Every year, World Lung Day is celebrated on September 25 to advocate lung health and spread awareness. Lung disease is any problem that arises in the lungs and prevents it from working properly. Lung disease is divided into three main types - airway diseases, lung tissue diseases and lung circulation diseases.

The lungs, just like any other part of your body, age with time and that's why they need extra attention and care. People don't understand the importance of healthy lungs until they experience a breathing problem. After the Covid-19 pandemic took over the world, millions across the globe showed signs of weak lungs and reported breathing issues.

In 2022, it's crucial that we look after the health of our lungs and take precaution against harmful diseases that can make our breathing difficult. After all, the lungs are a crucial part of the respiratory system as they carry oxygen from the air and pump it through the body's airways and air sacs. The oxygen is then absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the heart via the blood vessels.

Understanding the three main types of lung disease:

Airway Diseases

These harmful diseases impact the tubes that carry oxygen, making it difficult for people to breathe.

Lung Tissue Diseases
These diseases affect the structure of the lung tissue, which then makes it difficult for the lungs to function properly and diffuse oxygen from the airways into the bloodstream.

Lung Circulation Diseases

This type of disease impacts the blood vessels in the lungs. These diseases affect the way blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body.

Most Common Lung Diseases:

Most common lung diseases emerge from one or more of these three main types. Here are the most common lung diseases:


Millions of people across the country suffer from asthma and have difficult breathing. Though there's no cure for this disease, the person can lead a healthy and normal life with the help of right treatment and managing the asthma.

The disease can be managed by working with a healthcare provider to develop a plan to keep your asthma under control by understanding your trigger and learning of simple ways to limit your exposure, understanding your medication, learning self-management skills and more.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
This disease includes Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema and is a long-term lung disease that makes it hard to breathe but is often preventable and treatable.


Most commonly referred to as bronchitis, acute bronchitis is a lower respiratory infection that impacts the air tubes of the lungs and usually comes on suddenly and can last for a week to 10 days.

Tips To Prevent Lung Diseases:

Stop smoking as it increases your risk of lung cancer. According to several reports, smokers are 12 to 13 times more likely to die from COPD than nonsmokers.

Exercise. Getting a regular workout will really help your health. It will not only make you fitter but also improve your overall health. When you workout, your heart beats faster and your lungs work harder.

Get some fresh air. It's no secret that we are exposed to pollutants on a daily basis. So give your lungs the much needed break and reduce the exposure to harmful air by making your home smoke-free zone, dusting your furniture, improving the indoor air ventilation by opening a window, avoid synthetic air fresheners, candles, and wear a good mask when you go outside.

Source link

The pleura is a vital part of the respiratory tract. Its role is to cushion the lung and reduce any friction that may develop between the lung, rib cage, and chest cavity.

Each pleura (there are two) consists of a two-layered membrane that covers each lung. The layers are separated by a small amount of viscous (thick) lubricant known as pleural fluid.

OpenStax College / Wikimedia Creative Commons

There are a number of medical conditions that can affect the pleura, including pleural effusions, a collapsed lung, and cancer. When excess fluid accumulates between the pleural membranes, various procedures may be used to either drain the fluid or eliminate the space between them.

This article outlines what the pleurae are, what they do, and what conditions can affect them and impact respiratory health.

The plural form of pleura is pleurae.

Anatomy of the Pleura

There are two pleurae, one for each lung, and each pleura is a single membrane that folds back on itself to form two layers. The space between the membranes (called the pleural cavity) is filled with a thin, lubricating liquid (called pleural fluid).

The pleura is comprised of two distinct layers:

  • The visceral pleura is the thin, slippery membrane that covers the surface of the lungs and dips into the areas separating the different lobes of the lungs (called the hilum).
  • The parietal pleura is the outer membrane that lines the inner chest wall and diaphragm (the muscle separating the chest and abdominal cavities).

The visceral and parietal pleura join at the hilum, which also serves as the point of entry for the bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves.

The pleural cavity is also known as the intrapleural space. It contains pleural fluid secreted by the mesothelial cells. The fluid allows the layers to glide over each other as the lungs inflate and deflate during respiration (breathing).

What the Pleura Do

The structure of the pleura is essential to respiration, providing the lungs with the lubrication and cushioning needed to inhale and exhale. The intrapleural space contains roughly 4 cubic centimeters (ccs) to 5 ccs of pleural fluid, which reduces friction whenever the lungs expand or contract.

The pleura fluid itself has a slightly sticky quality that helps draw the lungs outward during inhalation rather than slipping round in the chest cavity. It creates surface tension that helps maintain the position of the lungs against the chest wall.

The pleurae also serve as a division between other organs in the body, preventing them from interfering with lung function and vice versa.

Because the pleura is self-contained, it can help prevent the spread of infection to and from the lungs.

Conditions That Affect the Pleura

A number of conditions can cause injury to the pleura or undermine its function. Harm to the membranes or overload of pleural fluid can affect how you breathe and lead to adverse respiratory symptoms.


Pleurisy is inflammation of the pleural membranes. It is most commonly caused by a viral infection, but may also be the result of a bacterial infection or an autoimmune disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus).

Pleuritic inflammation causes the membrane surfaces to become rough and sticky. Rather than sliding over each other, they membranes stick together, triggering sharp, stabbing pain with every breath, sneeze, or cough. The pain can get worse when inhaling cold air or taking a deep breath. It can also worsen during movement or shifts in position. Other symptoms of pleurisy include fever, chills, and loss of appetite.

Pleural Effusion

A pleural effusion occurs when excess fluid accumulates in the pleural space. When this happens, breathing can be impaired, sometimes significantly.

Congestive heart failure is the most common cause of a pleural effusion, but there is a multitude of other causes, including lung trauma or lung cancer (in which effusion is experienced in roughly half of all cases).

A pleural effusion can be very small (detectable only by a chest x-ray or CT scan) or be large and contain several pints of fluid. Common symptoms include chest pain, dry cough, shortness of breath, difficulty taking deep breaths, and persistent hiccups.

Malignant Pleural Effusion

A malignant pleural effusion refers to an effusion that contains cancer cells. It's most commonly associated with lung cancer or breast cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the lungs.


Pleural mesothelioma is a cancer of the pleura that most often is caused by occupational exposure to asbestos. Symptoms include pain in the shoulder, chest or lower back, shortness of breath, trouble swallowing, and swelling of the face and arms.


Pneumothorax, also known as a collapsed lung, can develop when air collects in the pleural cavity. It may be caused by any number of things, including chest trauma, chest surgery, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to shortness of breath, there may be crepitus, an abnormal crackling sound from just under the skin of the neck and chest.

Spontaneous pneumothorax is a term used to describe when a lung collapses for no apparent reason. Tall, thin adolescent males are at the greatest risk for spontaneous pneumothorax, although females can also be affected. Risk factors include smoking, connective tissue disorders, and activities such as scuba diving and flying in which atmospheric pressure changes rapidly.

Pneumothorax can often heal on its own but may sometimes require thoracentesis to extract any accumulated air from the pleural cavity.


Hemothorax is a condition in which the pleural cavity fills with blood, typically as a result of traumatic injury or chest surgery. Rarely, a hemothorax can happen spontaneously due to a vascular rupture.

The main symptom of hemothorax is pain or a feeling of heaviness in the chest. Others include a rapid heartbeat, trouble breathing, cold sweats, pale skin, and a fever, all indications that prompt medical attention is needed.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Does COVID cause pleural thickening?

    Research has demonstrated that coronaviruses, like COVID-19 and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause pleural thickening. In some cases, this has been associated with poorer outcomes.

  • Is pleural effusion life-threatening?

    Pleural effusion, or fluid build-up in the pleural space, is a serious but treatable condition. It can be caused by a number of diseases, including cancer. If left untreated, fluid can continue to build up and impact breathing.

  • Is pleural thickening serious?

    Not necessarily, but it depends on the underlying cause. Because multiple conditions can cause thickening of the pleurae, it's important to be evaluated by a healthcare provider and get proper treatment.

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Charalampidis C, Youroukou A, Lazaridis G, et al. Pleura space anatomyJ Thorac Dis. 2015;7(Suppl 1):S27–S32. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.01.48

  2. Kass SM, Williams PM, Reamy BV. Pleurisy. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(9):1357-64.

  3. Bintcliffe OJ, Lee GY, Rahman NM, Maskell NA. The management of benign non-infective pleural effusions. Eur Respir Rev. 2016;25(141):303-16. doi:10.1183/16000617.0026-2016

  4. Karkhanis VS, Joshi JM. Pleural effusion: diagnosis, treatment, and managementOpen Access Emerg Med. 2012;4:31–52. doi:10.2147/OAEM.S29942

  5. Dixit R, Agarwal KC, Gokhroo A, et al. Diagnosis and management options in malignant pleural effusionsLung India. 2017;34(2):160-6. doi:10.4103/0970-2113.201305

  6. Rossini M, Rizzo P, Bononi I, et al. New perspectives on diagnosis and therapy of malignant pleural mesotheliomaFront Oncol. 2018;8:91. doi:10.3389/fonc.2018.00091

  7. Aghajanzadeh M, Dehnadi A, Ebrahimi H, et al. Classification and management of subcutaneous emphysema: a 10-year experienceIndian J Surg. 2015;77(Suppl 2):673–677. doi:10.1007/s12262-013-0975-4

  8. Mitani A, Hakamata Y, Hosoi M, et al. The incidence and risk factors of asymptomatic primary spontaneous pneumothorax detected during health check-upsBMC Pulm Med. 2017;17:177. doi:10.1186/s12890-017-0538-8

  9. Pumarejo Gomez L, Tran VH. Hemothorax. In: StatPearls [Internet].

  10. National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus. Hemothorax.

  11. Carotti M, Salaffi F, Sarzi-Puttini P, et al. Chest CT features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia: Key points for radiologists. Radiol Med. 2020;125(7):636-646. doi:10.1007%2Fs11547-020-01237-4

  12. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Fluid around the lungs or malignant pleural effusion.

  13. Yale Medicine. Fluid Around the Lungs (Pleural Effusion).

  14. Alfudhili KM, Lynch DA, Laurent F, Ferretti GR, Dunet V, Beigelman-Aubry C. Focal pleural thickening mimicking pleural plaques on chest computed tomography: Tips and tricksBJR. 2016;89(1057):20150792. doi:10.1259%2Fbjr.20150792

Additional Reading

By Lynne Eldridge, MD

 Lynne Eldrige, MD, is a lung cancer physician, patient advocate, and award-winning author of "Avoiding Cancer One Day at a Time."

Source link

According to DelveInsight, the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market in 7MM is expected to witness a major change in the study period 2019-2032

“The increase in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market size is a direct consequence of an increase in R& D activity, increasing prevalent population, expected commercial success of upcoming therapies in the 7MM


The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2022 to 2032. The growing cases of tumors will directly impact the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market


The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market report provides current treatment practices, emerging drugs, and market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted 7MM Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market size from 2019 to 2032. The Report also covers current Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment practice, market drivers, market barriers, SWOT analysis, reimbursement, market access, and unmet medical needs to curate the best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the market.


Key takeaways from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Research Report

  • The expected launch of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease emerging therapies and the research and development activities of pharmaceutical companies will also fuel the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market growth during the forecast period.
  • The estimates suggest a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease higher diagnosed prevalence in the United States with 17,455,605 diagnosed cases in 2020, which might increase in 2030.
  • The total Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease diagnosed prevalent population in seven major markets was found to be 31,730,590 in 2020 and is anticipated to increase in 2030.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Companies included Afimmune, AstraZeneca, Amgen, Circassia Pharmaceuticals Inc., Biomarck Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, and several others
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Therapies included Anoro Ellipta, Incruse Ellipta/Encruse Ellipta, and several others


Interested to know more about the ongoing developments in the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Outlook? Visit here- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and treatable disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases. The most common respiratory symptoms include dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production; these symptoms may be under-reported by patients. The main risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but other environmental exposures such as biomass fuel exposure and air pollution may contribute.

Besides exposures, host factors predispose individuals to develop COPD. These include genetic abnormalities, abnormal lung development, and accelerated aging. COPD may be punctuated by periods of acute worsening of respiratory symptoms, called exacerbations. In most patients, COPD is associated with significant concomitant chronic diseases, which increase its morbidity and mortality. COPD is a long-lasting lung disease where the small airways in the lungs are damaged, making it harder for air to get in and out.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemiology Insights

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology segmented by Total Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Gender-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Age-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of COPD Based on Severity of Airflow Limitation, and Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of COPD Based on Symptoms and Exacerbation History scenario in the 7MM covering the United States, EU5 countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) and Japan from 2019 to 2032.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemiology Segmentation in the 7MM 

  • Total Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Gender-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Age-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Diagnosed Prevalent Cases Based on Severity of Airflow Limitation


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment Market

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment include drugs, for example, nicotine replacement therapy, beta-2 agonists and anticholinergic agents (bronchodilators), combined drugs using steroids and long-acting bronchodilators, mucolytic agents, oxygen therapy, and surgical procedures such as bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery, and lung transplantation. The goals of COPD treatment are to reduce hospitalizations, reduce and prevent exacerbations, decrease dyspnea, improve quality of life, slow disease progression, and reduce mortality. The mainstays of treatment are smoking cessation, when applicable, and pharmacotherapy with inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Additional therapies include oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, vaccinations, pulmonary rehabilitation, and long-term oxygen therapy in hypoxic patients. Bronchodilators are used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The medicines come in many forms, with some forms requiring special instructions. There are several short-acting bronchodilators for COPD.


Discover more relevant information on the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Research Report here- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Marketed Drugs

Anoro Ellipta: GlaxoSmithKline/Theravance/Innoviva

Anoro Ellipta is a combination of umeclidinium, an anticholinergic, and vilanterol, a long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (LABA), indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FDA, 2013). Anoro Ellipta is a once-daily product approved in the US that combines two long-acting bronchodilators in a single inhaler for the maintenance treatment of COPD.

Incruse Ellipta/Encruse Ellipta: GlaxoSmithKline

Incruse Ellipta is an anticholinergic approved for the long-term once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. GSK’s once-daily anticholinergic, a type of bronchodilator also known as a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), is contained in the Ellipta inhaler. The FDA-approved strength is 62.5 mcg.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Emerging Drugs

Itepekimab (SAR440340/REGN3500/Anti-IL-33 mAb): Sanofi/Regeneron Pharmaceuticals

REGN3500 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-33 (IL-33), a protein that is believed to play a key role in type 1 and type 2 inflammation. The drug is administered subcutaneously. Preclinical research showed REGN3500 blocked several markers of both types of inflammation. Regeneron and Sanofi are currently studying REGN3500 in respiratory and dermatological diseases where inflammation plays an underlying role.

Dupixent (Dupilumab): Regeneron Pharmaceuticals/Sanofi

Dupixent (dupilumab) is a monoclonal antibody targeting α chain of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor. It inhibits the biological effects of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, which are key drivers in the TH2 response (Sastre, 2018). Dupilumab is approved in the US to treat patients aged ≥12 with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that is not well controlled with prescription therapies used on the skin (topical), or who cannot use topical therapies.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Outlook

Many people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease have mild forms of the disease for which little therapy is needed other than smoking cessation. Even for more advanced stages of the disease, effective therapy is available that can control symptoms, slow progression, reduce the risk of complications and exacerbations, and improve the ability to lead an active life. The goal in treating Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is to help the person breathe easier and get back to regular activities; many treatments and lifestyle approaches can help. The patient may also try some natural and alternative treatment options. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment focuses on relieving symptoms, such as coughing, breathing problems, and avoiding respiratory infections. The treatments are often based on the stages of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Size

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Size has been categorized into three groups based on the type of therapies that are used and that might get launched, i.e., Monotherapies, Double combination therapies, and Triple combination therapies. The monotherapies are further categorized into Long-Acting Bronchodilators (LABDs), Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICS), Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Inhibitors, and other monotherapies. In LABA, drugs like Striverdi Respimat, Arcapta/Onbrez, Serevent, and Brovana are there, and in LAMA class, molecules such as Spiriva (Spiriva HandiHaler and Spiriva Respimat), Tudorza Pressair, Incruse Ellipta, Yupelri, Seebri Neohaler, Lonhala Magnair, etc. are included.


Read more about the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Companies and Therapies in the report- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market


Scope of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Forecast Report

  • Coverage- 7MM
  • Study Period-2019-2032
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Forecast Period- 2022-2032
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Companies included Afimmune, AstraZeneca, Amgen, Circassia Pharmaceuticals Inc., Biomarck Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, and several others
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Therapies included Anoro Ellipta, Incruse Ellipta/Encruse Ellipta, and several others
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Drivers and Barriers
  • KOL Views
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Access and Reimbursement


Table of Content

1. Key Insights

2. Report Introduction

3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Market Overview at a Glance

4. Executive Summary of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

5. Key Events

6. Disease Background and Overview

7. Epidemiology and Patient Population

8. Patient Journey

9. Organizations contributing toward Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Marketed Therapies

11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Emerging Drugs

12. Potential of Emerging and Current therapies

13. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Seven Major Market Analysis

14. KOL Views

15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Drivers

16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Barriers

17. SWOT Analysis

18. Unmet Needs

19. Reimbursement and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Access

20. Appendix

21. DelveInsight Capabilities

22. Disclaimer

23. About DelveInsight


Got queries? Reach out for more details on the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Forecast Report- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market


About Us

DelveInsight is a Business Consulting and Market research company, providing expert business solutions for the healthcare domain and offering quintessential advisory services in the areas of R&D, Strategy Formulation, Operations, Competitive Intelligence, Competitive Landscaping, and Mergers & Acquisitions.

Media Contact
Company Name: DelveInsight Business Research LLP
Contact Person: Yash Bhardwaj
Email: Send Email
Phone: 9193216187
Address:304 S. Jones Blvd #2432
City: Las Vegas
State: NV
Country: United States
Website: www.delveinsight.com/

Source link

From a pathophysiological point of view, bronchiectasis disease is sustained by a vicious circle in which an alteration in mucociliary clearance is followed by chronic respiratory infections, chronic inflammation, and irreversible bronchial anatomical damage, which over time can lead to a progression and aggravation of the disease itself.

 What are the causes of bronchiectasis?

Bronchiectasis can have several causes, either congenital or acquired, such as primary or secondary immune deficits, previous pneumonias, alterations in ciliary motility, fungal infections (such as from Aspergillus) or from non-tuberculous mycobacteria, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory processes.

However, in 40-50% of cases the cause of the disease remains unknown despite extensive diagnostic investigations.

What are the symptoms of bronchiectasis?

The main symptoms/signs of bronchiectasis are coughing, daily expectoration, and recurrent respiratory infections (including pneumonia).

In addition to these symptoms, episodes of haemophthisis/haemoptysis (blood in the sputum), dyspnoea (shortness of breath), persistent fever, and daily significant asthenia may also be present.


The gold standard for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis is a high-resolution chest CT scan and the pulmonologist is the referral specialist.

At the time of the diagnosis of bronchiectasis and depending on the severity of the clinical picture, a series of laboratory tests should be performed, including quantitative assessment of total IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE immunoglobulins, IgG and IgE specific for A. fumigatus, protein electrophoresis, complete respiratory function tests, a sputum culture test for bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria, a visit with a respiratory physiotherapist and a pulmonologist.

Then, every six months or annually, and always depending on the severity of the clinical picture, it is recommended to perform a sputum culture examination, and a re-evaluation with a respiratory physiotherapist and a pulmonologist.

In some patients it is also important to rule out certain genetic disorders (such as cystic fibrosis or primitive ciliary dyskinesia) as well as the coexistence of possible connective tissue diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).


There are to date no European or American approved drugs to treat this disease.

The management of bronchiectasis is totally individualised on the basis of the clinical and biological characteristics expressed by each patient.

The most important treatment is respiratory physiotherapy, which uses a specific exercise programme to remove the mucus that tends to stagnate in bronchiectasis.

Other important tools at our disposal are antibiotics, immunomodulatory therapies, bronchodilator drugs (if bronchial obstruction is present) as well as treatments to manage the two most frequent complications of the disease: flare-ups and the presence of blood in the sputum.

The optimal management of bronchiectasis passes through a multidisciplinary approach in which the pulmonologist, flanked by the respiratory physiotherapist, can count on the collaboration of other professionals including the clinical microbiologist, the radiologist, the clinical immunologist/rheumatologist, the geneticist, the gastroenterologist and the otorhinolaryngologist.

Read Also:

Emergency Live Even More…Live: Download The New Free App Of Your Newspaper For IOS And Android

Blind Insertion Airway Devices (BIAD’s)

Oxygen-Ozone Therapy: For Which Pathologies Is It Indicated?

Hyperbaric Oxygen In The Wound Healing Process

Venous Thrombosis: From Symptoms To New Drugs

Prehospital Intravenous Access And Fluid Resuscitation In Severe Sepsis: An Observational Cohort Study

What Is Intravenous Cannulation (IV)? The 15 Steps Of The Procedure

Nasal Cannula For Oxygen Therapy: What It Is, How It Is Made, When To Use It

Pulmonary Emphysema: What It Is And How To Treat It. The Role Of Smoking And The Importance Of Quitting

Pulmonary Emphysema: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Tests, Treatment

Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Occupational, Stable Bronchial Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A Guide To Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD



Source link

Professor Tim McDonnell speaks to Dawn O’Shea about optimising the management of COPD

A 2019 study by University College, Dublin and Cambridge University showed the level of frustration and distress patients experience with the traditional model of COPD care. In one-to-one discussions, patients made comments such as “I don’t think the right hand knows what the left hand is doing”, “I’m confused by conflicting advice”, and “I haven’t had enough physiotherapy”. These responses underline the need for patient-centred holistic approaches to COPD care – which is what the new the ambulatory specialist care hubs hope to do.

This model of care brings with it the need for a new type of consultant – the Integrated Care Consultant. In a new approach to the management of chronic diseases, these consultants will spend 50 per cent of their time holding specialist clinics in the community.

Eighteen ambulatory hubs are being developed and will be associated with 11 hospitals. Each hospital has been resourced for at least one integrated care consultant, and it is expected that additional consultants will be recruited as the hubs develop.

Professor Tim McDonnell, former consultant respiratory physician at St Vincent’s University Hospital, has been involved in the development of these hubs, and he said this new model of care is an important development.

There are a number of core elements to COPD care, he said – reaching a diagnosis, picking a suitable inhaler for the patient and teaching them how to use it appropriately, and what to do in the event of an exacerbation.

“You’ve got the diagnosis to make. Then you have to pick an inhaler for the patient. You’ve got to make sure the patient knows how to use the inhaler appropriately, and knows what to do when they have problems – like steroids and antibiotics. A lot of that is very time-consuming and has to be done in a structured way. GPs are just too busy to do a lot of that. They’re up to their gills putting out fires,” Prof. McDonnell said.

“While most COPD care can be delivered in the primary care setting, GPs need to be resourced and supported to do that”, he said.

“The first thing you need to treat COPD is spirometry. If a GP can’t access that, they’re basically doing a best guess as to what the diagnosis is,” he said.

The new hubs will allow GPs to access spirometry directly within the community, which will be carried out by a respiratory physiologist. Accurate testing is essential given the overlap of COPD symptoms with those of other conditions, particularly asthma and heart failure.

Prof. McDonnell shares his approach to diagnosis.

“There are a few things you have to look at. I always ask the patient when they first started having chest problems. If they had chest problems as a child, that would certainly suggest that they have an asthmatic tendency. Obviously, a history of smoking would push you towards COPD.

“The finding of eosinophilia would push you more towards asthma. It certainly would be a sign that inhaled steroids would be useful, which is a key point in trying to distinguish asthma from COPD. And obviously, if you can get spirometry and check for reversibility.”

“But sometimes we do get caught out,” he said. “I’ve had patients that I thought were pure COPD and they turned out to have an asthma component, and it took a while for the penny to drop with me.”

Non-respiratory conditions should also be considered, Prof. McDonnell said. “There’s always a chance that the patient has heart disease. They have similar risk factors. Both are common, particularly in the elderly. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is often useful but there’s nothing stopping a patient from having both COPD and heart failure. You have to keep that in mind.”

Treatment of COPD
“The two problems COPD patients have is one, shortness of breath (SOB) and exacerbations. For SOB, whether you use a long-acting anticholinergic or a long-acting beta-agonist or a combination of both, that’s your initial approach to SOB,” Prof. McDonnell advised.

“If they’re still SOB, the next step would be an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) but if that doesn’t work you should probably stop it after six months. Factors that might promote using ICS is if the patient had a slight eosinophilia and if they’re getting exacerbations.”

“The thing to prevent exacerbations is long-acting azithromycin. The trouble with using azithromycin is that it can produce cardiac arrhythmias, so you need an ECG at the beginning that doesn’t show a prolonged QRS interval. There is also the possibility that it will cause some deafness. That might be something you need to talk to the patient about in advance.”

The national COPD guidelines published by the National Clinical Effectiveness Committee in November 2021 recommend azithromycin for one year in patients with severe COPD with two treated exacerbations. First-line antibiotic choices include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or a macrolide.

Emerging treatments
While there have been little or no major developments in the pharmaceutical arena of late, there has been much more activity in relation to non-pharmacological treatments.

Targeted lung denervation (TLD) is one promising option. The goal of denervation is to disrupt pulmonary nerve input to achieve sustained bronchodilation and reduce mucous secretion, simulating the effect of anticholinergic drugs.

The AIRFLOW-1 study analysed the long-term impact of TLD. Trial results published earlier this year show that the therapy was associated with a stabilisation of exacerbations, lung function and quality of life over a three-year period.

Another emerging treatment is metered cryospray (MCS), which delivers liquid nitrogen to the tracheobronchial airways, ablates abnormal epithelium and facilitates mucosal regeneration.

In a prospective study involving patients with FEV1 30-80 per cent predicted who were taking optimal medication, 34 patients completed three treatments, lasting an average of 34.3 minutes 4-6 weeks apart.

Clinically meaningful improvements in patient-reported outcomes were observed at three months.
Bronchial rheoplasty has also been attracting attention. The procedure uses an endobronchial catheter to apply nonthermal pulsed electrical fields to the airways.

Preclinical studies have demonstrated epithelial ablation followed by regeneration of normalised epithelium.

The first clinical evidence for bronchial rheoplasty was published in 2020. The findings showed significant changes from baseline in COPD Assessment Test (mean, -7.9; median, -8.0; P = 0.0002) and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at six and 12 months.

It appears we are a long way from finding the Holy Grail of COPD care – a disease-modifying treatment. In the meantime, Prof. McDonnell stresses, that while pharmacological treatments have an important role, patient education, repeated inhaler training, treatment adherence and pulmonary rehabilitation are essential components to optimise symptom control and quality of life.

National Clinical Effectiveness Committee guidelines on the management of COPD
Key recommendations
Pharmacological Management of COPD

  • Prescribe inhaled SABAs or SAMAs where rescue therapy is needed.
  • Offer inhaled LAMAs and LABAs for stable patients with ongoing symptoms.
  • LAMAs have a greater impact on exacerbation frequency than LABAs.
  • LAMA/LABA combination has a greater impact than monotherapy.
  • First-line inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) are not routinely recommended.
  • ICS should be considered for asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS).
  • Patients with blood eosinophils <0.1 x109 are unlikely to benefit from ICS.
  • ICS with LABA is more effective than the individual components in reducing exacerbations in moderate to very severe COPD.
  • Triple inhaled therapy with ICS/LAMA/LABA delivers added benefit.
  • Roflumilast can be used in selected patients with chronic bronchitic phenotype of COPD with severe to very severe air flow obstruction and history of exacerbations.
  • Theophylline can be used in selected patients.
  • In patients with severe COPD with two treated exacerbations, the addition of azithromycin may be considered for one year.
  • Routine mucolytic and antioxidants is not recommended.
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists are not recommended.
  • Provide nutrition support to malnourished patients.
  • Lung volume reduction surgery is recommended for carefully selected patients with upper lobe emphysema and low post-rehabilitation exercise capacity.
  • Bullectomy is recommended for selected patients.
  • In selected patients with advanced emphysema, bronchoscopic interventions are recommended.

Management of Exacerbations

  • Initiate short-acting acute bronchodilator therapy.
  • Systemic steroids (prednisolone recommended dose of 40mgs) once daily for five days.
  • First-line antibiotic choices include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or a macrolide.


National guidelines

Source link

Conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections account for the majority of deaths each year around the world. With that said, there are many steps you can take to prevent these deadly diseases.

When people think of the deadliest diseases in the world, their minds probably jump to the fast-acting, incurable ones that grab headlines from time to time. However, many of these types of diseases don’t rank in the top 10 causes of worldwide deaths.

An estimated 55.4 million people passed away worldwide in 2019, and 74% of these deaths were because of noncommunicable diseases, or chronic conditions that progress slowly.

Perhaps even more surprising is that several of the deadliest diseases are partially preventable. Non-preventable factors include where a person lives, access to preventive care, and quality of healthcare, all of which factor into risk.

But there are several steps that everyone can take to lower their risk.

Read on to see 10 of the deadliest diseases worldwide.

The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD).

Also called ischemic heart disease, CAD occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart become narrowed. Untreated CAD can lead to chest pain, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Impact of CAD across the world

Although it’s still the leading cause of death, mortality rates have declined in many European countries and in the United States.

This may be because of better public health education, access to healthcare, and other forms of prevention. However, in many developing nations, mortality rates for CAD are on the rise.

An increasing life span, socioeconomic changes, and lifestyle risk factors play a role in this rise.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for CAD include:

Talk with a doctor or healthcare professional if you have one or more of these risk factors.

You can prevent CAD with medications and by taking steps to improve heart health. Some of the ways you can decrease your risk include:

  • exercising regularly
  • reaching or maintaining a moderate weight
  • eating a balanced diet that’s low in sodium and high in fruits and vegetables
  • avoiding smoking, if applicable
  • drinking only in moderation

A stroke occurs when an artery in your brain is blocked or leaks. This causes the oxygen-deprived brain cells to begin dying within minutes.

During a stroke, you feel sudden numbness and confusion or have trouble walking and seeing. If left untreated, a stroke can cause long-term disability.

In fact, strokes are the leading cause of long-term disabilities. People who receive treatment within 3 hours of having a stroke are less likely to have disabilities.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that one survey found that 93% of people knew sudden numbness on one side was a symptom of stroke. However, only 38% knew all the symptoms that would prompt them to look for emergency care.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for stroke include:

  • high blood pressure
  • family history of stroke
  • smoking, especially when combined with oral contraceptives
  • being African American
  • being female

Some risk factors of strokes can be lowered with preventive care, medications, and lifestyle changes. In general, good health habits can lower your risk.

Stroke prevention methods may include controlling high blood pressure with medications. You should also maintain a healthy lifestyle, complete with regular exercise and a balanced diet that’s low in sodium.

If you smoke, consider quitting and drink only in moderation, as these activities increase your risk of stroke.

A lower respiratory infection is an infection in your airways and lungs. It can be due to:

Though viruses usually cause lower respiratory infections, they can also be caused by bacteria.

Coughing is the main symptom of a lower respiratory infection. It may produce blood sputum. You may also have a fever, sweating, or chills or experience breathlessness, wheezing, and a tight feeling in your chest.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for lower respiratory infection include:

  • the flu
  • poor air quality or frequent exposure to lung irritants
  • smoking
  • a weak immune system
  • crowded child care settings, which mainly affect infants
  • asthma
  • HIV

One of the best preventive measures you can take against lower respiratory infections is to get the flu shot every year. People at high risk of pneumonia can also get a vaccine.

Be sure to wash your hands regularly with soap and water to avoid transmitted bacteria, especially before touching your face or eating.

If you have a respiratory infection, stay at home and rest until you feel better, as rest improves healing.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a long-term, progressive lung disease that makes breathing difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are types of COPD.

In 2018, about 16.4 million people in the United States reported a diagnosis of any type of COPD.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for COPD include:

  • smoking or secondhand smoke
  • lung irritants such as chemical fumes
  • family history, with the alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency gene being linked to COPD
  • history of respiratory infections as a child

There’s no cure for COPD, but its progression can be slowed with medication.

The best ways to prevent COPD are to stop smoking, if applicable, and avoid secondhand smoke and other lung irritants. If you experience any COPD symptoms, getting treatment as soon as possible improves your outlook.

Respiratory cancers include cancers of the trachea, larynx, bronchus, and lungs.

The main causes are smoking, secondhand smoke, and environmental toxins. However, household pollutions, such as fuels and mold, also contribute.

Impact of respiratory cancers around the world

A 2015 study reports that there are around 18 million new cases of lung cancer annually. In developing countries, researchers project an 81% to 100% increase in respiratory cancers because of pollution and smoking.

Many Asian countries, especially India, still use coal for cooking. Solid fuel emissions account for 17% of lung cancer deaths in males and 22% in females.

Risk factors and prevention

Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers can affect anyone, but they’re most likely to affect those who have a history of smoking or tobacco use.

Other risk factors for these cancers include family history and exposure to environmental factors such as diesel fumes.

Aside from avoiding fumes and tobacco products, it isn’t known if there’s anything else that can be done to prevent lung cancers. However, routine lung scans and early detection can result in more effective treatment and an improved outlook.

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect the production or use of insulin.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. This type of diabetes is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or insulin can’t be used effectively. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a number of factors, including poor diet and physical inactivity.

Impact of diabetes around the world

Over time, uncontrolled diabetes can cause damage to the nerves and blood vessels. This can lead to complications such as impaired wound healing, kidney failure, and blindness.

People in low- and middle-income countries are more likely to die of complications from diabetes because of limited access to medications and technologies needed to manage blood sugar levels.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for diabetes include:

  • having overweight or obesity
  • high blood pressure
  • older age
  • not exercising regularly
  • an unhealthy diet

While diabetes isn’t always preventable, you can control the severity of symptoms by exercising regularly and following a well-rounded, nutritious diet. Adding more fiber to your diet can also help with controlling blood sugar levels.

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory, interferes with decision making, and interrupts normal cognitive functions. These include thinking, reasoning, and other everyday behaviors.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia and accounts for about 60 to 70% of cases.

The disease starts off by causing mild memory problems, difficulty recalling information, and slips in recollection. Over time, however, the disease progresses, and you may not have memory of large periods of time.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include:

There’s not currently a way to prevent Alzheimer’s disease, and researchers aren’t sure why some people develop it and others don’t. As they work to understand this, they’re also working to find preventive techniques.

One thing that may be helpful in lowering your risk of the disease is following a healthy diet. In fact, some research suggests that eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, heart-healthy fats, and legumes could support brain function and prevent cognitive decline.

Diarrhea is when you pass three or more loose stools in a day. If your diarrhea lasts more than a few days, your body loses too much water and salt. This causes dehydration, which can be fatal in severe cases.

Diarrhea is usually caused by an intestinal virus or bacteria transmitted through contaminated water or food. It’s particularly widespread in areas with poor sanitary conditions.

Impact of diarrheal diseases around the world

Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years old. About 525,000 children die from diarrheal diseases each year.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for diarrheal diseases include:

  • living in an area with poor sanitary conditions
  • not having access to clean water
  • age, with children being the most likely to experience severe symptoms of diarrheal diseases
  • malnourishment
  • a weakened immune system

The best method of prevention is practicing good hygiene. Handwashing, improved sanitization and water quality, and access to early medical treatment can also help prevent diarrheal diseases.

TB is a lung condition caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It’s a treatable airborne bacterium, although some strains are resistant to conventional treatments.

TB is one of the top causes of death in people who have HIV. Furthermore, people who have HIV are 18 times more likely to develop active TB.

Impact of TB around the world

The cases of TB have fallen 2% each year between 2015 and 2020.

One of the targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals is to end the TB epidemic by 2030.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for TB include:

  • diabetes
  • HIV infection
  • a lower body weight
  • proximity to others with TB
  • regular use of certain medications such as corticosteroids or drugs that suppress the immune system

The best prevention against TB is to get the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, which is commonly given to infants and children in areas where TB is common.

If you think you’ve been exposed to TB bacteria, a doctor can prescribe preventive medications (chemoprophylaxis) to lower the likelihood of developing an active infection.

Cirrhosis is the result of chronic or long-term scarring and damage to the liver. The damage may be the result of a kidney disease, or it can be caused by conditions such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

A healthy liver filters harmful substances from your blood and sends healthy blood into your body. As substances damage the liver, scar tissue forms. As more scar tissue forms, the liver has to work harder to function properly and may eventually stop working.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for cirrhosis include:

  • chronic alcohol use
  • fat accumulation around the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
  • chronic viral hepatitis

Moderating alcohol intake can help prevent liver damage and cirrhosis.

Likewise, you can prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by enjoying a nutritious diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in sugar and fat.

Lastly, you can lower the likelihood of contracting viral hepatitis by using barrier methods each time you engage in sexual activity and by avoiding sharing anything that could have traces of blood such as needles, razors, or toothbrushes.

How many rare diseases are there?

A rare disease is usually defined as a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States.

According to most scientists and clinicians, there are around 7,000 different rare diseases. However, this estimate can vary from 5,000 to 8,000 rare diseases, depending on the source.

It’s believed that around 1 in 10 people in the United States, or around 30 million people in total, has a rare disease.

Some rare diseases are hereditary and can be passed from parent to child. Some may be visible from birth, while others might show up later in life.

Which disease has no cure?

There’s no known cure for many conditions, including several on the list of the deadliest diseases.

This also includes conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy.

In many cases, certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking cessation and modifying your diet or exercise routine, may lower the risk of developing some of these conditions.

In other cases, a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and other treatment methods might help manage or reduce symptoms of a condition, though it may not necessarily cure it.

What’s the deadliest disease?

Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death around the globe. Other conditions, such as stroke, COPD, lower respiratory infections, and respiratory cancers, also account for a significant portion of deaths each year.

While deaths from certain diseases have increased, those from more serious conditions have also decreased.

Several factors, such as an increasing life span, naturally increase the prevalence of age-related diseases such as CAD, stroke, and heart disease.

However, many of the diseases on this list are preventable and treatable, and as medicine continues to advance and prevention education grows, we may see improved outcomes for many of these diseases.

A good approach to lowering your risk of any of these conditions is to follow a balanced diet, live a healthy lifestyle, and stay active.

Moderating your alcohol intake and quitting smoking, if applicable, can also help.

For bacterial or viral infections, proper handwashing can help prevent or lower your risk.

Source link

Practicing belly breathing can help you hold your breath longer (and bring down your stress, too).

Image Credit:

Is it bad to only be able to hold your breath for 30 seconds? What about 45 seconds or a minute?

Lots of things can affect your ability to hang on to a big gulp of air, and it's normal for different people to be able to hold their breath for different lengths of time.

Here's what's typical, plus what you can do to boost your lung capacity and hold your breath for longer.

What's the Average Time to Hold Breath?

Different people can hold their breath for different amounts of time. "Most people can hold their breath for 30 to 90 seconds without any difficulty," says registered respiratory therapist Mandy De Vries, MS-RCL/Ed, director of education at the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC).

However, that time can vary based on a number of factors.

What's the World Record for Holding Breath?

In March 2021, a Croatian man named Budimir Šobat held his breath for 24 minutes and 37.36 seconds, according to Guinness World Records, surpassing the previous world record by 34 seconds.

Factors That Affect How Long You Can Hold Your Breath

You may not be able to hold your breath for that long if you smoke or have an underlying medical condition. For example, people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma usually can't hold their breath as long.

Infections like COVID-19 can factor in too. Even mild cases can cause temporary shortness of breath, while more severe ones can lead to permanent lung scarring that may reduce your lung capacity, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine.

People who regularly engage in aerobic exercise, especially activities like swimming and running, tend to have greater lung volumes that makes it easier to hold their breath for longer, De Vries explains.

Taller people tend to have greater lung capacities compared to those who are shorter.

Carrying excess abdominal fat, on the other hand, can reduce your lung volume by compressing your chest wall, according to a February 2017 paper in ​Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine​.

Lung volume can even (temporarily) shrink during pregnancy, as a person's expanding uterus can put extra pressure on the lungs.

Finally, don't discount age. Starting at age 35, our lung volume and pulmonary function start to slowly decrease, per the ​Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine​ paper. So younger adults may be able to hold their breath longer than older adults.

The Benefits of Greater Lung Capacity

The lungs are responsible for taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the blood. So when your lung capacity is healthy, you'll experience healthier physical function and feel your best overall.

You may also be less prone to breathing issues. "People with greater lung capacity tend to have lower rates of respiratory problems, such as asthma and bronchitis," says De Vries.

Being able to take in more oxygen can improve your exercise performance, too, especially when it comes to endurance activities like running or swimming. So you'll be able to push yourself longer and harder and need less time to recover, De Vries says.

How to Increase Your Lung Capacity and Hold Your Breath Longer

Anyone can boost their lung capacity. How you go about doing it depends on your current fitness level and overall health.

Whether you're looking to take your workouts to the next level or just make everyday activities like walking or stair-climbing a little easier, here's what to do.

1. Prioritize Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic activities force your heart and lungs to work harder to supply your muscles with more oxygen. When done consistently, your cardiovascular system becomes more efficient at delivering oxygen to your muscles, so you're less likely to feel out of breath, according to the American Lung Association (ALA).

Exercises that involve deep breathing, like running or swimming, are the most effective for increasing lung capacity, De Vries says. "Interval training, which alternates periods of high-intensity activity with periods of rest, has been shown to be particularly beneficial," she adds. (This 20-minute HIIT workout will give you a big aerobic bang for your buck.)

That said, you don't have to go full throttle to reap the benefits of aerobic exercise. Even walking can make a difference, as long as you maintain a pace where you're moderately breathless (you should be able to talk but not sing).


Always make sure to check with your doctor before starting a new exercise program, especially if you're new to physical activity or have a long-term lung condition.

2. Practice Breath-Holding Training

Breath-holding training involves gradually increasing the amount of time you can hold your breath. "It has been shown to be an effective method for increasing lung capacity," De Vries says.

Best of all, it's easy to do — follow these steps:

  1. Sitting up straight, open your mouth and inhale as deeply as possible.
  2. Then close your lips and hold your breath for as long as you can, keeping track of the seconds with a watch or your phone.
  3. Repeat the process, gradually working to hold your breath for a few more seconds each time. (But stop if you feel dizzy or faint.)

3. Try Pursed Lip Breathing

Pursed lip breathing, which reduces the number of breaths you take to keep your airways open longer, is a common exercise used to help people with long-term lung conditions like COPD or emphysema improve lung capacity, per the ALA. (Other healthy habits can help you breathe easier with these conditions, too.)

To try it, inhale through your nose and exhale for twice as long through your mouth while keeping your lips pursed. (If you inhale to the count of two, for instance, you'd exhale to the count of four.) Repeat several times.

4. Take Deep Belly Breaths

Like pursed lip breathing, belly breathing can be used to increase your lung capacity, the ALA says. (It's a good stress-buster, too.) Here's how:

  1. Inhale through your nose while placing your hands on your stomach, so you can feel your belly rising and falling. Keep your neck and shoulders relaxed.
  2. Exhale through your mouth for two to three times as long as you inhaled. (If you inhale to the count of two, for instance, you'd exhale to the count of four to six.)
  3. Repeat several times.

5. See a Respiratory Therapist

If your breathing problems are making it harder to carry out everyday activities, talk with your doctor about seeing a respiratory therapist.

"They can provide treatments that can help improve airflow and lung function," De Vries says. "They can also teach you how to properly use inhaled medications and manage your condition."

That in turn can help you breathe easier and increase your activity level — and improve your overall quality of life.

Source link

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

A cough, also known as tussis, is a voluntary or involuntary act that clears the throat and breathing passage of foreign particles, microbes, irritants, fluids, and mucus; it is a rapid expulsion of air from the lungs.

Coughing can be done deliberately or as part of a reflex. Although coughing can be a sign of a serious illness, more often, it will clear up on its own without the need for medical attention.

In this article, we will cover the possible causes, diagnosis, and treatments for coughs.

There are three phases to a cough:

  1. Inhalation (breathing in).
  2. Increased pressure in the throat and lungs with the vocal cords closed.
  3. An explosive release of air when the vocal cords open, giving a cough its characteristic sound.

If somebody coughs a lot, it can be a sign of a disease. Many coughs are caused by infectious diseases, like the common cold, but there are also non-infectious causes. We look at some potential causes in the next section.

The majority of coughs are caused by viruses and clear up without treatment.

Causes of acute (short-term) cough

In most cases, the infection is in the upper respiratory tract and affects the throat, this is known as a URTI or URI (upper respiratory tract infection). Examples include:

If it is an LRTI (lower respiratory tract infection), the lungs are infected, and/or the airways lower down from the windpipe. Examples include:

An acute cough can also be caused by hay fever.

Causes of chronic (long-term) cough

A chronic cough may be caused by:

  • smoking
  • mucus dripping down the throat from the back of the nose (post nasal drip)
  • GERD (gastro-esophageal reflux disease)
  • asthma
  • some medications (e.g., ACE inhibitors)

Chronic coughs in children are most often caused by asthma, but can also be from conditions like post-nasal drip or GERD.

Less common causes of chronic cough in adults include TB (tuberculosis), fungal infections of the lung, and lung cancer.

If a cough has persisted for 3 weeks without improvement, it is sensible to visit a doctor.

In most cases, there will not be anything serious underlying the cough, but in rare cases, a long-term cough can be a sign of something that needs treating, such as lung cancer or heart failure.

Other reasons to seek medical advice include:

  • The cough is getting worse.
  • There are swelling or lumps present in the neck region.
  • Weight loss.
  • Severe coughing.
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Permanent changes in the sound of the voice.
  • Coughing up blood.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Chest pain.
  • Fevers that are not getting better.

If a doctor decides that a cough is caused by the common cold or flu, the general advice will be to rest, drink plenty of fluids, and let it run its course. In the majority of cases, such coughs clear up after 1–2 weeks.

A cough caused by a viral infection that persists for more than a couple of weeks will probably require medical attention.

The doctor may order some diagnostic tests, such as a chest X-ray; a sample of phlegm may be sent to a laboratory for analysis to determine what is causing the infection.

The patient may be asked to breathe in and out of a tube attached to a machine; this helps the doctor determine whether the airways have an obstruction (this test is called spirometry), which is common in asthma or emphysema.

If asthma is diagnosed, the patient may be prescribed asthma medication.

Sometimes, a doctor might refer the patient to a lung or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist.

The best way to treat a cough caused by a viral infection is to let the immune system deal with it — generally, such coughs clear up on their own.

If a doctor is treating a cough, they will focus on the cause; for example, if it is due to an ACE inhibitor, it may be discontinued.

Codeine, dextromethorphan, and other cough suppressants are often used by people with coughs.

However, there is not much research into cough medicines and how much they can actually reduce symptoms.

Home remedies

According to the National Health Service (NHS), United Kingdom, a homemade remedy with honey and lemon is as good, if not better than most over-the-counter (OTC) products sold in pharmacies.

Treatments are mostly aimed at making the patient feel a little bit better but generally do not decrease the length of the cough.

Honey — it coats the throat, resulting in less irritation and possibly less coughing. Honey is a demulcent (something that soothes).

Cough medications — some may help associated symptoms, such as fever or a stuffy nose. However, there is no compelling evidence that cough medicines are effective in making the cough go away faster. A variety of cough medicine is available for purchase online.

For small children, it is a good idea to talk to a doctor before giving OTC cough medicine. Some ingredients in cough medicines, such as codeine, can be dangerous for small children. There is no evidence that cough medicines help children, and they can actually be dangerous due to the side effects.

Cough suppressants — these suppress the cough reflex and are generally only prescribed for a dry cough. Examples include pholcodine, dextromethorphan, and antihistamines.

Expectorants — these help bring up mucus and other material from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs. An example is guaifenesin (guaiphenesin), which thins the mucus and also lubricates the irritated respiratory tract, helping to drain the airways. Cough expectorants are available to purchase over-the-counter or online.

In summary, coughs can be annoying and uncomfortable but, for the most part, they will clear up on their own. However, if a cough has continued for some time or got worse, it is still important to speak with a doctor.

Source link


Just three years ago, Patrisa Williams, who has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), could not breathe without using her oxygen tank. Now, she’s hiking regularly with her grandchildren.

The dramatic improvement is thanks to a minimally invasive endobronchial valve placement she received at UC Davis Health – one of the first such procedures done in Northern California.

One of 16 million Americans diagnosed with COPD, Williams had difficulty breathing despite optimal medical therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation and even supplemental oxygen. COPD refers to a group of diseases that cause shortness of breath in part because areas within the lungs are diseased and holding trapped air (hyperinflation of the lung).

Williams has the emphysematous form of COPD. Patients with this type of COPD can have severe hyperinflation, leading to impairment of the muscles that drive breathing. This makes it difficult to inhale and fill the lungs with new air. COPD can limit a patient's ability to work or even do simple daily tasks.

“I needed to be attached to my portable oxygen tank 24/7,” recalled Williams. “I could not do anything without it. My blood oxygen levels would drop too low. I felt trapped and desperately wanted to find a way to have some sort of normalcy.”

Before Patrisa's procedure her upper lobes had significantly more emphysema leading to compression of the lower lobes. The endobronchial valves collapsed the right upper lobe allowing more room for her lungs to ventilate.

Two images of Patrisa Williams lungs showing emphysema
Before Patrisa's procedure her upper lobes had significantly more emphysema leading to compression of the lower lobes. The endobronchial valves collapsed the right upper lobe allowing more room for her lungs to ventilate.

Seeking treatment

To find a solution, Williams sought care with UC Davis Health. She met with Michael Schivo, co-director of the Comprehensive COPD Clinic, to optimize her care and to be evaluated for a procedure newly approved by the FDA to treat the emphysematous form of COPD. After a thorough discussion of her case at a UC Davis Interventional Therapeutics Board Committee meeting, she was referred to interventional pulmonologist Ken Yoneda for a final evaluation before her procedure.

Blonde haired woman smiling with mountains in the background
Following her procedure, Patrisa Williams is now able to hike and spend quality time with her grandchildren.

“At that time, we had recently concluded our participation in a large multi-centered clinical trial for endobronchial valve placement. It was the pivotal study that led the FDA to approve a minimally invasive procedure which places tiny valves in the airways allowing the healthier part of the lungs to expand,” Yoneda explained. “We are highly selective of the patients we choose for this procedure, but Patrisa met all our criteria.”

UC Davis Health is one of the few institutions in California performing endobronchial valve placement procedures. Patients who meet the minimum criteria for the procedure:

  • Have a confirmed diagnosis of COPD with emphysema
  • Have hyperinflated lungs
  • Are not eligible for a lung transplant

Williams became the first patient treated with this procedure at UC Davis and one of the first in Northern California.

Endobronchial valve placement procedure

During the procedure, a standard bronchoscope and flexible delivery catheter are used to guide the valves into the target lobe and desired airway. Multiple valves are implanted to ensure complete occlusion of all airways leading to the target lobe of the lung. Valves may be placed at the lobar, segmental or subsegmental levels depending on the airway anatomy.

Once placed, the valve closes when the person inhales, keeping air out of the diseased area of the lung. It opens when the person exhales, allowing air to exit the lung and reducing the shortness of breath that occurs when the damaged part of the lung works hard to try to take in and push out air. By closing the diseased parts of the lungs off from the respiratory process, the endobronchial valve allows the healthier parts of the lungs to do their job better.

“For patients with limited respiratory function, the procedure provides improvements when inhaled medications and rehabilitation don’t,” Yoneda explained. “After treatment, the remaining lobes can now expand more fully and pressure on the diaphragm is relieved, improving their breathing mechanics and overall lung function. However, I can’t stress enough that patient selection and optimal COPD treatment are of paramount importance to the success of this procedure. Our COPD pulmonologists Brooks Kuhn and Michael Schivo are the cornerstone of that process.”

Ken Yoneda

For patients with limited respiratory function, the procedure provides improvements when inhaled medications and rehabilitation don’t.”Ken Yoneda

Improved quality of life

Following her procedure, Williams spent three nights recovering in the hospital. She spent much of her time resting in bed.

“The biggest risk for a patient following the procedure is a pneumothorax, so we monitor them closely and take a daily chest x-ray to make sure they are doing well,” Yoneda said. “We try to limit what they do, to stay in bed, and not cough for the first 24 hours. Then slowly, and over the next three days, we get them moving around.”

When Williams returned home, she restarted pulmonary rehabilitation and exercising. Just five months after the procedure, she began hiking and has not looked back.

Since my procedure, I have not needed to use oxygen at all. I can breathe so much better. For me, it was a miracle. It has given me back the quality of life I was lacking.” Patrisa Williams

“Since my procedure, I have not needed to use oxygen at all,” Williams explained. “I can breathe so much better. For me, it was a miracle. It has given me back the quality of life I was lacking.”

Williams is grateful to everyone at UC Davis Health – from Yoneda, to the lung navigator who coordinated her care, to each nurse, technician and food service team member she encountered.

“Their entire team made it so easy for me. It was like they held my hand through the entire process,” she recalled. “Dr. Yoneda is the most caring doctor. He even called me when I got home to check on me. That personal touch made such a difference in the care I received.”

Source link

Smoking remains the top cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but environmental factors and occupational risks are also important, explains Meilin Young, MD, a pulmonary and critical care specialist with Allegheny Health Network.

Traditionally, COPD was predominant in men, who were more likely to chain smoke or work in jobs that exposed them to pollutants and other caustic agents that cause airway diseases. However, women are also exposed to these risks more, and the prevalence of COPD is rising among this group, but it is often under recognized until later in the disease.

Given the role of environment and occupation, prevention of COPD can be a challenge, Young said in an interview with The American Journal of Managed Care® (AJMC®). It is not realistic to ask someone to move or to change jobs.

AJMC®: COPD prevalence in women is rising and they have worse outcomes—why do you think this is?

Young: A lot of it has to do with smoking and exposure to biomass fuel. So predominantly, it was always men who would be the chain smokers. They're the workers. So, they get exposed to a lot of the pollutants and the other caustic agents that are going to cause a lot of the airway disease—especially with chain smoking. But then over the last few decades, women have started picking up smoking a lot more. We've noticed that it’s nearly equivocal now in terms of women being diagnosed with COPD, just because they're starting to smoke a bit more.

For some reason, we do notice that when women come into the office and get seen, they have a little bit more advanced disease. But I think it's just because it was under recognized for quite a bit of time until we started noticing a trend of women are doing just as much as men are in terms of exposures and developing the disease.

AJMC®: Does COPD present in the same ways in women and in men?

Young: Relatively similar overall. You'll have them coming in with shortness of breath as the main complaint. Women, they noticed that a little bit different. Women, in terms of what their activity levels are, changes compared to men. Men in the workforce, if they're lifting heavy objects, it's a little bit harder for them to do certain tasks at work. Whereas women, if they're doing general tasks, for example, childcare or whatever occupation they're at, they might not be exerting themselves as much until they get to the point where it's so profound that it's impinging on their ability to enjoy normal things, such as lifting their kids, chasing after their grandkids, going to work out at the gym, or anything else like that. Then they start becoming more aware that, “Hey, I can't do what I used to do, there's something different.”

I feel like for women, we try to let things go a little bit longer, until finally it starts becoming unbearable, and then we start to then try to figure out what's going on.

AJMC®: What kind of racial disparities do you see with COPD and emphysema?

Young: It's going to be all dependent upon the locations, but predominantly, we always see the typical the populations that are always underrepresented in most areas. So, African American individuals are always going to be diagnosed a little bit later in life because of access to medical care. We do see a lot of urban populations being diagnosed less because of the overall access. People who live in the suburbs have more access to physicians. Potentially, they have more access to care. Finances also play into it.

A lot of the limitations with what we see in a lot of other disease entities and a lot of other issues is just a lot of our socioeconomic status. And that kind of goes along with then the racial disparities that we see, because predominately African American populations live in the urban areas, and the suburbs are going to be a more Caucasian, more affluent population. We do see the discrepancies because of the socioeconomic background.

AJMC®: What can be done to increase pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD?

Young: A lot of it is access and awareness. Most of the time, if it's a diagnosis of COPD. The recommended guideline is that all patients be engaged in pulmonary rehab. And a lot of it is the diagnosis and recognition. In order to be a candidate for pulmonary rehab for Medicare and CMS, you have to have a qualifying diagnosis. So, you have to have confirmed COPD or emphysema in order to be a candidate for pulmonary rehab. Then you also have to have the provider be aware that, “hey, patients can go to pulmonary rehab” and discuss, “it's different than just going to the gym.” It's a different program. It's a different expectation. overall. And it's different individuals. When patients are aware that this is another resource, and because it is covered by insurance by their diagnosis. it's a very low cost. It's honestly the access and awareness once again of it, too.

For us, we have providers who ordered the pulmonary rehab referral, but then after that, it's all dependent on the patient to try to go to the pulmonary rehab sessions and sometimes the hours don't work with their day-to-day schedule. But if you have a coordinator or some sort of task force in place to help bridge that gap—transportation, finances, or some sort of assistance for it—and just seeing the benefits that pulmonary rehab might provide, the patients are more willing to then participate and actually continue.

AJMC®: Given that you practice in western Pennsylvania, what kind of occupational hazards do you see that play a role in developing COPD, and is there anything that can be done to prevent the disease from developing?

Young: The number one factor that we always see is smoking, but it also depends on what parts of Pittsburgh that you live in. My practice is based down south a little bit in the Jefferson area, so the Clairton mills and coal workers. Any sort of inhalation of particles also puts you at risk for developing COPD and smoking on top of it, it's like a 2-fold increased risk. But we do have a lot of patients from the sheer fact of secondhand smoking, where are they grew up and just that environment, and the air quality plays a big factor into it.

Prevention is hard, because once again, industrialization is a big aspect. The region itself is dependent on a lot of different things like the steel mill, the coal miners, etc. We can’t just tell patients to just quit their jobs or to move somewhere else, because that's just not practical. A lot of it is just making sure that they're wearing the proper respirators. That companies and industries are using the proper equipment to just protect the patients, in general. Also making sure that they aren't doing other things that are going to accelerate the rate of their lung decline. If they are smoking, tell them to stop smoking. If there are certain chemical agents that they know are also caustic to try to avoid it or anything else like that.

But it's just it's a difficult battle, because once again, we can't tell the patients to just quit what they're doing, because that is their livelihood, or quit where they're living, because that's where they're from.

AJMC®: How does emphysema impact the quality of life for the patient?

Young: For emphysema, the best way to describe it, your lungs are literally full of air. A hot air that you're just not participating at all in gas exchange. The air becomes, essentially, trapped. If you imagine, people with COPD or just sensitive lungs, in general, it's hard to get the air in. And then once you finally get the air in or the air out, it's not participating at all with what you need for just day to day function or just for oxygenation and ventilation.

For patients with emphysema, it's a bit harder because not only are they obstructed because they can't get the air out, but the air that they get in, it just compounds and adds on to it, because those lung units are not being used at all. They're wasting lung units essentially. It just keeps contributing more so to the patient's shortness of breath, because they essentially get filled with more air that do nothing for them.

Source link

Respiratory Therapy Services Market 2022: Global Key Players -

Respiratory Therapy Services Market 2022
Respiratory therapy services specializes in the treatment of the respiratory issue, for example, unending lung conditions, for example, asthma, emphysema and intense conditions, for example, bronchitis and pneumonia. These administrations advantage patients with constant lung infection by decreasing indications and reestablishing free capacity.

Respiratory treatment administrations can likewise benefit patients with cystic fibrosis and lung disease, and also the individuals who have encountered cancer because of a heart attack or injury. Services offered by the respiratory therapy centers include pulmonary function testing, mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, IPPB treatments, and chest physio therapy.

Some of the major players in global Respiratory therapy services market are respiratory therapy services, Inc of PA, Reeves County Hospital District, Glendive Medical Center, The Linde Group, Interior Health Authority, Allina Health, RANDOLPH HEALTH, Cleveland Clinic, Genesis Rehab Services, Premier Medical Corporation, West River Health Services and others.

Get Sample Copy of this [email protected] www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/19927

These services help to restore the standard and quality of life, by looking at emotional, psychological, physical and social wellbeing. The work of a respiratory therapist is to ensure clinical judgment, formulate diagnosis, provide consultation, implementation of the treatment procedure and determine the outcome of the treatment with recommendations for self- supervision.

These days many respiratory care administrations can be securely given and properly repaid in the outpatient clinics, with suitable doctor supervision.

Increase in awareness of the importance of respiratory therapy services, rising cases in developed economics related to asthma and COPD coupled with expansion in respiratory therapy service centers will boost the demand of respiratory therapy services over the forecast years. Respiratory therapy services are provided to individual in variety of settings in therapy management and treatment.

Respiratory therapy service providers are more focused on continuing education - in-services on specific respiratory procedures or equipment operation with supportive documentation, patient evaluation and monitoring, equipment management, patient treatment - upon request and others.

The demand of respiratory therapy services is increasing in developing nations due to more awareness related to respiratory related issues or disorders. Increasing demand for contract based and direct services to individuals in hospitals, clinics, community centers and nursing care facilities is expected drive the growth of respiratory therapy services in near future.

Lack of knowledge about respiratory therapy services, less number of respiratory therapy service centers in developing countries and high cost may restrain the market growth in the near future.

Request for Table of [email protected] www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/19927

Market Segmentation
By Condition
• Asthma
• Others

By Services Type
• Oxygen Administration
• Bronchodilator Therapy
• Chest Physiotherapy (CPT), Postural Drainage and Flutter Therapy
• Noninvasive and Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
• Incentive Spirometry
• Others
o Airway Management
o Smoking Cessation (Certified Tobacco Treatment Specialist)
o Patient Education about Asthma, COPD and other Pulmonary Disorders

By Age Group
• Pediatrics
• Adults
• Elderly

By End User
• Hospitals
• Respiratory therapy service Centers
• Community Centers and Clinics
• Others

Based on the age group, global respiratory therapy services market is segmented as pediatric, adult and elderly population. Rise in incidence of respiratory disorders, increased awareness about upcoming and new respiratory therapy services, marketing and promotions by service providers, greater insurance coverage for aging population, higher prevalence of asthma, lung failure, COPD and others among aging population coupled with new services launch is expected to drive the global respiratory therapy services market during the forecast period.

Whereas inadequate access to health care, cost and lack of availability of essential services in remote areas, insufficient number of healthcare professionals for respiratory therapy and lack of standardized tools for treatment is expected to hinder the growth of global respiratory therapy services market.

By Geography, the global respiratory therapy services market is segmented into five broad regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa. North America is estimated to lead the global respiratory therapy services market due to rise in incidence of asthma attacks, heart attacks, COPD and other respiratory disorders, increase in geriatric population etc.

Europe market is also projected to experience high growth in the near future due to establishment of Respiratory therapy education programmes in centers and hospitals. Asia Pacific market is anticipated to grow at a substantial growth rate during the forecast period, owing to factors such as rising standard of living, lifestyle changes, increase in awareness for physical disorders and focusing on healthcare expenditures.

Access Full [email protected] www.persistencemarketresearch.com/checkout/19927

Contact Us:
Address - 305 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York City, NY 10007 United States
U.S. Ph. - +1-646-568-7751
USA-Canada Toll-free - +1 800-961-0353
Sales - [email protected]
Website - www.persistencemarketresearch.com

About us:
Persistence Market Research is here to provide companies a one-stop solution with regards to bettering customer experience. It does engage in gathering appropriate feedback after getting through personalized customer interactions for adding value to customers' experience by acting as the "missing" link between "customer relationships" and "business outcomes'. The best possible returns are assured therein.

This release was published on openPR.

Source link

Gangrene happens when a lack of oxygen-rich blood causes tissue to die in some part of the body, often the hands or feet.

It is a serious condition that can result in amputation of a limb or death. It needs urgent treatment to halt the spread of tissue death as rapidly as possible.

Diabetes is linked to gangrene. Diabetic neuropathy, or nerve death, can mean that a person has an injury and does not notice it.

Diabetes also affects the small arterial vessels and they become insufficient to supply the extremity. Other risk factors are smoking and conditions such as Raynaud’s disease.

The two main forms of gangrene are known as dry and wet gangrene.

Other types, such as Fournier’s gangrene and internal gangrene, are less common.

Dry gangrene

Dry gangrene is sometimes called mummification. It starts more slowly than wet gangrene, and it is most commonly associated with chronic disease, including diabetes.

The skin becomes dry, shriveled, and usually dark in color, ranging from brown to purplish-blue and feels cool or cold to touch.

Blood vessel diseases such as atherosclerosis commonly cause dry gangrene.

Wet gangrene

In wet or moist gangrene, the skin swells and blisters form and may rupture. Pus may appear.

It is generally associated with infection of the dead tissue. Wet gangrene can develop following a severe burn or frostbite.

This type of gangrene can occur in people with diabetes who have an injury but do not notice or attend to it due to diabetic neuropathy.

Wet gangrene needs immediate treatment, as it can spread quickly and be fatal.

Gas gangrene, also called clostridial myonecrosis, is a particularly virulent form of wet gangrene.

It is associated with poorly cleansed wounds. It sometimes results from surgery in which the blood supply has become damaged.

Dry forms result from a progressive loss of blood supply to tissues. Dry forms can become wet forms if they develop a bacterial infection.

Share on Pinterest
Deep or crushing injuries sustained in bacteria-rich conditions, such as a battlefield, can lead to gangrene.

All forms of gangrene happen because of a loss of blood supply to a certain area. This deprives tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing the tissue to die.

Dry forms can also result from:

  • Vascular problems: Most commonly due to the poor health of arteries and veins in the legs and toes. This usually develops over time due to conditions such as diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, and high blood pressure.
  • Severe burns, scalds, and cold: Heat, chemical agents, and extreme cold, including frostbite, can all lead to dry gangrene. Wet gangrene may develop later.
  • Raynaud’s disease: There is impaired circulation to the ends of fingers and toes, especially in cold weather. Raynaud’s is implicated in some cases of gangrene.
  • Diabetes: Imbalanced blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and nerves, reducing the oxygen supply to extremities.

Wet forms can develop from:

  • Injury: Deep, crushing, or penetrating wounds that are sustained in conditions that allow bacterial infection can lead to gangrene. Examples are war zones and railway, machinery, and street accidents, if lacerated and bruised tissues are contaminated.
  • Dry gangrene: If the area is infected with bacteria.
  • Embolism: The sudden blockage of an artery can lead to dry gangrene, but it also increases the risk of infection, and therefore wet gangrene.
  • Immune deficiency: If an immune system is weakened, for example by HIV, diabetes, long-time alcohol or drug abuse, or recent chemotherapy or radiotherapy, minor infections escalate more quickly and can become gangrenous.

Risk factors for gangrene include:

  • smoking
  • obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other causes of vascular disease
  • excessive alcohol intake, which can lead to nerve damage
  • impaired immune function, due for example, to HIV infection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy
  • intravenous drug use

Rarely, gangrene is linked to use of the anticoagulant drug, warfarin.

The major features of wet or dry gangrene are:

  • Loss of color in the affected body part: The area will become discolored and eventually turn dry and dark. The color will change from red to black in dry gangrene, or it will become swollen and foul-smelling in wet gangrene. Gas gangrene will produce particularly foul-smelling, brownish pus.
  • Shiny appearance to the skin and the shedding of skin, with a clear line forming between affected and healthy skin.
  • Pain that is later followed by loss of sensation and an inability to move the part.

The part will be cold to the touch, and there will be a loss of pulse in the arteries.

Internal gangrene

Gangrene of the internal organs is slightly different but also involves tissue death.

There may not be any external signs of internal gangrene, but the following may occur as a result of septic shock and other complications:

  • fever and chills
  • confusion
  • nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • low blood pressure leading to light-headedness and fainting
  • shortness of breath and increased heart rate

Gas gangrene

Gas gangrene can produce all of these symptoms, and others. The infected area of skin can quickly extend, with some changes visible within minutes.

In gas gangrene, the skin may:

  • be very painfully swollen
  • be pale at first, but become red or bronze before finally turning blackish-green
  • show blisters filled with brown-red fluid
  • produce a foul-smelling brown-red or bloody fluid when the affected tissue is drained or leaks, known as a serosanguineous discharge
  • create a crackling sensation, or crepitus, on examination, due to the movement of gas under the skin

This is known as subcutaneous emphysema. The gas is produced by the infectious bacteria and is highly toxic, causing the necrosis to spread quickly.

Gas gangrene is very serious and immediately life threatening.

A doctor will carry out a physical examination and take a medical history, to find out about symptoms and potential exposure to infection or trauma.

They will look for signs of shock.

If gangrene is suspected, further diagnostic tests will be used to determine the type and extent of the necrosis, and to detect or rule out gas gangrene.

Tests can include:

  • an X-ray to reveal gas bubbles in muscle tissue
  • MRI and CT scans to determine the extent of muscle involvement

Tests of blood, tissue, and any discharge may be carried out to identify any bacterial infection.

Surgery may be necessary to explore the extent of the necrosis and to gain tissue samples.

Surgical removal of dead tissue may also be part of the treatment.

Treatment depends on the type, location, and extent of diseased tissue.

Anyone with suspected symptoms of gangrene needs immediate medical attention, to reduce the risk of serious complication and death.

The most severe form, gas gangrene, is fatal without treatment.

Treatment may involve the following emergency measures:

  • intravenous antibiotics
  • surgical removal of dead tissue, including amputation of an extremity or a limb to halt the wider spread

Reconstructive surgery may be possible, including skin grafting and other techniques.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has shown some promise in supporting surgery and antibiotics.

A hyperbaric chamber of high-pressure oxygen improves oxygen supply to the wounds by encouraging the formation of new blood vessels, and by causing greater dissolution of oxygen in the plasma.

Exactly how HBOT works is unclear.

Treatment takes place in a pressure chamber, and it involves inhaling pure oxygen at 2.5 times the normal air pressure for between 30 and 120 minutes.

20 or more sessions may be necessary.

Side effects can include pressure-related trauma to the ears or nose and temporary near-sightedness.

Supervision by a qualified professional can prevent decompression sickness and non-lethal convulsions caused by oxygen toxicity.

Measures to help people who are susceptible to gangrene reduce their risk include:

  • looking daily for cuts, sores, redness, swelling, skin breaks, or discharge on the feet
  • having a medical foot health check once a year
  • avoiding home-use chemical preparations for corns, calluses, and in-growing toenails
  • preventing infection by washing wounds with mild soap and warm water, being sure to clean between the toes, and keeping them clean and dry
  • watching out for signs of frostbite if exposed to prolonged cold
  • avoiding walking outside barefoot, or wearing shoes without socks
  • making sure footwear fits well and does not rub
  • seeking urgent medical attention if the skin becomes pale, hard, cold, and numb, or if any color changes occur
  • checking for injuries if there are complications due to nerve damage in diabetes, especially in the feet
  • controlling body weight to prevent diabetes, arterial disease, and poor wound healing
  • quitting smoking

For those at risk, regular visits to a podiatrist for foot care and treatment can reduce the risk of gangrene developing.

Source link

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a broad term used for defining progressive lung diseases like emphysema, refractory asthma, chronic bronchitis and some other forms of bronchiectasis. The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are so common that sometimes people fail to understand that they are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and consider it as normal cold, cough and symptoms of aging. Symptoms are sometimes not even visible in the early stages of disease and the disease remains undiagnosed for a long time.

The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease include wheezing, tightness in the chest, frequent coughing and increased breathlessness. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease can be treated using different types of drugs and therapies including oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In case of extreme severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease surgery is recommended which includes lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplant and bullectomy.

According to the data of British Lung Foundation approximately 1.2 billion people were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the U.K. alone in 2011. Also according to the COPD Foundation approximately 30million Americans were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2013. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. This data demonstrates the ever increasing demand of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment worldwide and hence also shows the potential that the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market holds.

Request a sample @ www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/sample/rep-gb-4337

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Drivers and Restraints

The most important factors that are expected to drive the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market includes the ever increasing number of cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease globally. Also the change in the lifestyle is responsible for increasing the habits like smoking and increase in the number of genetic disorders which in turn are responsible for raising the number of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients.

Other factors that can boost the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market are rising expenditures on healthcare that is leading to the adoption of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatments in the emerging economies. Increase in the level of awareness has also lead to the early diagnosis of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease so that people can go for the treatment of the disease.

Factors that can limit the growth of the therapeutic enzymes in the forecast period include the fact that not all the patients who are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are aware of the fact that they are suffering from the disease and therefore do not go for the treatment of the disease. Also sometimes people get to know about their disease when the disease can’t be cured by only medication and therapies and surgery becomes mandatory. This factor can also lead to a slow growth in the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Overview

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is a growing market and is expected to see an even higher growth in the forecast period. Factors such as increase in the population suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease worldwide and increasing awareness about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are responsible for fueling the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

Request a [email protected] www.futuremarketinsights.com/toc/rep-gb-4337

Betterment of the healthcare infrastructure in Asia Pacific and Middle East and Africa is also responsible for the revenue growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market in the forecast period.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Region-wise Outlook

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is in its growth phase and hence this market is expected to see very high growth in the emerging economies like Latin America and Asia Pacific due to high population growth in these regions. North America Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is the most developed market in terms of revenue, followed by Europe. Middle East and Africa are also expected to see higher growth due to growing advancement in the healthcare infrastructure.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Key Market Participants

Some of the key participants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market include Pfizer Inc, Adamis Laboratories Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc.

The report covers exhaustive analysis on

  • Market Segments
  • Market Dynamics
  • Historical Actual Market Size, 2012 – 2014
  • Market Size & Forecast 2017 to 2027
  • Supply & Demand Value Chain
  • Market Current Trends/Issues/Challenges
  • Competition & Companies involved
  • Technology
  • Value Chain
  • Aircraft Refurbishing Market Drivers and Restraints

Regional analysis includes

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Europe
  • Asia Pacific
  • Middle East & Africa

Ask an [email protected] www.futuremarketinsights.com/ask-question/rep-gb-4337

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market can be segmented on the basis of components and end user.

On the basis of component

  • Drug Class
  • Bronchodilators
  • Steroids
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors
  • Theophylline
  • Antibiotics
  • Delivery Systems
  • Oral
  • Inhalation

On the basis of end user

  • Hospitals
  • Private clinics
  • Out-patients

About FMI:

Future Market Insights (ESOMAR certified market research organization and a member of Greater New York Chamber of Commerce) provides in-depth insights into governing factors elevating the demand in the market. It discloses opportunities that will favor the market growth in various segments on the basis of Source, Application, Sales Channel and End Use over the next 10-years.


Unit No: 1602-006
Jumeirah Bay 2
Plot No: JLT-PH2-X2A
Jumeirah Lakes Towers
United Arab Emirates
For Sales Enquiries: [email protected]
For Media Enquiries: [email protected]
Website: www.futuremarketinsights.com

Source link

Iredell Health System announced that Jeannie Deal, RRT/RCP, is its new director of respiratory care.

Deal has worked in the respiratory care department at Iredell Memorial Hospital for 18 years. The past eight of those have been as the assistant director of respiratory care.

She received her associate’s degree in respiratory therapy from Catawba Valley Community College and is currently in school to earn her bachelor’s degree in respiratory therapy from UNC-Wilmington.

Deal was always interested in health care, but initially, she was drawn to nursing.

“As a child and young adult, I really wanted to be a nurse. I shadowed a nurse and saw that nurses were mainly on one floor. They’re dedicated to that one area. I didn’t want to be stuck on one floor and wanted to move around the hospital. With respiratory therapy, you’re all over the hospital. We do not have just one area,” said Deal.

People are also reading…

Caring for those with breathing disorders was actually familiar to Deal. Growing up, Deal’s grandmother had emphysema, and her parents now have COPD. Because of her experience with lung conditions in her own family, Deal is able to better empathize, understand, and care for patients with similar issues.

Now, as the director of respiratory care, Deal will oversee the day-to-day operations of the respiratory department, managing staffing, budgets, supplies, equipment, and ensuring respiratory patients receive high-quality care.

“I’m excited to see where we can go as a team. I hope to bring new protocols to the department and use our background to provide more patient education,” said Deal.

In her free time, Deal enjoys spending time with her family, grandchildren, and her English bulldog.

Source link

Breathing exercises may sound strange to you if you've never come across yoga and pranayama. However, they are useful if you're looking to maintain good mental and physical health.

Breathing is the essence of life. It's the act of taking in air rich with oxygen, enriching the cells to perform various activities, and expelling air rich in carbon dioxide, which is a by-product of cells metabolizing glucose to produce energy.

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide can be messed up by bad breathing, which can lead to anxiety, panic attacks, fatigue, and other physical and emotional problems.

There are breathing exercises that can help relieve stress and anxiety through techniques that mimic the calming effects of meditation. Read on to know more.

Deep Yoga Breathing Exercises for Stress and Anxiety

Here's a look at six such workouts:

1) Belly Breathing

Twenty to thirty minutes of belly breathing can help reduce stress and anxiety. Find a place that's comfortable and quiet to sit or lie down. You can sit in a chair, sit cross-legged, or lie on your back with a small pillow under your head and another under your knees.

Here's how you do this exercise:

  • Put one hand on the top of your chest and the other below the ribcage on your belly.
  • Let your belly relax, and don't squeeze or clench your muscles to make it go in.
  • Slowly take in the air through your nose. The air should move into your nose and down, making your stomach rise and fall with your other hand (towards your spine).
  • Slowly breathe out through lips that are slightly closed. Note that the hand on your chest should stay still for the most part.
  • The number of times you do the sequence will depend on your health. Most people start by doing it three times and work up to doing it five to ten minutes one to four times a day.


2) Box Square Breathing

Box breathing, which is also called 'four-square breathing', is easy to learn and do. If you've ever noticed that you breathe in and out to the beat of a song, you've already done this type of paced breathing.

Here's how you do this exercise:

  • Exhale for four counts. Hold the air out of your lungs for four counts.
  • Take a four-count breath in. Hold your breath for the count of four.
  • Exhale, and start the steps all over again.


3) 4-7-8 Breathing

The 4-7-8 breathing exercise, which is also called the 'relaxing breath', calms the nervous system in a natural way. At first, it's best to sit down with your back straight, and do the exercise. Once you know how to do this breathing exercise better, you can do it while lying in bed.

Here's how you do this exercise:

  • Put the tip of your tongue on the ridge of the tissue behind your upper front teeth, and keep it there for the entire exercise.
  • Make a 'whoosh' sound as you let all your breath out through your mouth.
  • Close your mouth, and take four slow, quiet breaths through your nose.
  • Hold your breath till you hear the number 'seven'.
  • Make a whooshing sound with your mouth for eight counts as you let all the air out.


4) Mindful Breathing

Mindfulness meditation is when you pay attention to your breathing and the present moment without letting your mind wander to the past or future.

Choose a calming focus, like 'om', 'peace', or 'breathe in calm, breathe out tension', which you can repeat silently as you inhale or exhale. Give up, and chill out.


When you realize your thoughts have wandered, take a deep breath, and bring them back to the present.

5) Pursed-Lip Breathing

A simple way to make deep breaths slower and more deliberate is to breathe with your lips together. People with lung diseases like emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffer from anxiety can benefit from this breathing (COPD).

Here's how you do this deep yoga breathing exercise:

  • Relax your neck and shoulders, and find a good place to sit.
  • Close your mouthm and take a slow, two-second breath in through your nose.
  • Exhale through your mouth for four seconds while making a kissing face with your lips.
  • When you breathe out, keep your breath slow and steady.
  • Do the exercise four to five times a day to get the right breathing pattern.


6) Resonance Breathing

Resonance breathing, which is also called coherent breathing, can help you calm down and feel less anxious.


Here's how you do this breathing exercise:

  • Close your eyes, and lie down.
  • Close your mouth, and take six slow, deep breaths through your nose. Don't get too much air in your lungs.
  • Allow your breath to leave your body slowly and gently without forcing it for six seconds.
  • Keep going for as long as ten minutes.
  • Spend a few more minutes being still and paying attention to how your body feels.


To make deep breathing work for you, pay attention to your body, and be aware of how anxiety affects your daily life. If you still feel very anxious after practicing deep breathing, you might want to talk to a mental health professional or a doctor to get an evaluation and suggestions for treatment.

What do you think of this story? Tell us in the comments below..

Source link

Bronchiectasis is a lung condition that causes a persistent cough and excess phlegm, or sputum. It is a permanent condition that gets worse over time. It can be fatal.

The bronchi dilate, usually irreversibly, and phlegm builds up. This leads to recurrent lung infections and lung damage.

It can affect people with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis, but these are not the only causes. Various processes and mechanisms can trigger this disorder.

There is no cure, but treatment can reduce infections and mucus build up. Symptoms vary in severity.

Older age increases the risk of, but bronchiectasis can affect all ages. In the United States (U.S.), it affects about 25 people in every 100,000. Over the age of 74 years, this increases to about 272 cases per 100,000 people.

The prevalence appears to be increasing.

Symptoms are thought to start when sputum builds up in the respiratory system, leading to a cycle of problems.

More sputum means more bacteria in the airways, and this leads to inflammation and airway destruction. Then the cycle begins again with more mucus.

There are three main types of bronchiectasis, classified according to the resulting shape of the bronchi, visible on a CT scan of the lungs.

They are:

  • Cylindrical: The most common form, with even, cylinder-shaped bronchi
  • Varicose: The least common form. Bronchi are irregular, and the airways may be wide or constricted, leading to a higher production of sputum.
  • Cystic: Almost as common as cylindrical, but the bronchi form clusters of cysts. This is the most severe form.

The different types have similar symptoms are similar across the different types, but they differ in terms of severity.

They all feature enlargement of the breathing tubes of the lungs, or bronchi.

Other symptoms include:

  • a daily cough that continues for months or years
  • daily production of sputum in large amounts
  • shortness of breath and wheezing when breathing
  • chest pain
  • coughing up blood

A person with bronchiectasis who then gets an infection can experience a flare-up, and this can worsen the lung function.

In time, flares and infections can lead to complications.

Respiratory failure

When too little oxygen transfers from the lungs into the blood, or too little carbon dioxide, a waste gas, is removed from the blood, respiratory failure can occur.

Symptoms include:

  • shortness of breath
  • rapid breathing
  • air hunger, or the constant need for more air
  • sleepiness
  • bluish skin, fingernails, and lips


Atelectasis happens when at least one area of the lung fails to inflate properly, leading to shortness of breath, rapid breathing and heart rate, and bluish lips and skin.

Heart failure

At the most advanced stages of bronchiectasis, lung function worsens, putting a strain on the heart. The heart can no longer pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.

The person may experience:

  • trouble breathing
  • tiredness
  • swelling of the abdomen, neck veins, feet, ankles, and legs

Untreated, it can be fatal.

Bronchiectasis occurs when a part of the bronchial tree widens irreversibly or dilates.

Share on Pinterest
Excess mucus encourages bacteria to thrive, leading to damage in the airways.

A wide range of factors can lead to it, including some congenital and autoinflammatory conditions and infections.

Infections that have been linked to bronchiectasis include:

Immunodeficiency conditions include:

It has also been linked to:

  • allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
  • obstruction by a tumor or a foreign body
  • gastro-esophageal reflux
  • inhaling toxic fumes
  • auto-inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis, or Crohn’s disease
  • cystic fibrosis and some other congenital conditions

Between one third and one half of patients appear to have no identifiable cause.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common cause of bronchiectasis in children. This is called CF bronchiectasis. Non-CF bronchiectasis is when the person has bronchiectasis but not CF.

Between 7 and 25 percent of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) also have bronchiectasis, but how these related to bronchiectasis remains unclear.

How does bronchiectasis affect the lungs?

Air passages in the respiratory system make it possible for oxygen to enter the lungs and for carbon dioxide to leave the body.

In healthy lungs, the bronchial tubes narrow smoothly towards the edges of each lung, but in bronchiectasis, they widen and become collapsible and scarred.

The cilia, the hair-like structures that sweep mucus out of the lungs, no longer function ineffective, so the mucus builds up.

This increased mucus provides a place for bacteria to grow. Ongoing infections increase inflammation, and this leads to worsening lung damage.

Is bronchiectasis the same as COPD?

Bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis are classified as obstructive lung diseases.

COPD refers to a collection of lung conditions that make it difficult to breathe, because the airways become inflamed and narrowed. Two conditions that are classified as COPD are persistent bronchitis and emphysema.

Bronchiectasis and COPD are not the same disorder, but studies suggest that between 25 percent and 50 percent of people with COPD also have bronchiectasis.

A person with an ongoing cough, recurrent lung infections, and sputum in the blood may have bronchiectasis.

Tests may include:

  • a chest x-ray
  • a CT scan of the lungs
  • a lung, or pulmonary, function test (PFT)
  • A bronchoscopy, where the doctor uses a lighted tube to look into the lungs, and possibly take a tissue sample

However, laboratory tests do not generally find any specific microorganism in patients that could cause bronchiectasis.

Scientists note that “the bacterial flora appear to change with progression of disease.”

Early diagnosis and treatment can help stop the disease from progressing and causing severe complications. Treatment for symptoms can improve the patient’s quality of life.

Many of the treatment options developed have been learned from treating patients with cystic fibrosis.

Treatment aims to:

  • deal with underlying conditions or new infections
  • remove mucus from the lungs
  • prevent complications from developing

There are different forms of treatment.

Chest physical therapy (CPT)

Also known as “chest-clapping” or “percussion,” this is normally carried out by a respiratory therapist.

The patient will either sit down with their head downturned or lie face-down. Gravity helps the mucus to shift.

The therapist repeatedly pounds on the chest and back to loosen mucus and enable coughing. This can be done manually, with the hands, or using a device.

Examples of devices include:

  • an electric chest clapper, also known as a mechanical percussor
  • an inflatable therapy vest that uses high-frequency airwaves to shift mucus to the upper airway
  • a mask that causes vibrations to remove mucus from the walls of the airway

Studies indicate that such techniques may slightly improve the lungs’ ability to get rid of sputum, improve lung function, and enhance quality of life, compared with not using these techniques.

Adding in pulmonary rehabilitation may further improve the ability to exercise and quality of life.


Consuming plenty of fluids can help keep mucus thinned out, less sticky and easier to cough up.


Antibiotics are used to treat infections. They may be given intravenously or by mouth, normally for 14 days. Another possibility is inhaled antibiotics, but these may have adverse effects, and more research is needed into their use.

Expectorants and mucus-thinners can help loosen mucus and support coughing.

Inhaled corticosteroids can treat inflammation of the airways that leads to wheezing or asthma.

A bronchodilator relaxes the muscles around the airways. The medicine is breathed in through an inhaler and nebulizer. Used before CPT, these may increase the benefit of the therapy.

Delivering the bronchodilator directly to the airways enables it to work quickly.

Oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy, delivered through a mask or nasal prongs, can raise oxygen levels. This can be done at home or in a hospital. It is used in severe cases.


Surgery may be suitable if:

  • only one part of the airway is affected, so it can be removed
  • there is bleeding in the airway that needs to be stopped

Severe cases may require a lung transplant to replace the diseased lungs with a healthy set of lungs.

This is more common if bronchiectasis results from cystic fibrosis.

Share on Pinterest
If an adult or a child gets a foreign object in the airway, they should seek medical help to avoid long-term complications.

It is important to seek early treatment for any respiratory condition that could lead to bronchiectasis.

Both adults and children should seek medical help at once if they accidentally inhale a foreign object.

Vaccinations can help prevent measles and whooping cough, childhood diseases that can progress to bronchiectasis.

Avoiding toxic fumes, gasses, and cigarette or other smoke can help preserve respiratory health.

Anyone with a chronic medical condition that increases the risk for bronchiectasis should monitor their lung function and be aware of the early symptoms.

Source link

The resurgence of Covid-19 in some countries including Sri Lanka, and the seasonal influenza virus circulating across the world has led to a surge in respiratory infections, prompting the chest physicians to urge those susceptible to developing respiratory infections to take precautions against them without delay.

Here, Consultant Respiratory Physician, District General Hospital and District Chest Clinic Trincomalee, Dr. Upul Pathirana explains what causes many of these infections, how to treat them and most importantly how to avoid them with easy to follow simple hygienic measures.


Q: Pulmonary infections such as pneumonia are now on the rise across the world. Of these infections what are the most serious diseases associated with pulmonary infection that you find in Sri Lanka and what part of the body is affected by them?

A. The infections hit on the respiratory system starting from nose to lungs and pleura. The medical community names these infections based on the anatomical sites and involved organisms. Covid-19 pneumonia is one of our concerns since December 2019 and there is a resurgence of Covid-19 in some countries including Sri Lanka. Seasonal influenza virus is circulating all over the world and it is one of the concerns for us as well.

Q: Can anyone get respiratory infections?

A. There are people who are susceptible to develop respiratory infections even though any of us can catch such infections. Individuals with risk factors are prone to develop severe infections and complications; otherwise it might be an acute simple self-limiting disease in most of the healthy persons.

Q: As Pneumonia is one of the most critical and common of these infections what exactly is pneumonia?

A. There is a spectrum of bugs including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, which can cause respiratory infections. We call it pneumonia when affecting the air sacs (alveoli) within the lungs. Uncomplicated infections such as rhinitis and pharyngitis (affecting the nose and pharynx respectively) are more common than pneumonia.

Q: Are there different types of pneumonia? If so, name the most common in this part of the world?

A. We classify pneumonia based on the site involved within the lungs, causative factor, involved organism, acquired environment and many more. Microorganisms might not be the source of pneumonia in some instances but it might be following recurrent and long-standing exposure to some environmental particles at your home or working environment. Rarely, our own immune system stands against body tissues and gives rise to pneumonia, which needs specific treatment guided by a respiratory physician. Either bacteria or viruses cause by far the commonest pneumonia and it is acquired from the community in most cases.

Q: Is it contagious? How?

A. Even though the human-to-human transmission is well recognised in pneumonia, there is no evidence to say that this is true for all types of pneumonia. Most of the viral pneumonias spread rapidly within the community through air, droplets and/or contact routes. Pulmonary tuberculosis is one form of pneumonia with distinct features and it passes on to others from an infected person who has active disease.

Q: If air-borne what is the distance that the virus travels if one is in the same room when he or she coughs or sneezes?

A. This is a bit complex and technical topic and I will simplify for better absorption. The respiratory infections are transmitted through particles of different sizes. The particles could be either more than or less than 5 μm and they are called respiratory droplets and droplet nuclei respectively.

Droplet transmission occurs when a person is in in close contact (within 1 m) with someone who has respiratory symptoms (e.g., coughing or sneezing) and is therefore at risk of having his/her mucosa (mouth and nose) or conjunctiva (eyes) exposed to potentially infective respiratory droplets.

Airborne transmission is different from droplet transmission as it refers to the presence of microbes within droplet nuclei, which can remain in the air for long periods of time and be transmitted to others over distances greater than 1 m.

Q: What precautions should one take to prevent getting infected?

A. The source control is one of the best strategies to minimie or prevent respiratory infections. Practicing hand hygiene is a simple yet effective way to prevent infections. A person with symptomatic illness has the potential to infect others even though an infected asymptomatic individual also spreads the disease. Therefore, if you have flu-like symptoms or any other respiratory symptoms, wear a facemask to cover your mouth and nose. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also recommend sneezing into a disposable tissue, and then throwing it away and washing your hands clean. However, if you can’t access a tissue in time, sneezing into your elbow is the next best option to sneezing into the air.

Q: Can you give us a simple demonstration of these rules?

A. l Bury your mouth and nose in your inner elbow.

lSneeze, and then wait a few seconds to see if there is another sneeze on the way.

lIf you touch your sleeve, wash your hands before touching anyone or anything.

Q: Are respiratory infections curable?

A. The vast majority of respiratory infections are self-limiting or settle with symptomatic treatment as they are viral in origin. However, for pneumonia regardless of viruses or bacteria, you should seek medical advice early as timely intervention can cure pneumonia in most cases.

Q: Is it fatal especially if it affects the lungs?

A. Yes. Pneumonia is one of the most serious infections that affect humans. One suffering from pneumonia may develop complications like respiratory failure or septic shock (a state of low blood pressure) necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU) treatment. Mortality is high in severe complicated pneumonia all over the world.

Q: How do you prevent it?

A. Respiratory hygienic measures such as good hand hygiene, protective facemask, and avoiding sneezing or coughing in crowded places minimise the spread of infection. BCG vaccine administered to all newborns prevents complications of Tuberculosis in early childhood. Influenza and Pneumococcal vaccines can prevent influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia. There are many more to discuss about preventive measures and it is beyond the scope of this article.

Q: Who are those most at risk of getting it? Why?

A. Any of us can catch respiratory infections although individuals with risk factors are prone to develop more severe infections and complications. Uncontrolled blood sugar is one of the commonest reasons to acquire any type of severe infections including pneumonia. Less ambulatory people, patients with neurological disorders and other organ failures, cancer patients, chronic lung disease, people living with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), malnutrition and those on medications which impair the immune system are at most risk.

Q: What about persons with underlying lung diseases including cystic fibrosis, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema)?

A. The patients with chronic lung diseases are at risk of acute exacerbations of their underlying lung disease due to respiratory infections.

Q: Those who have had a recent viral upper respiratory tract infection including influenza- are they too vulnerable?

A. Yes, although these infections look very simple, they can damage the surface of the wind tubes (airway epithelium) favoring adhesions and establishment of secondary bacterial infections.

Q: What are the symptoms to look out for?

A. Runny nose, sneezing, nasal block, sore throat, painful swallowing, cough and fever are the commonest of upper respiratory tract infections. When the organisms reach the lungs causing pneumonia, the patients develop high swinging fever, productive cough with yellow or rusty sputum, reduced appetite, chest pain during breathing and breathlessness. Extremes of ages such as elderly people can have unusual presentations like confusion as the sole manifestation of pneumonia.

Q: Who should patients with any of these symptoms consult initially?

A. A consultation with your family doctor is enough in most cases. However, if you are sicker, you can straight away seek institutional care from a hospital. Those with risk factors should consult a doctor as early as possible.

Q: How is it detected?

A. The doctors make the initial diagnosis after listening to the patient and carrying out physical examination. Initial blood investigations, sputum testing and chest x-ray in selected cases will confirm the diagnosis.

Q: Who makes the final diagnosis? What is the procedure involved?

A. After assessing the patient, the doctor will direct you for either home based care or institutional care. An experienced physician attends to all the pneumonia patients and decides the level of care such as in-ward or Intensive Care Unit.

Q: What tests are required for the patients to undergo? Why are they necessary?

A. The objectives of testing are to first confirm the pneumonia and then identify the causative organism. These patients might undergo further investigations to catch complications and to monitor the disease course and treatment. The investigations include sputum testing, blood investigations, imaging like X-ray, ultrasound and Computed Tomography. In selected cases, fibro optic bronchoscopic examination and sampling will be helpful.

Q: What are the complications (short term and long term) of Pneumonia?

A. Pneumonia affects your lungs through which the oxygen from the environment is entering your blood. Therefore, the oxygenation can be failed when the pneumonia is severe and it is called respiratory failure. Due to the effect of toxins produced by the involved microorganisms and our own body’s reaction to infection could create a state of low blood pressure called septic shock. There are other complications like lung abscess and pleural effusion (fluid between lung and chest wall). Despite the fact that even severe pneumonia can recover completely without any long-term consequences, some patients can have persistent residual lung damage.

Q: How do you treat pneumonia?

A. The mainstay of treatment is antibiotic and antiviral therapies. They need other supportive care for overall management.

Q: Is the treatment given tailored to the needs of the patient? Or is it a blanket treatment for all?

A. One size fit for all theory has now moved away from the medical practice. All the treatments are individualised in pneumonia patients as directed by an experienced physician.

Q: What is the usual recovery period?

A. There is no black and white answer in the form of number of days for recovery period. The recovery is quick within a few days in some cases and others it is prolonged.

Q: Do you have a message for our readers on avoiding risks of pneumonia? Any Do’s and Don’ts they should follow?

A. Good respiratory hygiene will protect you and those around you. If you are infected with a respiratory infection, act responsibly to prevent transmission of infection to others. Be alert and if there are alarming symptoms such as breathlessness consult a doctor early. Regular treatment under the supervision of your family doctor or relevant specialty doctor for those who have chronic diseases can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with respiratory infections. Diabetes is a common disease in our country and those with uncontrolled blood sugar are at risk of complications including severe respiratory infections. Therefore, you should make sure that you periodically check blood sugar and keep it well controlled.

Source link

Thick smoke caused by the Beetham dump covers the skyline in Port of Spain earlier this year. - AYANNA KINSALE
Thick smoke caused by the Beetham dump covers the skyline in Port of Spain earlier this year. - AYANNA KINSALE


Home to over 44 million people, the Caribbean is among the top travel destinations in the world. With its lush, inviting beaches, vast intricacies of flavourful food, rich, vibrant culture, and citizens, millions of people visit yearly.

Prior to the coronavirus pandemic, an estimated 58.8 million people visited the region in 2019. Despite boasting a paradise appeal, the region faces some of the most severe environmental and socio-economic issues, challenging the very survival of its countries and people.

The greenhouse gases released when burning fossil fuel contributes to air pollution and is one of the biggest drivers of climate change. National Geographic notes, “This creates a cycle where air pollution contributes to climate change and climate change creates higher temperatures in turn higher temperatures intensify some types of air pollution.” These conditions continue to influence the quality of the social and environmental factors that contribute to our health. Thus, citizens in the Caribbean face compounded issues challenging our health and well-being – the food and water we need to live, the security of our shelter, and even the air we breathe.

Four women from different fields relate their experience of living in the Caribbean and coping with the health implications of air pollution. Human activities, such as the burning of landfills and domestic waste, release toxic and harmful gases into the atmosphere which can enter our lungs and bloodstream and increase our risk of heart diseases, respiratory diseases, and lung cancer.

Drivers heading in to Port of Spain are forced to drive through thick smoke caused by the Beetham dump earlier this year. - AYANNA KINSALE

Paulette Palmer is a registered nurse and midwife who lives near a garbage landfill that on occasion ignites. “It just messes up the atmosphere and it’s not only for those that are close to it. The fumes can spread far and wide. And the irritation to your eyes and your respiratory system, especially for those people like me who have sinus problems, it’s not nice.” She recounts “years ago, one of my sisters used to live much closer to the Riverton side. She had to move because it was causing her sinus too, giving her dizzy spells and making her sick simply because of the fumes and her inhalation of it.”

For many, those sentiments are true and all too real. Abigail Jones is the founder of a Caribbean Diaspora Business – Nostalgic Islander living in Jamaica.

She said, “I live in an area where many of my neighbours burn their litter and household garbage so that instantly affects me.” As Jones ponders the gripping effects this has posed on her health, she continues to shed light on an even closer and personal ordeal.

“My grandmother and her neighbours are also affected by burning and smog because they live pretty close to the landfill. Whenever they burn, she gets all the smoke and it’s such a terrible smell. She has developed breathing problems because of this.”

According to a report from the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately seven million people from around the world die every year from pollution-related incidents, accounting for nearly 320,000 premature deaths in the region of the Americas. Consequently, air quality is a predominant problem influenced by the levels and location of outdoor air pollutants, fine particulate matter, and airborne allergens.

When we take action to improve the quality of the air, we make our environment cleaner, our health better, and reduce the impacts of the climate crisis
Courtesy the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, CCCCC -

UNICEF advocate, Priyanka Lalla, 15, said, “I’ve seen bushfires on the mountaintops and even close to my home. There’s a lot of smoke and ash that pollutes your entire equilibrium. You smell the smokiness and the compression of the air and it’s difficult to even breathe outside. I try to stay inside as much as I can during hot days to avoid heat stroke or to avoid breathing problems, especially with Saharan dust right now.”

Even natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions contribute to air pollution when the plumes of ash and gas are emitted, resulting in a haze created by volcanic aerosols. Fine particulate matter resulting from the smoke from bushfires, black carbon or soot, and the ash plumes and sulphuric gases from volcanic eruptions, also contribute to poor air quality, causing severe health effects.

In 2021, the La Soufriere Volcano in St Vincent and the Grenadines erupted, resulting in the ashfall, and sulphur dioxide experienced in the neighbouring countries of Barbados, Saint Lucia, and Grenada.

“It was especially awful ’cause you couldn’t even go outside to that point. It was irritating to my eyes. And just breathing it in, I could feel it in my throat,” recalled Charlotte Tom from Trinidad and Tobago, a student currently in Barbados completing a master’s in environmental management who experienced the subsequent poor air quality from the eruption.

“I like to be outside; I like -fresh air. I like to pull my windows down. When something as simple as being outside is a threat to your health, it is kind of depressing. It takes a toll on you in more than one way.”

Air pollution is disproportionately felt by the most vulnerable and disadvantaged, including women, children, indigenous minorities, poor communities, migrants or displaced persons, the elderly, and those with underlying health conditions. An epidemiologist at the Epidemiology Unit of the Ministry of Health and Wellness in Belize, Antonio Hegar tells us that the long-term health consequences of exposure to poor air quality can cause respiratory diseases such as asthma, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also things that you wouldn’t normally associate with air pollution. “People are more at risk of developing strokes, blood clots, and heart attacks as the level of air pollution from fine particulate matter increases.”

Human activities, such as the burning of landfills and domestic waste, release toxic and harmful gases into the atmosphere which can enter our lungs and bloodstream and increase our risk of heart diseases, respira-
tory diseases, and lung cancer. - Courtesy the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, CCCCC

For many, like these four women, the reality that climate change and air pollution will continue to affect the quality of the air they breathe is sad. “There is not much that you can do because you can’t live in a vacuum,” said Palmer. In her dismay, Jones said, “It’s a bit scary thinking about what can go wrong next if it is that we don’t change anything. It almost feels like it’s still a taboo topic because many people who still don’t know what climate change is or even if they know, they don’t know that it directly affects them.”

Tom exclaimed feelings of exasperation when she questioned, “Who wants to live in a world where you have to limit your exposure to the air that you breathe? We island people are oftentimes neglected when it comes to the global setting. With an issue as serious and urgent as climate change, you would think there should be no alternatives, there should be no debates – it’s an existential crisis.”

“I wonder what it will be like for future generations if I’m feeling it already. That scares me,” said Lalla. “It doesn’t matter where you come from, who you are or what part of the world you live in; you are facing and feeling the effects and especially in Small Island Developing States.”

The good news is that when we take action to improve the quality of the air, we make our environment cleaner, our health better, and reduce the impacts of the climate crisis. Similarly, policies and interventions that reduce climate change and improve environmental conditions have the potential for huge health co-benefits.

Since 2020, much focus has been on actions for climate and health through the promotion of tools to measure the health co-benefits related to mitigation. The AirQ+ tool which quantifies the health burden and impact of air pollution includes a user-friendly mechanism to assess long-term and short-term exposure to ambient air pollution. The tool is being piloted in TT and Cuba and other countries, under the Strengthening Climate Resilient Health Systems in the Caribbean. The project is being funded by the European Union and implemented by PAHO/WHO, along with five sub-regional implementing partners including the CCCCC, UWI, CIMH, CARPHA, and the Caricom Secretariat, and Cariforum plays a key oversight role.

Chalsey Anthony is the communications assistant, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre

Source link

Hyperventilation is a condition when you breathe deeper and more rapid than normal. It is more common in women than men and in people between 15 to 55 years of age. It is also most commonly associated with panic attacks.

We breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. During hyperventilation, we tend to breathe excessively, that is, we over-breathe and this leaves us breathless. This increases the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood, so the carbon dioxide pressure inside the blood decreases causing a condition called respiratory alkalosis where the blood becomes more alkaline. Alkalosis further causes the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain to constrict.


Scientists believe hyperventilation is more of a consequence rather than a cause of certain diseases or conditions. In most cases, hyperventilation is caused by –

  • Stress, anxiety, depression, anger
  • Bleeding
  • Severe pain
  • Drug overdose, for example, aspirin overdose
  • Pregnancy

Risk Factors

There are few clinical conditions that increase your risk of suffering from hyperventilation. These include -

Anxiety or panic disorder: Anxiety and panic disorder which is a severe form of anxiety, is probably the most common cause of hyperventilation. This type of hyperventilation is called acute or sudden hyperventilation. The two almost form a vicious cycle, in the sense, anxiety can lead to hyperventilation, and this rapid breathing can make you panic. Anxiety is also accompanied by faster heart rate, sweating, trembling and dizziness.

Heart failure and heart attack: Heart failure, a chronic condition in which your heart is no longer able to pump out oxygen-rich blood, can cause you to hyperventilate. But this type of hyperventilation is called chronic hyperventilation. You can have heart failure if your high blood pressure is not well controlled or if you have coronary artery disease wherein the blood vessels supplying blood to the heart become narrow.

Lung diseaseLung disease such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary embolism are some of the common lung diseases that cause chronic hyperventilation.

  • Asthma – This disease is caused by inflammation in the airways in which the airways of the lungs swell and narrow. Symptoms include cough, wheezing, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, anxiety, and sweating.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – This is a disease where you have long-term cough with mucus (chronic bronchitis) mostly in combination with emphysema which gradually destroys your lungs. Smoking, second hand smoke and pollution are the leading cause of COPD.
  • Pulmonary embolus – Any embolus is a blockage of artery because of blood clot, tumor cells or fat. When the blockage is in the artery leading to the lungs it is called pulmonary embolus.

PneumoniaPneumonia is an infection of the lung by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. COPD, smoking, brain disorders, immune system problems, or sometimes even a surgery can increase the chances of being infected by pneumonia.

KetoacidosisKetoacidosis is a condition in which your body cannot use sugar as fuel (energy source) because of insufficient or no insulin. During such cases, the body fat break down to supply the required fuel. This results in build-up of waste products called ketones. Ketoacidosis normally occurs in diabetics and is considered to be a life threatening condition.

Here's what you should know about RRate – an app to measure breathing rate within 10 seconds.


The symptoms are usually caused due to reduced blood supply to the brain. These include -

  • Lightheadedness and dizziness
  • Numbness and tingling in the fingertips, arms and around the mouth
  • Chest pain
  • Confusion, palpitation and shortness of breath
  • Shortness of breath
  • Bloating and belching
  • Weakness

However, severe hyperventilation can even cause loss of consciousness.


The treatment options depend on what’s causing your hyperventilation. Let’s take a look at some of them.

Anxiety or panic disorder: 

  • Psychotherapy
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy where you are guided to identify and challenge the negative thinking patterns causing anxiousness and panic.
  • Exposure therapy where you confront your fears in a controlled environment.
  • Medication such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants combined with self help therapies and behavioural therapies.

Heart failure and heart attack:

  • Medicines that treat the symptoms and prevent the heart failure from getting worse, for example, drugs to reduce cholesterol, keep your blood from clotting, reduce arrhythmias, open up clogged blood vessels, and other symptoms. Caution – Ibuprofen and naproxen may worsen heart failure.
  • Devices such as pacemaker and defibrillator.
  • Coronary bypass surgery or angioplasty with or without stenting. Heart valve surgery may also be suggested by surgeons.
  • Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are two treatments in case of end stage heart failure when no other treatment work and you are waiting for a heart transplant.


  • Inhalers with steroids or long acting beta-agonists as maintenance or controller medicines.
  • Quick relief medicines such as short-acting inhaled bronchodilators or oral corticosteroids.
  • Hospital stay in case of severe asthma where you will be given breathing assistance and intravenous medications.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD):

  • Bronchodilators to open the airways.
  • Steroids administered orally, intravenously, or through inhalers.
  • Antibiotics in case of respiratory infections.

Pulmonary embolus: Pulmonary embolus is an emergency situation that needs hospitalization. You will be given clot dissolving medication and then blood thinners to prevent formation of new clots.


  • Fluids
  • Antibiotics
  • Oxygen therapy

Ketoacidosis: The treatment requires hospitalization where the doctor will correct the high blood sugar level and/ or treat the infection causing ketoacidosis.

Read how to beat respiratory disorders with yoga.

Alternative Remedies

If you are over-breathing due to stress, panic, anger or depression, (and this is the most common cause) try the following breathing techniques to control hyperventilation.

  • Try breathing once every 5 seconds or slow enough till gradually your over-breathing stops.
  • Purse your lips as if you are whistling and breathe.
  • Pinch one nostril and breathe through your nose.
  • Place one hand on your belly and the other on your chest. Take a deep breath as if you are filling your belly and let your belly push your hand out. Exhale slowly pushing the air out of your belly with your hands. Repeat these steps 5 to 10 times.

The purpose of these breathing techniques is to get more carbon dioxide circulating in your blood. If hyperventilation continues for 30 minutes, get medical help. Also get medical attention if you are hyperventilating for the first time, or if you have fever, bleeding or pain.

news starts

Cystic lung disease (CLD) is a group of lung disorders in which your lungs develop multiple cysts (thin-walled sacs filled with air or fluid). CLD can make it difficult or painful to breathe. Treatment varies according to what's causing it and how severe it is. Here's a look at cystic lung disease, including symptoms, causes, and treatment.

Maridav / Getty Images

Types of Cystic Lung Disease

Cystic lung disease can mimic other lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties, like emphysema. The hallmark of CLD is the cysts, which are diagnosed more often now due to sophisticated medical technology like computed tomography (CT) scans.

CLD is relatively rare in people under 55 but increases in older individuals. People with cystic lung disease have underlying conditions that lead to CLD, including the following.

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare condition in which cells that resemble muscle tissue cells grow in the lung. It's most common in females in their reproductive years, though healthcare providers have seen it in females after menopause. It also affects the kidneys and lymphatic system.

LAM tends to worsen slowly over time, though it can also progress rapidly.


Symptoms of cystic lung disease caused by LAM include:

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Chest pain during deep breathing
  • Cough that doesn't go away
  • Low blood oxygen
  • Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)
  • Fluid leaking into the chest (pleural effusion)
  • Respiratory failure

It can also cause a type of benign tumor in the kidneys.


There are two forms of LAM, sporadic LAM (S-LAM) and tuberous sclerosis LAM (TSC-LAM). Healthcare providers don't know the cause of sporadic LAM, which is less common than TSC-LAM.

Tuberous sclerosis LAM is a genetic disease associated with benign tumors in several vital organs, including the lungs. The hormone estrogen may also play a role, and LAM sometimes stops progressing in females after menopause who have lower estrogen levels. Males with the genetic mutation almost never develop symptoms.


Cystic lung disease, including LAM, can be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms resemble other lung diseases that cause coughs and breathing difficulties. Healthcare providers use several approaches to diagnose LAM.

A lung function test assesses how well your lungs are working. A CT scan is an imaging study that can show the cysts that characterize LAM. A blood test or lung biopsy (removal of tissue to analyze in the lab) can help confirm a diagnosis.


Healthcare providers may prescribe a medication called Rapamune (sirolimus), which is usually given to help prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. In some females with sporadic LAM, it can reduce symptoms and improve how well the lungs work.

A medication called Afinitor (everolimus) is a form of sirolimus that may help reduce the symptoms of tuberous sclerosis LAM. It is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this purpose, but healthcare providers can use it "off-label."

As LAM progresses, some females will need supplemental oxygen or asthma medications called bronchodilators. In those whose lung function is severely limited, a lung transplant can extend life expectancy.


Many females with LAM progress slowly, but in some, LAM worsens more rapidly. Although LAM can severely reduce lung function and lead to serious complications in the kidneys and bones, life expectancy has increased. Females with LAM can live for 20 or more years after a LAM diagnosis.

Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH)

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare cystic lung disease strongly linked to smoking. It almost always occurs in young adults who are or were smokers.

Langerhans cells are involved in regulating the immune system, but they can interfere with breathing if there are too many of them in the lungs. PLCH may be mild or severe, and it may worsen over time. Stopping smoking may help reduce symptoms, but lung damage from PLCH is permanent.


Symptoms of PLCH include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe, dry cough
  • Chest pain with deep breaths
  • Lung infections
  • Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)
  • Scarred lung tissue

Over time, you may lose weight, have difficulty with daily activities due to shortness of breath, and begin to cough up blood. PLCH is also associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Some experts consider it a form of cancer.


Substances in tobacco smoke increase the number of Langerhans cells in the lungs of some people. These cells may suppress the immune system, allowing cysts to form.


Healthcare providers diagnose PLCH by looking at a CT scan of the lungs. They will also test lung function and perhaps take a small sample of lung tissue (biopsy) to study it in the lab for signs of PLCH.


There are no specific medications for PLCH, but you may be prescribed:

  • Corticosteroids, often prednisone
  • Chemotherapy drugs
  • Methotrexate, which can act as an immunosuppressant

People with more severe cases may receive:

  • Supplemental oxygen
  • Pulmonary rehabilitation, including exercise and lifestyle changes
  • Surgical procedure to repair a collapsed lung
  • Lung transplant


PLCH can vary from very mild to severe, and the course of the disease is unpredictable. Stopping smoking is one of the best actions a person with PLCH can take to improve their prognosis.

Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD)

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is another rare condition that causes cystic lung disease. It usually appears in adults between 30 and 40. It's considered a skin disorder, but more than 80% of people with BHD develop lung cysts.


Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome causes growths on the body's surface and in the lungs. Symptoms include:

  • Benign tumors that develop in hair follicles on the face, neck, and chest, increasing in number and size
  • Air-filled lung cysts that may not cause loss of lung function but may lead to collapsed lungs
  • Benign tumors in the kidneys


Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an inherited disease caused by a mutation in a gene that makes a protein called folliculin, which may help suppress tumors.


Healthcare providers diagnose BHD by examining the skin for BHD tumors. They will ask about a history of collapsed lungs and check for kidney tumors. They may do a biopsy to study a sample of skin tissue. A CT scan can detect lung cysts.

A DNA test can confirm the BHD diagnosis. If someone has BHD, other family members are advised to be screened for the mutation.


Cystic lung disease due to BHD may not require treatment. Though there may be recurrent lung collapses, the lungs sometimes recover on their own. Other instances of lung collapse may require surgery.


BHD increases the risk for kidney cancer, but it is not considered a life-threatening disease, and most people with BHD live an average life span.

Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonia (LIP)

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is also associated with cystic lung disease. The cysts develop in the spaces between the air sacs in the lungs, called "interstitial" spaces, which inflames the lungs. It's often found most often in people in their 50s, but it can occur at any age and develops in children with AIDS.


The symptoms of LIP include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Scarring of lungs


Many people with LIP have other conditions, including autoimmune diseases (in which the immune system mistakenly attacks a person's body), lymphoma (cancer associated with the lymphatic system), and vascular diseases.

It's also found in people with certain viral diseases, including HIV, Epstein-Barr, and a virus that can cause a kind of leukemia (blood cancer) called T-cell leukemia.


Healthcare providers diagnose LIP by assessing symptoms and medical history. A CT scan or other imaging tests and a biopsy can confirm whether or not a person has LIP.


Some people with LIP do not have symptoms and don't require treatment. For those who do, treatment includes:

  • Corticosteroids
  • Chemotherapy if cancer is present
  • Supplemental oxygen

Other treatments will address conditions that accompany LIP, such as lymphoma or AIDS.


The outlook for people with LIP varies, and because it is so rare, there is a lack of data. In some people, it leads to lymphoma. It can also lead to respiratory failure. However, some people may not require treatment, and sometimes it gets better on its own. People usually respond to treatment, but it does tend to recur in many individuals.


Cystic lung disease describes a group of conditions marked by lung cysts. It is usually associated with another disease that leads to cyst formation. The cause and type of cysts can vary, but all may cause breathing difficulties, though not in all people.

Some forms of CLD can become serious and even life-threatening, while others may not cause symptoms in some people. Treatment for CLD depends on the cause and may include steroids and, in more severe cases, supplemental oxygen or a lung transplant for those who are candidates.

CLD may or may not affect the life span of those with it, which sometimes depends on other associated conditions.

A Word From Verywell

A disease that makes you cough and makes it hard to breathe can be scary. Today's treatments for CLD can alleviate or reduce symptoms.

There are things you can do to help you cope with CLD, including not smoking and living a healthy lifestyle. You can avoid activities that stress your lungs, like airplane travel or scuba diving. Your healthcare team can recommendation diet and exercise that are good for the lungs and help you retain lung function.

Source link