determined by the severity of the underlying disease.45 Poor nutritional status is associated with a poor prognosis and exercise intolerance in elderly patients with COPD.41,46 More severe subjective symptoms are associated with a worse prognosis.22 We propose that the combination of CAT and PNI would allow assessment of the risk of exacerbation more accurately in elderly patients with COPD.

Serum albumin level is a conventional marker of nutrition and has been reported to be associated with a poor outcome in many different diseases. On the other hand, the NLR is a reliable indicator of systematic inflammation and has also been investigated as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in COPD.47 Chronic inflammation causes recruitment of the main white blood cell populations, neutrophils and lymphocytes. These factors participate actively in the pathophysiological mechanisms of COPD. A higher NLR has been reported widely to be associated with poor survival in patients with various diseases.48,49 However, the NLR only reflects the inflammation status. In recent studies, the PNI was shown to be superior to the NLR as a prognostic marker in many cancer patients.36,50 PNI as a nutrition plus immunity indicator may therefore be more useful in the evaluation of COPD than either nutrition or immunity alone.

There has been a focus on the role of the asthma-COPD overlap (ACO), including eosinophilia in COPD, and the impact of asthmatic components on the clinical course of COPD.51 Recent studies have reported that eosinophilia in COPD does not affect the clinical course, however, this view is controversial.52 The present study also showed no relationship between eosinophilia and clinical outcome. In recent years, the clinical significance of personalized treatment in COPD has been proposed, with some studies showing that appropriate treatment, such as triple therapy in patients with asthmatic components, decreases symptoms and the risk of exacerbations, thereby contributing to an improved clinical course.53

Limitations

Our study had some limitations. First, the study only enrolled a relatively small number of subjects and was a preliminary and exploratory investigation conducted at a single institute. Second, the observational period was relatively short. Third, because of the small number of subjects we could not fully evaluate the differences in gender, each treatment, or the rate of smoking cessation. Fourth, we could not perform nutritional intervention. Nutritional intervention may be important for preventing COPD exacerbations, especially in elderly patients.54 And finally, previous papers reporting an association between PNI and prognosis used unadjusted multivariate analyses.43,45 The present study also performed unadjusted multivariate analysis of each item. However, this was a single-center, small-group, exploratory study and therefore a larger cohort is needed to confirm the results of the current study that would also require more rigorous examination and exclusion of confounding factors. Further prospective studies on larger study populations and a longer observational period are therefore required to confirm our results.

Conclusions

In elderly subjects with COPD, CAT was associated significantly with the risk of COPD exacerbation, with PNI also a potential predictor. The combined assessment of CAT and PNI may be a useful prognostic tool in patients with COPD.

Abbreviations

BMI, body mass index; CAT, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second per forced vital capacity; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Lung Disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; LAA, low attenuation area; LABA, long-acting β-2 agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonists; LAV, low attenuation volume; LAV%, low attenuation volume percentage; LV, lung volume; MDCT, multi-detector row computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; PFT, pulmonary function testing; PNI, prognostic nutritional index; TLA, total lung area; VC, vital capacity; %VC, vital capacity percentage; WBC, white blood cell.

Data Sharing Statement

The data sets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Acknowledgment

The abstract of this paper was presented at the 2020 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International congress in session “Respiratory viruses in the”pre-COVID-19 “era”, with interim findings. The poster’s abstract was published in “Poster Abstracts” in European Respiratory Journal 2020; 56: Suppl. 64, 5114. erj.ersjournals.com/content/56/suppl_64/5114.

Author Contributions

All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

Funding

This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (19K12816 and 22K12836), and the Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion & Disease Prevention (No.1272). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Disclosure

The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work.

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50. Wang J, Liu Y, Mi X, Shao M, Liu L. The prognostic value of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Ann Palliat Med. 2020;9(3):967–978. doi:10.21037/apm.2020.04.31

51. Leung JM, Sin DD. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome: pathogenesis, clinical features, and therapeutic targets. BMJ. 2017;358:j3772. doi:10.1136/bmj.j3772

52. Suzuki M, Makita H, Ito YM, Nagai K, Konno S, Nishimura M. Clinical features and determinants of COPD exacerbation in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. Multicenter study observational study research support, Non-U.S. Gov’t. Eur Respir J. 2014;43(5):1289–1297. doi:10.1183/09031936.00110213

53. Park SY, Kim S, Kim JH, et al. A randomized, noninferiority trial comparing ICS + LABA with ICS + LABA + LAMA in asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) treatment: the ACO Treatment with Optimal Medications (ATOMIC) study. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021;9(3):1304–1311.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.066

54. Sugawara K, Takahashi H, Kasai C, et al. Effects of nutritional supplementation combined with low-intensity exercise in malnourished patients with COPD. Respir Med. 2010;104(12):1883–1889. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2010.05.008

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Jun. 5—The National Weather Service in Mount Holly, N.J., which covers southeastern Pennsylvania, has issued a fire weather watch alert for Tuesday.

"Critical fire weather conditions are forecast to occur due to a combination of strong winds, low relative humidities, and dry fuels," the alert states.

The Pennsylvania counties affected include: Berks, Montgomery, Bucks, Carbon, Chester, Delaware, Lehigh, Monroe, Northampton and Philadelphia as well as several New Jersey counties.

The forecast calls for temperatures in the mid-70s to low 80s with relative humidity as low as 26% and northwest winds at 10 mph to 15 mph with gusts up to 25 mph.

The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection also has issued a Code Orange air quality alert Tuesday for the Lehigh Valley/Berks County area.

People who are vulnerable to the effects of air pollution — the elderly, young children and those with breathing problems such as asthma, emphysema and bronchitis — can minimize the effects by avoiding strenuous activity or exercise outdoors.

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BINGHAMTON (WBNG) -- The smoke from the Canadian wildfires is doing more than just impacting our skies, it can also have an effect on our health.

According to the EPA, the air quality index from the smoke at 3 p.m. was at 203, which is deemed very unhealthy and can potentially have those exposed inhale fine particulate matter. The risks that come with breathing in this air can have drastic health problems.

According to the EPA, inhalable pollutant particles with a diameter less than 2.5 microns can enter the lungs and bloodstream, which effect primarily the lungs and heart. Exposure can result in coughing or difficulty breathing, aggravated asthma, and the development of chronic respiratory disease.

Health experts are warning the public at large to avoid exposing themselves to the smoke at all costs.

“Our general advice is go slow, monitor your own symptomotology, be a guide for yourself and realize these are unusual circumstances,” says Gary Ginsberg of the New York State department of health.

“If you are having symptoms go inside, it’s better to go inside as a general rule today anyway if you can”.

The State Health Department says for those with illnesses such as emphysema and especially asthma, to avoid going outside as much as possible in these conditions.

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ROCHESTER, N.Y.- Doctors say while most people should have no breathing problems during this alert, people with respiratory issues should closely monitor their health.

“I have asthma, and it’s getting more difficult to breathe. I need to go get my inhaler,” said Lisa Clayborne.

The effects of the more than 200 wildfires in Canada can be felt right here in the Greater Rochester area. Just take a look at this shot of Rochester’s downtown skyline taken from Cobbs Hill Park and you can see how the haze hovers over the city.

“It makes me pretty speechless to be honest, but you know we’re affected by this far away, and we’re not getting the worst of it,” said Sara Cousins.

The current air quality index is at a number that is considered unhealthy. Rochester Regional Health’s Dr. Shahzad Mustafa, chief of allergy, immunology, and rheumatology, says this could affect the health of some people.

“The air quality index is kind of a measure of the number of pollutants in the air. Not so much allergens. So, that air quality can therefore affect your respiratory status, particularly individuals who got chronic respiratory conditions, asthma, emphysema, things like that.”

Tuesday, several school districts, including RCSD cancelled all outdoor activities while the air quality alert remains in place.

“Asthma is prevalent in 10% of the population, so in the typical classroom, that’s a couple of kids, a couple of individuals. So, I think it’s a reasonable approach to, absolutely out of an abundance of caution. I think that needs to be noted that schools and districts are taking these measures out of an abundance of caution,” said Dr. Mustafa.

Dr. Mustafa says healthy people should not be overly concerned with the air quality. We asked him if wearing a mask is necessary while outdoors.

“If you think it helps you being outdoors, certainly. I don’t think there’s any downside to wearing a mask. We’ve been used to it for a couple of years now, but it’s far from a recommendation, or something we should all be doing.”

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Federal authorities are investigating the cause of Sunday’s private plane crash in rural Virginia, which prompted a response by military jets that caused a sonic boom heard across the Washington region.

The aircraft took off from Elizabethton, Tenn., bound for Long Island, but turned back and eventually flew over Washington before crashing in Virginia. The crash killed the pilot and three passengers, according to the Federal Aviation Administration.

The National Transportation Safety Board said contact with the plane was lost about 15 minutes after departure, as it was passing over Virginia. Air traffic controllers also could not establish contact with the Cessna Citation as it crossed Washington’s restricted airspace, but one of the pilots of the military F-16 flying at supersonic speeds to intercept the jet saw its pilot slumped over, according to two people familiar with the investigation.

The FAA has said the crash occurred “under unknown circumstances” and has not identified a cause. But experts have said that the pilot could have fallen unconscious because of decompression of the cabin — possibly caused by hypoxia, a lack of oxygen that can lead to unconsciousness — and that the plane was likely running on autopilot until it ran out of fuel.

F-16 flier sent to intercept plane saw pilot slumped over before crash

Here is what you need to know about hypoxia on planes.

Hypoxia occurs when low levels of oxygen in body tissues prevent organs from working properly. It can result from inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues caused by low blood supply or low oxygen in the blood.

It is often caused by underlying diseases that affect blood flow or breathing, including chronic heart and lung conditions like bronchitis, congenital heart defects, emphysema, asthma and pneumonia.

Body cells require oxygen to produce energy and help organs and tissues function properly. While some tissues can adjust to temporary dips in oxygen levels, prolonged hypoxia — oxygen starvation — can cause organ damage. Brain and heart damage are the most dangerous and can lead to death. A lack of oxygen to the brain, known as cerebral hypoxia, can cause unconsciousness and the death of brain cells within minutes.

Among some of the most common symptoms of hypoxia are confusion, restlessness, difficulty breathing, headache, rapid heart rate and bluish skin. Although symptoms can vary among people, other common ones include lightheadedness, dizziness, tingling, sweating, impaired judgment, tunnel vision and euphoria.

Why does hypoxia happen on airplanes?

In aeronautics, hypoxia typically occurs from decompression or lack of pressurization in the aircraft cabin. It can happen when flying a non-pressurized aircraft above 10,000 feet without supplemental oxygen; during a rapid decompression in flight; or when the pressurization and oxygen systems fail, according to the Federal Aviation Administration.

Hypoxia occurs within a few minutes if the cabin pressure altitude rises to between 16,000 to 20,000 feet, according to the Flight Safety Foundation. Oxygen pressure decreases as altitude increases and is the reason planes are pressurized.

In the case of an extremely rapid depressurization in the aircraft — if there is a cabin rupture, for instance — hypoxia can occur within seconds.

The FAA warns that the brain is the first part of the body to reflect a diminished oxygen supply, usually causing a loss of judgment, making it particularly dangerous for pilots and flight crews.

Unless it is detected and additional oxygen is quickly available, hypoxia “can be a real killer,” according to an official FAA brochure.

He kissed his family goodbye. Their private plane never made it home.

What safety procedures exist to prevent oxygen loss?

When flying at high altitudes, supplemental oxygen is the only solution to provide enough oxygen to meet the demands of the body while allowing a breathing rate that expels the right amount of carbon dioxide, according to the FAA.

For safety purposes, the FAA requires all general aviation operations’ flight crews to use supplemental oxygen for any portion of the flight that exceeds 30 minutes above 12,500 feet, up to and including 14,000 feet. The flight crew must use supplemental oxygen for the entire flight in operations above a cabin pressure altitude of 14,000 feet.

For night flights, because vision is particularly sensitive to reduced oxygen, FAA guidelines require supplemental oxygen when flying above 6,000 feet.

Hypoxia symptoms can greatly vary from person to person, and it can be hard for someone to recognize they are experiencing it, according to the FAA, making it particularly dangerous for pilots traveling alone. Some people, for instance, facing an oxygen deficiency in high altitudes have experienced a sense of euphoria.

“Such is the insidious nature of oxygen deprivation. It sneaks up on the unwary and steals the first line of sensory protection — the sense that something is wrong — dreadfully wrong,” the agency said in the brochure.

Mapping the Cessna Citation’s flight path over D.C. and sonic boom from F-16s

The key to flying safely at high altitude is to know the flight conditions in which aviators may become hypoxic, be able to recognize personal hypoxia symptoms and get additional oxygen before losing one’s ability to help themselves, experts and aviation authorities say.

Aviators can learn their personal hypoxia symptoms by taking formal physiology courses and altitude chamber tests in which high-altitude flight conditions are duplicated.

The FAA’s Civil Aerospace Medical Institute offers one-day aviation training courses with altitude chambers to civilian aviators who have a medical certificate to experience the effects and learn their symptoms of hypoxia in high altitudes.

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Participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had mucus plugs that blocked medium to large airways had higher all-cause mortality compared with patients without mucus plugging on chest CT scans, according to a study published in JAMA. 1

Airway mucus plugs are prevalent in patients with COPD, but the association between airway mucus plugging and mortality in patients with COPD was not known.

“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects 15.9 million people in the United States and is the fourth leading cause of death. Mucus dysfunction, a central pathology in patients with COPD, is characterized by excess mucus production, hypersecretion, and reduced clearance, leading to accumulation in the airways as plugs,” said the researchers.

First, researchers tried to determine if airway mucus plugs recognized on CT scans were associated with increased all-cause mortality.

Next, prospective data of patients with a COPD diagnosis in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD cohort were collected in an observational retrospective analysis. Participants were non-Hispanic Black or White individuals, aged 45 to 80 years, who smoked at minimum 10 pack-years. Participants were enrolled at 21 centers throughout the United States between November 2007 and April 2011, and were followed up through August 31, 2022.

Mucus plugs that completely blocked airways on chest CT scans, found in medium- to large-sized airways (approximately 2-10-mm lumen diameter), were categorized as affecting 0, 1 to 2, or 3 or more lung segments.

Then, researchers identified the primary outcome as all-cause mortality, evaluated with proportional hazard regression analysis. Model adjustments were made for age, sex, race and ethnicity, body mass index, pack-years smoked, current smoking status, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration, and CT measures of emphysema and airway disease.

Of the 4483 participants with COPD, 4363 were included in the primary analysis (median age, 63 years [IQR, 57-70 years]; 44% were women). A total of 2585 (59.3%), 953 (21.8%), and 825 (18.9%) participants had mucus plugs in 0, 1 to 2, and 3 or more lung segments, respectively.

Throughout a median 9.5-year follow-up, 1769 participants (40.6%) died. The mortality rates were 34.0% (95% CI, 32.2%-35.8%), 46.7% (95% CI, 43.5%-49.9%), and 54.1% (95% CI, 50.7%-57.4%) in participants who had mucus plugs in 0, 1 to 2, and 3 or more lung segments, respectively.

The existence of mucus plugs in 1 to 2 vs 0 and 3 or more vs 0 lung segments was associated with an adjusted HR of death of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.29) and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10-1.41), respectively.

Corresponding author Alejandro A. Diaz, MD, MPH, an associate scientist in the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital said in a press release, “As a chronic disease, COPD can’t be cured, but our findings suggest that using therapies to break up these mucus plugs could help improve outcomes for COPD patients, which is the next best thing.”2

Mucus plugs blocking multiple bronchi might increase pneumonia risk and COPD exacerbation risk.

“Additionally, the presence of mucus plugs is associated with ventilation/perfusion mismatch, which may lead to respiratory failure, a common cause of death in COPD,” continued the researchers.

The study results and those of prior studies might be hypothesis-generating to test clinical interventions targeting mucus plugs in COPD that might provide a treatment target for health care providers. Preliminary asthma studies suggest that biologics treatment decreases mucus plugs on CT and that the reduction of mucus plugs was associated with improved lung function.

One limitation of this study was that it was observational, so conclusions cannot be drawn that mucous plugging causes death. Secondly, the COPDGene cohort only enrolled non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White participants, so findings might not be applicable to other racial and ethnic groups that weren’t included.

“The fact that these mucus plugs were associated with mortality across different disease phases tells us that there are aspects of COPD progression that can be picked up by a CT scan even if they’re not felt by the patient,” concluded Diaz in the release.

References

1. Diaz AA, Orejas JL, Grumley S, et al. Airway-occluding mucus plugs and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA. Published online May 21, 2023. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.2065

2. Study linking mucus plugs and COPD mortality could help save lives. Eurekalert! May 21, 2023. Accessed June 5, 2023. www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/989777

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The term interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease (DPLD) comprises more than 200 separate disease entities  that cause progressive scarring of lung tissue. Scarring caused by interstitial lung disease eventually impairs one’s capacity to breathe and absorb adequate oxygen into the bloodstream.. The crude annual incidence of ILDs in India is 10.1–20.2 per 100,000 population.

The pathogenetic sequence involves a series of inflammation and fibrosis that extends beyond disrupting the interstitial bed to changing the parenchyma (alveoli, alveolar ducts, and bronchioles).

Interstitial lung disease is much more likely to affect adults, although infants and children sometimes develop the disorder.

Some of the known cause of ILD include : 

  • Long-term exposure to occupational or environmental agents like mineral dust, organic dust, and toxic gases. Most common are silica, asbestos, coal mine dust. 
  • Allergic reaction to inhaled molds, fungi, bacteria and bits of bird feathers or droppings.
  • Auto immune diseases and connective tissue diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, systemic sclerosis.
  • Granulomatous diseases like sarcoidosis.
  • Drug induced ILDs.
  • Smoking. Some forms of interstitial lung disease are more common in smokers, and active smoking may aggravate the condition, especially if there is accompanying emphysema.

When the cause of ILD is unidentified, it is labelled as Idiopathic Iinterstitial Pneumonia of which, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common and with a bad prognosis.

In contrast to developed countries, sarcoidosis and Hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the ILDs with the highest burden in India.

The most frequently reported symptom is gradual onset of shortness of breath which is usually progressive, but sometimes it may simply be a persistent cough. Fatigue, chest discomfort, weight loss are other symptoms associated with ILDs. Some patients may be asymptomatic and are incidentally diagnosed on ct scan of the lungs.

ILDs are diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, relevant blood investigations that include auto immune workup, pulmonary function tests, HRCT chest and a lung biopsy as and when required.

Most of the ILDs cause irreversible lung damage and are progressive. Early diagnosis and treatment play a vital role in slowing down the progression of the disease and improving the quality of life.

Treatment for ILD usually focuses on treating underlying disease and improving symptoms.  General supportive measures include smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation which can help improve functionality, and good pulmonary hygiene.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can make ILD worse, hence requires adequate treatment. The mainstay therapy for treatment of ILD is corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies to intercept the inflammatory process within the lungs.

Antifibrotic drugs have proven benefits in IPF and other progressive fibrotic ILDs not responding to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive therapy.

Supplemental oxygen is necessary for those who demonstrate hypoxemia (sao2 less than 88). Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important role in the management of ILDs.

Unfortunately, despite all the efforts most of the ILDs progress and significantly impair the quality of life.

Vaccination against common pulmonary pathogens is recommended for all patients with ILD irrespective of their age. This will help reducing infectious ecxacerbations and hospitalisations.

When left untreated, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the prototype of fibrotic ILDs, has a prognosis of 3-5 years survival following diagnosis. Predicting prognosis for individual ILD patients is still difficult. Signs of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure, as well as the presence of a pneumothorax, have been linked to poorer outcomes in ILD.

Lung transplant is the sole treatment modality that can reinstate physiological function in patients with ILD, who worsen despite maximum medical therapy.

No biomarker or clinical prediction algorithm has been identified as a reliable predictor of disease outcome or response to therapy in ILD at this time. As a result, early referral to a lung transplant programme is still suggested to minimise the possibility that a potentially eligible patient would miss out on a lung transplant.



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Major players in the oxygen therapy market are Smiths Medical Inc., Hersill SL, Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Corporation Limited, Invacare Corporation, Teleflex Incorporated, Koninklijke Philips N.V., Drive Devilbiss International, Allied Healthcare Products Inc.

New York, June 01, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Oxygen Therapy Global Market Report 2023" - www.reportlinker.com/p06464234/?utm_source=GNW
, Becton, Dickinson and Company, General Electric Company, Getinge Group, Essex Industries Inc., Chart Industries Inc., Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA, GCE Group, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., OxyBand Technologies Inc., and Nidek Medical Products Inc.

The global oxygen therapy market is expected to grow from $23.70 billion in 2022 to $25.89 billion in 2023 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.3%.The Russia-Ukraine war disrupted the chances of global economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, at least in the short term. The war between these two countries has led to economic sanctions on multiple countries, a surge in commodity prices, and supply chain disruptions, causing inflation across goods and services and affecting many markets across the globe. The oxygen therapy market is expected to reach $36.53 billion in 2027 at a CAGR of 9.0%.

The oxygen therapy market consists of sales of pulse oximeters, oxygen flow meters, portable oxygen supply devices, nasal cannulas, simple masks, non-rebreather masks, continuous positive airway pressure, BiPAP, bag valve mask (ambu bag), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilator.Values in this market are ‘factory gate’ values, that is the value of goods sold by the manufacturers or creators of the goods, whether to other entities (including downstream manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, and retailers) or directly to end customers.

The value of goods in this market includes related services sold by the creators of the goods.

Oxygen therapy refers to using additional oxygen as part of sickness management in people suffering from respiratory problems who can’t naturally breathe in sufficient oxygen due to various diseases and ailments. Oxygen therapy provides persons with lung disorders or breathing difficulties with the oxygen their bodies require to operate.

North America was the largest region in the oxygen therapy market in 2022. The regions covered in oxygen therapy report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa.

The main types of oxygen therapy products are oxygen delivery devices and oxygen source equipment.Oxygen delivery devices refer to secondary oxygen-providing equipment for people who cannot maintain a safe level of oxygen saturation and are used in oxygen therapy are controlling and monitor respiratory failure devices including nasal or transtracheal catheters, and nasal cannula.

The various types of portability include stationary devices and portable devices that are used in various applications such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and others. These are used in hospitals, clinics, home care, and post-acute care settings.

The rising prevalence of respiratory disorders is expected to propel the growth of the oxygen therapy market going forward.A respiratory disorder is a condition that impacts the respiratory system’s lungs and other organs, often known as lung diseases which include tuberculosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma, cystic fibrosis, and asthma.

Oxygen therapy is used in the treatment of people suffering from respiratory disorders condition by providing an additional supply of oxygen that relieves shortness of breath.For instance, in February 2023, according to the report published by American Lung Association, a US-based voluntary lung health and preventing lung disease, a chronic lung illness, such as asthma or COPD, which also includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, affects more than 34 million Americans.

Additionally, more than 25 million Americans, including more than 4 million children, have breathing difficulties due to asthma. Therefore, the rise in the prevalence of respiratory disorders is driving the growth of the oxygen therapy market.

Technological advancements are a key trend gaining popularity in the oxygen therapy market.Companies operating in the oxygen therapy market are adopting new technologies to sustain their position in their market.

For instance, in July 2022, Omron Healthcare, a Japanese-based electrical equipment manufacturer company, launched a portable oxygen concentrator to assist home care providers in addressing the therapeutic and lifestyle needs of COPD and respiratory patients.This portable oxygen concentrator includes PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) technology that provides a continuous supply of oxygen (5L per minute).

Additionally, it employs medical molecular sieves to assure the efficiency and purity of the oxygen while maintaining the device’s mobility, making it easier to transport.

In January 2023, CAIRE Inc, a US-based medical equipment manufacturing company acquired MGC Diagnostics for an undisclosed amount.With this acquisition, CAIRE Inc aims to strengthen its portfolio in diagnostic technologies and to serve patients with pulmonary disease.

MGC Diagnostics is a US-based company involved in the manufacturing and sales of oxygen therapy tools such as pulse oximeters.

The countries covered in the oxygen therapy market report are Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, USA.

The market value is defined as the revenues that enterprises gain from the sale of goods and/or services within the specified market and geography through sales, grants, or donations in terms of the currency (in USD unless otherwise specified).

The revenues for a specified geography are consumption values that are revenues generated by organizations in the specified geography within the market, irrespective of where they are produced. It does not include revenues from resales along the supply chain, either further along the supply chain or as part of other products.

The oxygen therapy market research report is one of a series of new reports that provides oxygen therapy market statistics, including the oxygen therapy industry global market size, regional shares, competitors with an oxygen therapy market share, detailed oxygen therapy market segments, market trends, and opportunities, and any further data you may need to thrive in the oxygen therapy industry. This oxygen therapy market research report delivers a complete perspective of everything you need, with an in-depth analysis of the current and future scenario of the industry.
Read the full report: www.reportlinker.com/p06464234/?utm_source=GNW

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New York, June 01, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Bronchitis Treatment Global Market Report 2023" - www.reportlinker.com/p06464208/?utm_source=GNW
, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Pfizer Inc., Cipla Inc., Merck and Co. Inc., Bayer AG, Johnson & Johnson Private Limited, Viatris Inc., and Lupin Ltd.

The global bronchitis treatment market is expected to grow from $4.96 billion in 2022 to $5.24 billion in 2023 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.6%. The Russia-Ukraine war disrupted the chances of global economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, at least in the short term. The war between these two countries has led to economic sanctions on multiple countries, a surge in commodity prices, and supply chain disruptions, causing inflation across goods and services and affecting many markets across the globe. The bronchitis treatment market is expected to reach $6.60 billion in 2027 at a CAGR of 5.9%.

The bronchitis treatment market includes revenues earned by entities by providing vaccines surgery, and pulmonary rehabilitation.The market value includes the value of related goods sold by the service provider or included within the service offering.

Only goods and services traded between entities or sold to end consumers are included.

Bronchitis treatment refers to a treatment of a condition in which the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the lungs, become inflamed and produce an excessive amount of mucus. This treatment includes symptom-relieving medications such as bronchodilators, steroids, and antibiotics.

North America was the largest region in the bronchitis treatment market in 2022.The regions covered in bronchitis treatment report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa.

The countries covered in the bronchitis treatment market report are Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, USA.

The bronchitis treatment is used to treat acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis by using several types of treatment, including drugs and oxygen therapy.Acute bronchitis is a contagious viral infection that causes bronchial tube inflammation.

These are sold through various distribution channels, such as online pharmaceutical stores, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies.

The increasing incidence of respiratory diseases is expected to propel the growth of the bronchitis treatment market going forward.Respiratory diseases refer to diseases that affect the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system.

This disease can affect the upper or lower respiratory tract and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, allergens, irritants, and genetic predispositions.Bronchitis treatment for respiratory diseases can be used in a number of ways, depending on the root cause and severity of the condition.

Bronchitis treatment include antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators to open airways of respiratory organs.For instance, in November 2021, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a US-based intergovernmental organization, The number of respiratory disease cases reported by employers increased by around 4,000%, from 10,800 in 2019 to 428,700 in 2020, which contributed to the growth in illness cases.

The rate of respiratory illness grew from 1.1 cases per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers in 2019 to 44.0 cases in 2020.. Therefore, the increasing incidence of respiratory diseases is driving the growth of the bronchitis treatment market going forward.

Product innovations are a key trend gaining popularity in the bronchitis treatment market.Major companies operating in the bronchitis treatment market are adopting new technologies to sustain their position in the market.

For instance, in June 2021, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., an Israel-based pharmaceutical company, launched the first generic version of PERFOROMIST®, a formoterol fumarate inhalation solution. This solution is intended to treat bronchoconstriction in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Adults with COPD can manage their symptoms using formoterol fumarate inhalation solution, a long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (LABA). Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or both may be present in COPD, a chronic lung illness. Only a nebulizer can be used to use formoterol fumarate inhalation solution.

In January 2022, Covis Pharma Group, a Switzerland-based specialty pharmaceutical company, acquired the respiratory portfolio of two medicines from AstraZeneca for $270 million.This transaction includes the acquisition of Eklira® and Duaklir®, which enables Covis to provide a comprehensive spectrum of best-in-class treatments for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and highlights its capacity to collaborate with and be a preferred partner for major pharmaceutical firms.

AstraZeneca PLC is a UK-based pharmaceutical and biotechnology company and a co-developer of a vaccine against bronchiolitis.

The market value is defined as the revenues that enterprises gain from the sale of goods and/or services within the specified market and geography through sales, grants, or donations in terms of the currency (in USD, unless otherwise specified).

The revenues for a specified geography are consumption values that are revenues generated by organizations in the specified geography within the market, irrespective of where they are produced. It does not include revenues from resales along the supply chain, either further along the supply chain or as part of other products.

The bronchitis treatment market research report is one of a series of new reports that provides bronchitis treatment market statistics, including bronchitis treatment industry global market size, regional shares, competitors with a bronchitis treatment market share, detailed bronchitis treatment market segments, market trends and opportunities, and any further data you may need to thrive in the bronchitis treatment industry. This bronchitis treatment market research report delivers a complete perspective of everything you need, with an in-depth analysis of the current and future scenario of the industry.
Read the full report: www.reportlinker.com/p06464208/?utm_source=GNW

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ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

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This past cold and flu season was nothing to sneeze at — and now another respiratory tract infection is making headlines. 

The good news is, HMPV symptoms are usually mild — in fact, they’re similar to the common cold, with the infection often resolving on its own within a week. But it’s especially common in children, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems, and can lead to developing more dangerous complications, such as getting a lower respiratory tract infection like pneumonia or bronchitis. What’s more, some research suggests that the hospital tab among kids with HMPV can run up to around $277 million a year

Yet while we’ve known about HMPV for two decades, most people probably still have no idea what it is — or that they’ve even had it. So if you’ve got questions about human metapneumovirus, such as what symptoms to watch out for, then here is what you need to know, courtesy of the CDC and the American Lung Association. 

What is human metapneumovirus, or HMPV? Is this a new virus? 

Human metapneumovirus, or HMPV, is a common virus that causes an upper respiratory infection, like a cold, in people of all ages. But it’s especially common among children, older adults and people with weakened immune systems, and can cause dangerous complications such as pneumonia or bronchitis.

While you may assume this is a new virus, since many people have never heard of it before, HMPV was actually discovered in the Netherlands in 2001. It’s in the same Pneumoviridae family as respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV. And HMPV usually circulates in distinct, annual seasons similar to RSV and the flu; beginning in winter and lasting through the spring in temperate climates. 

Related: FDA advisers vote in favor of Pfizer’s maternal RSV vaccine

What are the HMPV symptoms? 

The human metapneumovirus symptoms are similar to a cold, including: 

  • Cough

  • Runny nose or nasal congestion

  • Sore throat

  • Fever

But some more severe cases can see people having difficulty breathing, wheezing and suffering asthma flare-ups. People with a history of lung disease, such as asthma, emphysema or COPD, may also see their pre-existing conditions make the HMPV symptoms more severe. 

Most people experiencing the milder HMPV symptoms don’t need to see a doctor, as the illness should go away on its own within a few days. But, if symptoms get worse, and/or you develop shortness of breath, wheezing or a more severe cough, then you should seek medical attention, the CDC recommends. 

And some more severe cases of HMPV could lead to secondary lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis, which are more serious and require additional medical attention. 

How is HMPV transmitted? 

Similar to colds, the flu and COVID, HMPV is most likely spread from an infected person through secretions/droplets from coughing and sneezing, the CDC says, as well as close personal contact like touching or shaking hands. HMPV can also spread if you touch objects or surfaces that have the virus on them, and then touch your mouth, nose or eyes. 

So the CDC recommends limiting the spread of HMPV by following good hygiene: washing hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds; not touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands; and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. 

Those who are sick or suffering cold-like symptoms can prevent making others sick by covering their mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing; washing their hands frequently and correctly; not sharing cups and eating utensils with others; not kissing others; and staying home while they’re feeling sick. What’s more, cleaning possible contaminated surfaces and high-traffic areas (like shared toys and doorknobs) can also potentially stop the spread. 

How is HMPV treated? Is there a vaccine? 

There are no specific antiviral medications or vaccines to treat HMPV yet. And because the virus tends to clear on its own within a few days, treatment is usually geared toward easing symptoms, such as taking acetaminophen and ibuprofen to address any pain or fever, or taking a decongestant.

But you should see your doctor or another healthcare professional if your symptoms worsen, or if you have difficulty breathing. The American Lung Association notes that those with more severe wheezing and coughing may need a temporary inhaler, and a doctor may also suggest a stronger oral medication like prednisone.

And Dr. John V. Williams, a pediatric infectious disease specialist and virologist who has researched HMPV for more than 20 years, recently wrote in The Conversation that some children are at higher risk for severe HMPV. This includes kids with underlying risk factors such as being born prematurely; those with conditions like asthma; or those who have compromised immune systems (such as organ transplant recipients or those undergoing cancer treatment.) So it’s important to keep a close eye on them and their symptoms.

How many days does HMPV last? 

This can vary by person, of course, but someone will typically start showing symptoms of  HMPV within three to six days after being exposed to the virus. And the symptoms usually last from two to five days, and resolve without treatment. But HMPV infections can develop into more severe illnesses like bronchitis or pneumonia, which can take a couple of weeks to recover from.  

How bad is it? 

Again, most cases of HMPV resolve on their own, and a lot of times, people don’t even know they’ve had it; instead, suspecting they are dealing with a cold or a flu bug. So there is no need to panic — but it is important to stay vigilant. 

After all, respiratory infections are the leading cause of death in children under 5 globally, as well as a leading cause of death in vulnerable groups such as premature infants, older adults and those with underlying medical conditions. And a 2016 report in the official journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society estimated that HMPV resulted in hospitalizing around 27,000 children under 18 annually, with a mean estimated medical cost of $277 million each year. 

The bottom line is to take care of yourself by washing your hands frequently, and to avoid touching your face with unwashed hands while you are well. And if you get sick, then keep up that good hygiene, but also stay home to avoid spreading your illness to others. And if symptoms worsen or you have trouble breathing, then speak with a doctor.

What’s more, vulnerable populations — such as children, the elderly and the immunocompromised — and their caregivers should also monitor symptoms closely and stay in touch with healthcare professionals in case the HMPV progresses into something more serious, like bronchitis or pneumonia.

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In a new study, neither current, nor lifetime cannabis use was associated with an increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles assessed the relationship between cannabis use and COPD development in adults who either smoked or formerly smoked tobacco cigarettes.

The participants were aged between 40-80-years old and either had or were at high risk for developing COPD.

COPD is a group of chronic lung conditions that cause difficulty breathing, including emphysema (damage to the air sacs in the lungs) and chronic bronchitis (long-term inflammation of the airways). 

It most often affects middle-aged or older adults who smoke and tends to get progressively worse over time, sometimes limiting the ability to carry out daily activities. 

Participants in the study were divided into groups of those who had never used cannabis, former cannabis users (not in the last 30 days) and those who currently consume (had smoked within the last 30 days).

After carrying out a number of analyses, the researchers determined that neither former nor current cannabis smoking was associated with evidence of COPD progression or its development.

While some differences between the groups were noted, these were ‘neither clinically nor statistically significant’.

However, the authors advise that the study design has some limitations and the findings should be considered ‘exploratory’. Other limitations include the variability in the delivery methods and amount of cannabis consumed by participants. 

The authors concluded: “In [this] cohort of ever-tobacco smokers of ≥20 pack-years with established COPD or at risk of developing COPD followed over an average of more than four years, a history of current and/or former smoking of marijuana of any cumulative lifetime amount was not found to be associated with a significantly deleterious impact on progression of COPD.” 

They added: “Among ever-tobacco smokers in the same cohort without COPD at enrollment, self-reported current and/or former concomitant marijuana smoking, including heavy marijuana smoking, was not found to be associated with an increased risk of subsequently developing COPD.”

The findings echo those of previous studies which also suggest cannabis inhalation is not associated with increased risks of COPD, lung cancer or other damage, in the same way that tobacco smoke is.

Commenting on the findings, deputy director of NORML in the US, Paul Armentano said: “These results are consistent with decades worth of data finding that cannabis smoke exposure is not associated with the same sort of deleterious pulmonary impact as is tobacco smoke exposure.

“They should be reassuring to cannabis consumers and to health professionals alike, and they should help to guide future policies with respect to the crafting of evidence-based public health messages and associated regulations.”

Read more about the study here

Home » Health » Cannabis use not linked to higher risk of COPD in tobacco smokers – study

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Published: 5/31/2023 9:27:44 AM

Modified: 5/31/2023 9:28:15 AM

Editor’s Note: This story was first published on New Hampshire Bulletin.

The state Department of Environmental Services is issuing an elevated particle air pollution advisory for Tuesday afternoon through Friday, citing wildfires in Canada.

Central and southern Nova Scotia have experienced unusual record-breaking heat resulting in the wildfires spanning more than 25,000 acres and forcing more than 16,000 people to evacuate their homes. Current wind patterns are likely to transport plumes of smoke across much of the Northeast this week. 

Though air quality overall in New Hampshire is expected to remain acceptable and not exceed federal health standards, DES said, individuals who are unusually sensitive to air pollution — including children, older adults, and anyone with heart or lung disease such as asthma, emphysema, and bronchitis — or anyone especially sensitive to smoke should take precautions to protect their health by limiting their outdoor exposure and physical activity. 

Symptoms of particle pollution exposure can include chest pain, palpitations, coughing, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. People with asthma and other existing lung diseases may not be able to breathe as they normally do.

Concentrations of particles are expected to peak during the late afternoon on Tuesday through Wednesday morning, and air quality will likely improve late Friday with changing winds and forecasted rain. 

The state could also see hazy skies this week as a result of the smoke. 

For air quality forecasts and current air pollution levels in New Hampshire, call 1-800-935-SMOG or visit www4.des.state.nh.us/airdata/.



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A far away wildfire is going to make breathing difficult for some closer to home.

The Lehigh Valley and other areas of Pennsylvania are under a “Code Orange” Air Quality Action Day alert for Wednesday. The alert, issued by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, is being prompted by a large wildfire in Nova Scotia.

Wind is expected to carry smoke from the blaze our way, increasing the amount of fine particulate matter in the air, according to the DEP. That will also create hazy conditions across the region through Wednesday night.

Other areas under a “Code Orange” Wednesday include Philadelphia and surrounding areas (Bucks, Chester, Delaware and Montgomery counties), as well as the Susquehanna Valley (Cumberland, Dauphin, Lancaster, Lebanon and York counties).

The elderly, young children and anyone with breathing problems such as asthma, emphysema and bronchitis, are advised to stay inside as much as possible.

What air quality alerts mean

Air quality is categorized by a color-coded system:

  • Green: Good
  • Yellow: Moderate
  • Orange: Unhealthy for sensitive groups
  • Red: Unhealthy for everyone
  • Purple: Very unhealthy
  • Maroon: Hazardous
  • Air Quality Action Day alerts are issued when the air quality index is forecast to be orange or higher.

The chart below provides more detail on the index values and the corresponding color codes.

The air quality index (AQI) is grouped into six color-coded categories.
The air quality index (AQI) is grouped into six color-coded categories.

Extended forecast

Conditions are expected to remain mostly dry over the next week, with the only chance of precipitation expected over the weekend, according to the National Weather Service. Temperatures will remain mostly seasonable, with a brief warm spell later this week.

Here is the extended forecast:

Tuesday Night: Widespread haze. Mostly clear, with a low around 46. East wind 5 to 10 mph becoming light and variable after midnight.

Wednesday: Widespread haze. Patchy smoke after 1pm. Sunny, with a high near 81. Calm wind becoming east around 5 mph in the afternoon.

Wednesday Night: Widespread haze before midnight. Patchy smoke before 11pm. Patchy fog after 5am. Otherwise, mostly clear, with a low around 51. Southeast wind around 5 mph becoming calm in the evening.

Thursday: Sunny, with a high near 88. Calm wind becoming east around 5 mph in the afternoon.

Thursday Night: Clear, with a low around 58. South wind around 5 mph becoming calm in the evening.

Friday: Sunny, with a high near 94.

Friday Night: Partly cloudy, with a low around 62.

Saturday: A chance of showers and thunderstorms after 2pm. Partly sunny, with a high near 82. Chance of precipitation is 30%.

Saturday Night: A chance of showers and thunderstorms before 8pm. Partly cloudy, with a low around 53. Chance of precipitation is 30%.

Sunday: Sunny, with a high near 78.

Sunday Night: Mostly clear, with a low around 52.

Monday: Sunny, with a high near 85.

Monday Night: Partly cloudy, with a low around 56.

Tuesday: Mostly sunny, with a high near 81.

 

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DETROIT – Tuesday is an ozone action day or Air Quality Alert for Metro Detroit, but what does that mean?

The Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy has declared Tuesday, May 30, to be an action day for elevated levels of ozone. Pollutants are expected to be in the unhealthy for sensitive groups range.

Ozone action days are called when hot summer temperatures are expected to combine with pollution to create high amounts of ground-level ozone. Breathing high levels of ozone can trigger a variety of health problems, particularly in children, the elderly, and people with asthma or other lung diseases.

Where does it come from?

NOAA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) partner in developing a national Air Quality Forecast (AQF) System. The goal of this partnership is to provide ozone, particulate matter, and other pollutant forecasts with enough accuracy and advance notice for people to take action to prevent or limit harmful effects from poor air quality.

State and local air quality agencies, as well as the private sector, are also essential partners in the national air quality monitoring network, EPA's national inventory of emissions data.

What causes "bad" Ozone?

“Bad” ozone is found at ground level. In cities, it’s made when emissions from vehicles, power plants, chemical plants, and other sources react with heat and sunlight. The hotter the day and the stronger the sun, the more ozone is formed. That's why ozone is usually worst on windless, hot summer afternoons. High levels of ozone are mainly a concern for people from April 1–September 30.

You’re most likely to find high levels of "bad" ozone in urban areas. You might hear it called “smog.” However, other areas can also have high ozone levels when winds blow pollution hundreds of miles from their original sources.

How does "bad" Ozone affect me?

Even at low levels, breathing ozone can cause chest pains, coughing, and throat irritation. It can also aggravate lung diseases like emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. The more ozone pollution a person breathes, the more permanent damage it can do to her lungs.

Because it usually forms in hot weather, anyone who spends time outdoors in the summer may be affected - children, older people, outdoor workers, and people exercising may be particularly susceptible. The higher the ozone level, the more people who will experience health symptoms. Millions of Americans live in areas where ozone levels are higher than the national health standards, and should pay attention to ozone levels when the weather is hot and sunny.

How do I stay safe during an Air Quality Alert?

Follow these simple tips to stay safe when there is an air quality alert:

  • Stay inside if possible, particularly if you have respiratory concerns or other health problems, are a senior or child

  • If you must go out, try to limit the amount of time you are out to strictly essential activities

  • Minimize your use of items that increase pollution, such as cars, gas powered lawn mowers and other vehicles

  • Do not burn debris or other items during an air quality alert

  • Take the bus, carpool, telecommute, bike, or walk. You'll reduce traffic congestion and air pollution as well as save money.

  • If you plan to barbecue, use an electric starter or charcoal chimney instead of lighter fluid. Fumes from the fluid contribute to ozone formation.

  • Avoid drive-thru facilities or other situations where your vehicle idles for an extended period of time. You'll save money on gas and reduce pollution.

Who is most at risk?

Several groups of people are particularly sensitive to ozone, especially when they are active outdoors. This is because ozone levels are higher outdoors, and physical activity causes faster and deeper breathing, drawing more ozone into the body.

  • People with lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, can be particularly sensitive to ozone. They will generally experience more serious health effects at lower levels. Ozone can aggravate their diseases, leading to increased medication use, doctor and emergency room visits, and hospital admissions.

  • Children, including teenagers, are at higher risk from ozone exposure because they often play outdoors in warmer weather when ozone levels are higher, they are more likely to have asthma (which may be aggravated by ozone exposure), and their lungs are still developing.

  • Older adults may be more affected by ozone exposure, possibly because they are more likely to have pre-existing lung disease.

  • Active people of all ages who exercise or work vigorously outdoors are at increased risk.

  • Some healthy people are more sensitive to ozone. They may experience health effects at lower ozone levels than the average person even though they have none of the risk factors listed above. There may be a genetic basis for this increased sensitivity.

In general, as concentrations of ground-level ozone increase, more people begin to experience more serious health effects. When levels are very high, everyone should be concerned about ozone exposure.

What are the health effects?

Ozone affects the lungs and respiratory system in many ways. It can:

  • Irritate the respiratory system, causing coughing, throat soreness, airway irritation, chest tightness, or chest pain when taking a deep breath.

  • Reduce lung function, making it more difficult to breathe as deeply and vigorously as you normally would, especially when exercising. Breathing may start to feel uncomfortable, and you may notice that you are taking more rapid and shallow breaths than normal.

The risk of exposure to unhealthy levels of ground-level ozone is greatest during warmer months. Children, who often play outdoors in warmer weather, are at higher risk.

  • Inflame and damage the cells that line the lungs. Within a few days, the damaged cells are replaced and the old cells are shed—much like the way your skin peels after sunburn. Studies suggest that if this type of inflammation happens repeatedly, lung tissue may become permanently scarred and lung function may be permanently reduced.

  • Make the lungs more susceptible to infection. Ozone reduces the lung’s defenses by damaging the cells that move particles and bacteria out of the airways and by reducing the number and effectiveness of white blood cells in the lungs.

  • Aggravate asthma. When ozone levels are unhealthy, more people with asthma have symptoms that require a doctor’s attention or the use of medication. Ozone makes people more sensitive to allergens—the most common triggers for asthma attacks. Also, asthmatics may be more severely affected by reduced lung function and airway inflammation. People with asthma should ask their doctor for an asthma action plan and follow it carefully when ozone levels are unhealthy.

  • Aggravate other chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis. As concentrations of ground-level ozone increase, more people with lung disease visit doctors or emergency rooms and are admitted to the hospital.

  • Cause permanent lung damage. Repeated short-term ozone damage to children’s developing lungs may lead to reduced lung function in adulthood. In adults, ozone exposure may accelerate the natural decline in lung function that occurs with age.

Sources: AQI, NWS, EPA, SEMCOG.

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