Speaking of Health

Person outdoors in the cold wearing hat, hoodie and facemask

Winter weather can impact travel plans when snow falls and temperatures drop to below zero digits. And when you have to be outside in extremely cold temperatures, it's common to experience discomfort or a burning sensation from breathing in those bitter-cold temperatures.

Can freezing temperatures freeze your lungs?

Your body does its best to keep your core temperature about 37 degrees, and your lungs are encased within the thoracic cavity. Unless your whole body is at risk, freezing your lungs should not be a risk.

Your body is well-designed to adapt to cold air. There are many mechanisms that allow for warming and humidification of the air before it hits your lungs, where a gas exchange happens. Cold air is generally drier, and your body works to humidify this. In that process, it can cause irritation to the airways, which results in a process called bronchospasm, where those airways narrow and tighten, and you get that feeling of shortness of breath.

How does breathing in cold weather affect those with chronic lung disease?

The extreme cold air can be dangerous for anyone, but the cold can make things worse for those with chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. With emphysema, for instance, the cold air can cause spasms in the bronchial passage, making breathing more difficult.

People with respiratory disease, whether that's asthma, COPD or other lung diseases, are more prone to aggravated symptoms if facing cold winter conditions. The best thing they can do to protect themselves is to be prepared, whether that's having an extra supply of their inhaler regiment for a few days in case of an emergency or having an emergency generator for their medical equipment, such as ventilators, CPAP machines or oxygen concentrators.

Breathing safely in cold weather

If you have to be outside, follow this breathing advice:

  • Breathe in through your nose and exhale through your mouth.
    Your nose does a better job at humidifying and warming the air than your mouth.
  • Wear a ski mask or scarf to wrap around your nose and mouth.
    These items can trap some of the heat and moisture from your breath.
  • Avoid exercising outside.
    Breathing heavier during exercise in cold weather can increase symptoms of asthma, COPD or chronic lung conditions.

Aryan Shiari, M.D., is a pulmonologist in Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

For the safety of our patients, staff and visitors, Mayo Clinic has strict masking policies in place. Anyone shown without a mask was either recorded prior to COVID-19 or recorded in a non-patient care area where social distancing and other safety protocols were followed.

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What Is Tyvaso?

Tyvaso (treprostinil) is a prescription-only medication used to help improve the symptoms of a medical condition known as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

Pulmonary hypertension means you have high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to your lungs. This is a serious medical condition that is accompanied by bothersome symptoms.

When high blood pressure is in these arteries, the blood vessels are narrowed, meaning less blood and oxygen can get to the lungs. As the disease progresses, it leads to symptoms such as shortness of breath, tiredness, and difficulty breathing upon exertion.

Treprostinil widens the blood vessels, lowering the pressure in the arteries for the lungs and helping to alleviate the symptoms of PAH.

Tyvaso is taken as an inhalation that you breathe into your lungs. You will use an inhalation system to administer the medication, which comes as an inhalation solution (liquid) or a powder.

Drug Facts

Generic Name: Treprostinil

Brand Name(s): Tyvaso, Tyvaso DPI

Drug Availability: Prescription

Administration Route: Inhalation

Therapeutic Classification: Vasodilator

Available Generically: No

Controlled Substance: N/A

Active Ingredient: Treprostinil

Dosage Form(s): Inhalation solution, powder

What Is Tyvaso Used For?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tyvaso to improve symptoms of high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to the lungs. This condition is known as pulmonary arterial hypertension.

How to Take Tyvaso

You should always follow directions given to you by your healthcare provider on how to take your medication.

Tyvaso comes as a solution intended to be inhaled by mouth that requires a device to deliver the medication, known as the Tyvaso Inhalation System. Make sure you get rid of any drug left in the chamber after your last dose, so it is ready for the next day.

It also comes as an inhalant powder used in a dry powder inhaler (DPI) under the brand name Tyvaso DPI. Your healthcare provider will train you on how to use the inhaler.

Unless instructed by your healthcare provider, do not mix other drugs in the nebulizer (inhaler). If this drug accidentally gets in the eyes or on the skin, rinse with water immediately.


Tyvaso is supplied as four individual vials packaged in a foil pouch.

Store Tyvaso according to the following guidelines:

  • Keep it in a cool, dry place at room temperature (68 F to 77 F).
  • Do not store it in the bathroom or your refrigerator, and do not freeze it.
  • Once the foil pouch is opened, use the vials that contain Tyvaso within seven days.
  • Tyvaso is a light-sensitive medication, meaning exposure to light can affect how the drug works and how long the medication is good. Due to this reason, unopened vials should be stored in the original foil pouch.
  • When a vial of Tyvaso is opened and transferred to your medicine cup, the solution should remain in the Tyvaso Inhalation System for no more than 24 hours. Any remaining solution should be discarded by the end of the day.

Tyvaso DPI inhalation powder comes in cartridges contained in blister strips. Store them according to the following guidelines:

  • Sealed blister strips: Store in the refrigerator to keep them until their expiration date. If you store them at room temperature, you must use them within five weeks.
  • Opened blister strips: Don't put an open blister card or strip back into the refrigerator after opening it or storing it at room temperature. Use opened strips within three days.

You can store the Tyvaso DPI inhaler in the refrigerator. However, leave it at room temperature for 10 minutes before using it. You can use the inhaler for up to seven days from its first use. After seven days, discard the inhaler and replace it with a new one.

Keep all your medications out of reach of children and pets.

Tyvaso is only available through a specialty pharmacy. When running low on the medication, it is important to contact your pharmacy before you run out to ensure you don't miss a dose of your medication. 

Off-Label Uses

There are currently no off-label uses for Tyvaso. It is important to make sure you are taking Tyvaso only as it is intended, as instructed by your healthcare provider.

How Long Does Tyvaso Take to Work?

Tyvaso takes about 10 minutes to reach its maximum level in your body. Tyvaso is typically taken four times a day, spaced four hours apart, with each dose increasing how much of the drug is in your body. Contact your healthcare provider if it has been a while since you started treatment and you are not noticing any improvements.

What Are the Side Effects of Tyvaso?

This is not a complete list of side effects, and others may occur. A healthcare provider can advise you on side effects. If you experience other effects, contact your pharmacist or a healthcare provider. You may report side effects to the FDA at www.fda.gov/medwatch or 800-FDA-1088.

Common Side Effects

The following are the most common side effects that have been observed with Tyvaso:

Severe Side Effects

Notify your healthcare provider right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

  • Swelling under the skin (angioedema)
  • Symptomatic hypotension (low blood pressure), with symptoms including lightheadedness or dizziness and syncope
  • Bronchospasm (narrowing of the airways), which can cause difficulty breathing and may be more likely in people with a history of a hyperreactive airway

Long-Term Side Effects

Tyvaso does not have any documented side effects that have occurred after it has been stopped.

Report Side Effects

Tyvaso may cause other side effects. Call your healthcare provider if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your healthcare provider may send a report to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting Program or by phone (800-332-1088).

Dosage: How Much Tyvaso Should I Take?

Drug Content Provided and Reviewed by

IBM Micromedex®

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary hypertension with interstitial lung disease:

    • For inhalation dosage form (powder):

      • Adults—At first, 16 micrograms (mcg) per treatment session at least 4 hours apart, 4 times a day. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed and tolerated. However, the dose is usually not more than 64 mcg per treatment session, 4 times a day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For inhalation dosage form (solution):

      • Adults—At first, 18 micrograms (mcg) or three breaths, per treatment session at least 4 hours apart, 4 times a day. Each treatment session will take 2 to 3 minutes. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed and tolerated. However, the dose is usually not more than 12 breaths per treatment session, 4 times a day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.


The following factors can sometimes affect how medications are taken. Here's how they impact treatment with Tyvaso.


There is currently limited information on Tyvaso and how it may affect the fetus if used during pregnancy. However, pulmonary hypertension is linked to increased risks for the pregnant individual and the fetus. Before starting treatment, let your healthcare provider know if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant.


There is no information on the presence of Tyvaso in breast milk, its effects on the breastfed infant, or its effects on milk production. Talk to your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns.


The safety and efficacy of Tyvaso in children under 18 have not been established.

Advanced Age

The safety and efficacy of Tyvaso observed in older adults (65 and older) were similar to younger adults. Caution should still be exercised due to an increased likelihood of liver or kidney damage in older people and possible interactions with other medications.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Tyvaso, take it as soon as you remember. Therapy should be resumed as soon as possible at the usual dose. Do not take an increased dose to account for the missed dose.

Overdose: What Happens If I Take Too Much Tyvaso?

If you overdose on Tyvaso, you may experience the following:

  • Flushing
  • Headache
  • Low blood pressure
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Immediately seek medical advice if you think you've overdosed on your medication. You may receive general supportive care until the symptoms of the overdose resolve.

What Happens If I Overdose on Tyvaso?

If you think you or someone else may have overdosed on Tyvaso, call a healthcare provider or the Poison Control Center (800-222-1222).

If someone collapses or isn't breathing after taking Tyvaso, call 911 immediately.


Drug Content Provided and Reviewed by

IBM Micromedex®

It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

It is very important that your doctor check your blood pressure regularly while you are taking this medicine. You may also need to monitor your blood pressure at home. If you notice any changes to your recommended blood pressure, call your doctor right away.

This medicine may increase the risk of bleeding. Stay away from rough sports or other situations where you could be bruised, cut, or injured. Brush and floss your teeth gently. Be careful when using sharp objects, including razors and fingernail clippers.

This medicine may make you dizzy, lightheaded, or faint. Do not drive or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how this medicine affects you. Standing up slowly from a sitting or lying position can help.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements. Your doctor may adjust the doses of all the medicines you are taking or monitor you carefully for side effects.

What Are Reasons I Shouldn’t Take Tyvaso?

It is not recommended to take Tyvaso if you have severe liver damage. However, this recommendation is based on the oral administration of treprostinil. There is not enough data on the use of inhaled treprostinil in liver impairment. Therefore, caution should still be exercised.

If you have mild to moderate liver damage, it is difficult to eliminate the medication from your body, so special care must be taken when your dose is increased.

You should also not take this medication if you develop a severe allergic reaction when taking this medication.

What Other Medications Interact With Tyvaso?

Because certain medications can affect the way treprostinil works, it is essential to tell your healthcare provider about any other medicines you take or plan to take, including over-the-counter (OTC) nonprescription products, vitamins, herbs, supplements, and plant-based medicines.

Tyvaso is further broken down in the body by specific proteins made by the liver called CYP2C8 enzymes. Any medication that decreases the production of these proteins can increase the amount of Tyvaso in your body. These include:

  • Lopid (gemfibrozil)
  • Nardil (phenelzine)

Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are unsure whether you are taking a medication that inhibits CYP2C8.

Tyvaso can enhance the effects of blood pressure-lowering medications. Medications that are used to decrease blood pressure include: 

This is not a complete list of medications that may interact with Tyvaso. Talk with your pharmacist or healthcare provider for more detailed information about potential interactions.

What Medications Are Similar?

Tyvaso belongs to a class of medications known as prostacyclin analogues. The following medications are also part of this drug class:

  • Flolan (epoprostenol)
  • Ventavis (iloprost)

The following are other drugs that the FDA has also approved to treat high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs:

This is a list of drugs commonly used to treat pulmonary hypertension. It is NOT a list of drugs recommended to take with Tyvaso. Talk to your pharmacist or healthcare provider if you have any questions.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is Tyvaso used for?

    Tyvaso is used to improve symptoms if you have high blood pressure in the arteries for the lungs, also known as pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  • How does Tyvaso work?

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension, the blood vessels are narrowed, decreasing the oxygen carried to the lungs. This gives you the feeling of shortness of breath.

    Tyvaso widens the blood vessels, lowering the blood pressure in the arteries to the lungs.

  • Should I still exercise if I am taking Tyvaso?

    It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, especially if you have pulmonary hypertension. Tyvaso helps with your ability to exercise, but you should not overwork yourself. Talk to your healthcare provider to determine an appropriate exercise regimen for you and your goals. 

How Can I Stay Healthy While Taking Tyvaso?

To stay healthy while taking Tyvaso, it is important to take this medication every day as directed by your healthcare provider. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is also essential and may include improving your diet or exercising regularly.

With your condition, exercise may be challenging to achieve at first. Still, you should try to remain active. Pulmonary hypertension is a chronic disease that worsens over time. Recent literature has shown that light exercises under expert supervision have helped improve quality of life. While there are benefits associated with physical activity, it is also important not to overdo it. You should only do light exercise if you can tolerate it and with your healthcare provider's approval.

Talk to your healthcare provider to help you develop an exercise regimen specific to you.

Medical Disclaimer

Verywell Health's drug information is meant for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a healthcare provider. Consult your healthcare provider before taking any new medication(s). IBM Watson Micromedex provides some of the drug content, as indicated on the page.

I would like to recognize and thank Cody Ryan Thomas for contributing to this article.

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Jan. 25—RANDOLPH COUNTY — Randolph County Schools has received the first electric school bus purchased for North Carolina schools with money the state received in a fraud settlement with Volkswagen.

Randolph Electric Membership Corp. has provided a DC Fast charger and related electrical infrastructure for the bus, manufactured by Thomas Built Buses, on the campus of Southwestern Randolph Middle School.

Gov. Roy Cooper's office announced in October that more than $30.1 million from the N.C. Volkswagen Settlement Program would be distributed to by the N.C. Department of Environmental Quality to pay for electric and low-emission diesel buses. That money was from the remaining $68 million of the state's share of a national settlement with the automaker over its use of equipment and software in its vehicles to cheat on pollution tests.

The Guilford County and Davidson County school systems each are in line to receive one of the 48 remaining electric buses from that funding.

The new zero-emission and low-emission school buses are replacing some of the dirtiest diesel buses in the state, some of which are more than 30 years old and spew more than 20 times as much nitrogen oxide and particulates as modern diesel buses.

Nitrogen oxide leads to the formation of ground-level ozone, which aggravates asthma and can cause breathing trouble in young children and older adults. Particulate matter from vehicle pollution has been linked to heart and lung conditions.

At a ribbon-cutting ceremony on Tuesday, Superintendent Stephen Gainey welcomed board of education members, representatives of Carolina Thomas and Thomas Built Buses, the secretaries of the N.C. Department of Public Instruction and N.C. Department of Environmental Quality and Randolph EMC's board of directors.

"The partnerships represented here today demonstrate the dedication of those organizations that care about the future of their communities," Gainey said. "Together, we'll make this pilot program a success for the state of North Carolina."

Randolph EMC said in a press release that it will analyze how charging the electric bus affects the electric grid and Randolph County School System's electric bill. The pilot project will serve as a case study for future applications of electric vehicle technology across the state.

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Salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) fixed-dose combination (FDC) treatment with a breath-actuated inhaler device for 12 weeks was associated with improved asthma control and lung function and was well tolerated in patients with asthma, according to study findings published in Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease.

Researchers conducted the EVOLVE study to assess the efficacy, safety, and usability of administering SFC with Synchrobreathe (Cipla), a breath-actuated inhaler device. The 12-week, open-label, prospective, noncomparative study was conducted at 48 outpatient centers in India from December 2018 to May 2019.

Participants were all older than age 12 with a documented diagnosis of asthma. They were also treatment-naive or uncontrolled owing to poor inhaler technique associated with a previous device. Participants received SFC 25/125 µg or 25/250 µg via the Synchrobreathe device as part of their asthma management and were followed up at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment initiation. The primary endpoint was a change from baseline in Asthma Control Questionnaire-6 (ACQ-6) score at week 12.

A total of 490 patients were in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and safety population and 476 in the modified ITT (mITT) group. The overall mean (SD) age of the cohort was 43.2 (16.4) years, and 269 (54.9%) were men. Participants had a mean asthma duration of 3.1 (6.9) years. In the ITT group, 371 patients received SFC 250 (75.7%) and 119 (24.3%) received SFC 125 via Synchrobreathe.

Over the 12-week study, participants’ mean ACQ-6 score significantly decreased — from 2.2 (1.1) at baseline to 0.4 (0.5) at week 12 (mean change, -1.9 (1.1); P <.0001) in the ITT group, with comparable trends observed in the mITT analysis. The minimal clinically important difference of 0.5 per the ACQ-6 was achieved at week 4. In subgroup analyses, statistically significant improvements in ACQ-6 scores were observed in patients who previously used dry powder inhalers, pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), and SFC FDC with any inhaler device.

In the ITT group, the baseline peak expiratory flow rate increased by 35.1 (53.1) mL/min (P <.0001), 60.1 (65.5) mL/min (P <.0001), and 82.5 (75.7) mL/min (P <.0001) at weeks 4, 8, and 12, respectively, with similar findings observed in the mITT group.

SFC delivered via Synchrobreathe offers good efficacy and safety, and could have significant clinical implications for improving asthma control in real-world clinical settings.

A majority of participants (91%) reported that they preferred Synchrobreathe over their previous inhaler device, and 92.4% found it easy to use. A total of 15 adverse events and 2 serious adverse events were reported, with respiratory tract infection (0.6%) being the most frequently reported adverse event.

Study limitations include the open-label design with no comparator arm. Also, owing to the nonavailability of electronic medical records, the researchers were unable to establish a historical control. In addition, more than one-third of participants were treatment-naïve, and those with previous treatment may have been prescribed a higher dose of SFC, which could have affected outcomes.

“SFC delivered via Synchrobreathe offers good efficacy and safety, and could have significant clinical implications for improving asthma control in real-world clinical settings,” stated the investigators. “Overall, SFC Synchrobreathe is a new option for patients with asthma, including those who currently have poor inhaler techniques.”

Disclosure: This study was funded by Cipla Ltd, India. Some of the study authors declared affiliations with biotech, pharmaceutical, and/or device companies. Please see the original reference for a full list of authors’ disclosures.

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What Is Noxivent?

Noxivent is an inhaled medication used to treat infants with respiratory failure caused by pulmonary hypertension—a condition that occurs when blood vessels in the lungs don't open wide enough. This reduces how much oxygen is delivered to the brain and other organs.

Noxivent belongs to a group of drugs called vasodilators. It works by helping to expand blood vessels in the lungs and improves oxygen delivery throughout the body.

Drug Facts

Generic Name: Nitric oxide

Brand Name(s): Noxivent, Inomax, Genosyl

Drug Availability: Prescription

Therapeutic Classification: Vasodilator

Available Generically: No

Controlled Substance: No

Administration Route: Inhalation

Active Ingredient: Nitric oxide

Dosage Form(s): Inhalation gas

What Is Noxivent Used For?

Noxivent is an inhaled medication used to treat respiratory failure in babies with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). This severe condition can cause a baby not to get enough oxygen after birth.

PPHM affects approximately 2 out of every 1,000 live births and is one of the most common critical illnesses affecting babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PPHM occurs when blood vessels in the lungs don't expand wide enough after birth. This reduces blood flow to the lungs and decreases oxygen delivery to the brain and other parts of the body.

Signs of PPHM include:

  • Rapid breathing
  • Retractions (the skin under and in between the ribs pulls in with each breath)
  • Grunting
  • Blue color of the lips, skin, or nails (cyanosis)
  • Low oxygen levels in the blood

Healthcare providers may administer Noxivent, mechanical ventilation (a breathing machine), and other therapies to treat PPHM.

How to Take Noxivent

Noxivent is an inhaled gas administered by healthcare providers in the NICU. A special machine attaches to a ventilator (breathing machine) and pumps the Noxivent gas through the ventilator tubes and into the baby's lungs.

Noxivent is typically administered for up to 14 days or until oxygen levels improve.


Your baby's healthcare provider will administer and store this medication.

Off-Label Uses

Healthcare providers may prescribe medicines for conditions not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is called off-label use. Healthcare providers may prescribe Noxivent off-label to treat:

How Long Does Noxivent Take to Work?

Noxivent starts to improve oxygen levels within 30 minutes. Healthcare providers typically continue Noxivent for up to 14 days.

What Are the Side Effects of Noxivent?

This is not a complete list of side effects, and others may occur. A healthcare provider can advise you on side effects. If you experience other effects, contact your pharmacist or healthcare provider. You may report side effects to the FDA at fda.gov/medwatch or 800-FDA-1088.

Common Side Effects

A common side effect of Noxivent is low blood pressure (hypotension).

Severe Side Effects

Healthcare providers in the NICU will monitor your baby continuously for any reactions to Noxivent.

Severe side effects of Noxivent may include but are not be limited to:

  • Methemoglobinemia  (a condition that makes some red blood cells unable to transport oxygen)
  • Lung tissue damage and airway inflammation

Long-Term Side Effects

Abruptly stopping Noxivent can lead to rebound pulmonary hypertension syndrome, causing oxygen levels and pulmonary hypertension to worsen. Your child's healthcare provider will slowly decrease Noxivent to avoid this reaction.

Report Side Effects

Noxivent may cause other side effects. Call your healthcare provider if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your provider may send a report to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting Program or by phone (800-332-1088).

Dosage: How Much Noxivent Should I Take?

Your baby's healthcare provider will determine and administer (give) the proper dosage of Noxivent to your baby.


The following modifications (changes) should be kept in mind when using Noxivent:

Adults: Noxivent is not normally used to treat adults. However, it can be prescribed off-label by a healthcare provider who has completed a special training program.

Pregnancy: Not enough is known about the safety and effectiveness of Noxivent in pregnant people and their unborn fetuses. Noxivent is not normally used to treat adults.

Breastfeeding: When a nursing person takes a medicine, it can get into the breast milk. This means the nursing baby may be exposed to those medicines. This exposure can have negative effects on the baby. However, not enough is known about the safety of Noxivent in human breast milk and nursing babies.

Talk with your and/or your child's healthcare provider to discuss your questions or concerns.

Adults over 65: Noxivent is not normally used to treat adults. However, it can be prescribed off-label by a healthcare provider who has completed a comprehensive training program.

Children: Noxivent is approved to treat babies born to term and near term (greater than 34 weeks' gestation) with respiratory failure (trouble breathing) caused by pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs). Further studies were done to see if Noxivent could prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (a chronic lung disease) in premature babies.

However, it was found to be ineffective (it didn't work). Insufficient information is available on treating premature babies with conditions other than pulmonary hypertension with Noxivent.

Missed Dose

Healthcare providers in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) will administer (give) Noxivent continuously to your baby.

Overdose: What Happens If I Take Too Much Noxivent?

The symptoms of a suspected Noxivent overdose include:

Your baby's healthcare provider will monitor for any reactions and decrease the dose or discontinue Noxivent if appropriate.

What Happens If I Overdose on Noxivent?

If you think you or someone else may have overdosed on Noxivent, call a healthcare provider or the Poison Control Center (800-222-1222).

If someone collapses or isn't breathing after taking Noxivent, call 911 immediately.


Drug Content Provided and Reviewed by

IBM Micromedex®

It is very important that your baby's doctor check your baby closely while receiving this medicine. This will allow the doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if your baby should continue to receive it. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Your baby's doctor also needs to monitor your baby's breathing, oxygen levels, and other vital signs while receiving this medicine.

Stopping this medicine suddenly may increase your baby's risk to have rebound pulmonary hypertension syndrome. Symptoms include: bluish lips or skin, slow heartbeat, lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting, or decreased cardiac output.

This medicine may cause a rare, but serious blood problem called methemoglobinemia. Your baby's doctor will measure how much methemoglobin is in your baby's blood while receiving this medicine.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

What Are Reasons I Shouldn’t Take Noxivent?

Babies with the following conditions should not receive Noxivent:

What Other Medications Interact With Noxivent?

Use caution when taking Noxivent with the following medications:

What Medications Are Similar?

Noxivent is a vasodilator that works by expanding blood vessels in the lungs. Another medicine that works similarly to treat babies with respiratory failure caused by pulmonary hypertension is Revatio (sildenafil).

Oral or intravenous (IV) Revatio may be considered if there is suboptimal (not the best) or no response to Noxivent or if Noxivent is unavailable.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is Noxivent used for?

    Noxivent is used to improve breathing in newborns with respiratory failure caused by pulmonary hypertension.

  • How does Noxivent work?

    Noxivent is an inhaled gas administered through a ventilator (breathing machine). It expands blood vessels in the lungs and improves oxygen delivery throughout the body.

  • How long does it take for Noxivent to work?

    Noxivent may start to improve oxygen levels within 30 minutes. Healthcare providers may administer Noxivent for up to 14 days.

  • What are the side effects of Noxivent?

How Can I Stay Healthy While Taking Noxivent

If your baby is receiving Noxivent, it means they're in the NICU, which can be a stressful, overwhelming, and exhausting situation for any parent. Consider some of these tips to help you get through this emotional time:

  • Review the NICU's visitations guidelines: Be sure to know how many people can visit at one time, the rules on vaccination status of visitors, and if there are age-based restrictions, such as for young siblings.
  • Participate in rounds: Each day, your baby's healthcare providers will discuss your baby's condition and care plan. Find out when rounds take place—times when the medical team visits patients to review their status and plan of care—and attend if possible. This is a great time to hear about your baby's health and for you to bring up your questions or concerns.
  • Help with your baby's care: With healthcare providers taking care of your baby around the clock, it's easy to feel like your role as a parent has been diminished. Let your baby's healthcare team know you'd like to be involved as much as possible. Depending on your baby's condition, you may be able to change diapers, feed, and bathe them.
  • Consider joining a parent support group: Ask what resources are available at the hospital and in the community. Talking with other parents in a similar situation can help you feel less alone.
  • Don't forget to take care of yourself: It may seem impossible, but getting a good night's sleep and eating a nutritious diet are essential for managing the stress associated with having a child in the NICU. Ask for help when you need it. If you feel guilty—or have other feelings—for taking some time for yourself, consider reaching out to a mental healthcare provider or other options like self-compassion meditation practices.

Medical Disclaimer

Verywell Health's drug information is meant for educational purposes only and is not intended as a replacement for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a healthcare provider. Consult your healthcare provider before taking any new medication(s). IBM Watson Micromedex provides some of the drug content, as indicated on the page.

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. DailyMed. Noxivent 101 - noxivent 101 gas.

  2. Singh Y, Lakshminrusimha S. Pathophysiology and management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newbornClin Perinatol. 2021;48(3):595-618. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2021.05.009

  3. Sherlock LG, Wright CJ, Kinsella JP, Delaney C. Inhaled nitric oxide use in neonates: balancing what is evidence-based and what is physiologically soundNitric Oxide. 2020;95:12-16. doi:10.1016/j.niox.2019.12.001

  4. Chandrasekharan P, Lakshminrusimha S, Abman SH. When to say no to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates?Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021;26(2):101200. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2021.101200

By Christina Varvatsis, PharmD

Christina Varvatsis is a hospital pharmacist and freelance medical writer. She is passionate about helping individuals make informed healthcare choices by understanding the benefits and risks of their treatment options.

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For some people, low blood pressure (hypotension) is the norm. There are a few things that may help raise your blood pressure quickly.

A sudden drop in blood pressure can make you feel light-headed, dizzy, or faint. In some cases, it can signal a health problem or a medical emergency. If it's a common occurrence, you may need to take steps to help prevent these episodes.

This article discusses how to increase blood pressure, when to see a healthcare provider, and when low blood pressure requires emergency care.

juanma hache / Getty Images

12 Ways to Increase Blood Pressure

Low blood pressure doesn't necessarily require treatment. However, there are some home remedies and lifestyle tweaks if your blood pressure is low.

Without Medication

Blood pressure that drops when you stand from a sitting or lying down position is called postural or orthostatic hypotension. What may help at the moment include:

  • Performing a counter-maneuver: Making a fist, crossing your legs, or clenching your buttocks may improve blood flow and raise blood pressure.
  • Having a cup of coffee: Caffeinated coffee can cause a rapid rise in blood pressure. The effect is generally quick and levels off within a few hours.
  • Waiting it out: When you feel light-headed or dizzy, sit down and wait a few minutes. Then, get up slowly, bracing yourself if necessary.

Doing the following can help cut down on low blood pressure episodes:

  • Drinking water before meals: Try drinking 12 to 18 ounces of water about 15 minutes before eating to help prevent a blood pressure drop.
  • Hydrating throughout the day: Dehydration can sometimes lead to a drop in blood pressure. Aim for six to eight glasses of water or low-calorie drinks daily unless your healthcare provider advises limiting fluids.
  • Eating smaller meals: Smaller meals are less likely to cause a drop in blood pressure. You can switch from three meals daily to six or seven smaller ones.
  • Resting after eating: Your blood pressure may hit its lowest point a half hour to an hour after a meal. Sit or lie down during this time to avoid light-headedness. Get up slowly and brace yourself if you feel dizzy.
  • Getting physical: Avoid standing or sitting in one position for too long. Lack of exercise can worsen symptoms of low blood pressure.
  • Wearing compression stockings: Compression stockings may increase blood flow and reduce symptoms.
  • Raising the head of your bed: If you tend to get dizzy when you wake up in the morning, try raising the head of the bed or using a wedge pillow while you sleep.

With Medication 

Most people won't need medication to increase blood pressure. A few lifestyle adjustments and treating any underlying cause are usually sufficient. Some things a healthcare provider may do include:

  • Review current medications: Certain medications, such as opioids (narcotics) and some antidepressants, can lower blood pressure. Ask your provider if you need adjustments or alternatives.
  • Prescribe medicines: Drugs that can help treat low blood pressure include Florinef (fludrocortisone), which makes the kidneys retain water and boosts blood volume. Miododrine works by tightening blood vessels.

Low blood pressure doesn't always cause symptoms. But when blood pressure drops suddenly, it can be somewhat disturbing, leading to:

  • Light-headedness, dizziness, fainting
  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Blurry vision
  • Thirst
  • Weakness, fatigue, lethargy
  • Trouble concentrating

What Foods Increase Blood Pressure?

Rapidly digested carbohydrates can lead to a fall in blood pressure. These include foods made with highly refined flour, such as white bread. Also, white rice, potatoes, and sugary drinks. Try to replace these with slowly digested foods that may help keep your blood pressure up after eating. These include:

  • Whole grains
  • Beans
  • Protein
  • Healthy oils

Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and folate can cause anemia, leading to low blood pressure. Dietary sources of vitamin B12 include:

  • Fish, meat, poultry
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products
  • Fortified breakfast cereals and nutritional yeasts

Foods that contain folate are:

  • Spinach, asparagus, brussels sprouts
  • Liver, meat, poultry
  • Fruits and fruit juices
  • Nuts, beans, peas
  • Seafood
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products
  • Grains

You can also try adding a little more salt to your diet. But dietary salt can affect other health conditions, so you might want to check with your provider to ensure this is safe for you.

What Is a Dangerously Low Blood Pressure?

There's no specific number at which daily blood pressure readings are too low. But unusually low blood pressure can prevent oxygen from getting to vital organs.

This can be due to serious problems such as blood loss or a heart condition. Low blood pressure can lead to shock, a life-threatening emergency.

Signs of Shock

Shock is always a medical emergency. Call 911 immediately if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Cold, sweaty skin
  • Rapid breathing
  • Weak or rapid pulse
  • Skin turning blue
  • Confusion
  • Loss of consciousness

Monitoring Blood Pressure At Home 

An automatic cuff-style bicep monitor is recommended for at-home monitoring. Make sure it has been validated and is the correct cuff size. A few tips to keep in mind include:

  • Take your blood pressure at the same time daily.
  • Avoid smoking, caffeine, and exercise for 30 minutes before taking your blood pressure. Sit calmly for five minutes before starting.
  • Sit with your back straight, feet flat on the floor, and legs uncrossed.
  • Support your arm on a flat surface. The upper arm should be at heart level.
  • Place the bottom of the cuff just above the bend of the elbow. Don't put the cuff over sleeves.

One reading represents your blood pressure at that moment in time. Keep a record of your daily readings to have a better picture of your normal blood pressure. Let your provider know if you have multiple readings that are not within the normal range.

Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

The top (systolic) number measures how much pressure blood exerts against artery walls when the heart beats. The bottome (diastolic) number is how much pressure blood exerts against artery walls between beats. Blood pressure is considered low if it's less than 90/60 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury).

Ranges for adults are:

  • Normal: Less than 120 and less than 80
  • Elevated: 120–129 and less than 80
  • High, stage 1: 130–139 or 80–89
  • High, stage 2: 140 or higher or 90 or higher
  • Hypertensive crisis: higher than 180 and/or higher than 120


A quick drop in blood pressure can cause light-headedness, dizziness, and fainting. You can do a few things to bring your blood pressure back up quickly. And you can take steps to help prevent symptoms.

Low blood pressure doesn't always require medical treatment. However, you may need treatment for any underlying conditions contributing to low blood pressure. In some cases, low blood pressure indicates a serious and even life-threatening problem, such as heart disease or blood loss.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Why does blood pressure suddenly drop?

    Blood pressure can drop for several reasons, such as dehydration, blood loss, medications, heart problems, and other health conditions. You can have a sudden drop in blood pressure just from standing up too quickly or eating a big meal.

  • Does low blood pressure cause fatigue?

    Yes, low blood pressure can make you feel tired or fatigued. Fatigue can also be a symptom of many other conditions, such as anemia, so it's worth getting it checked out.

  • What increases diastolic blood pressure?

    Eat a heart-healthy diet and make sure you're adequately hydrated every day. Consult your healthcare provider or cardiologist (heart specialist) if you're concerned about consistently low diastolic blood pressure.

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Low blood pressure.

  2. Geleijnse JM. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(5):963-970. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S3055

  3. NYU Langone Health. Lifestyle changes for autonomic disorders.

  4. Harvard Health Publishing. Eating can cause low blood pressure.

  5. American Heart Association. Low blood pressure: When blood pressure is too low.

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Postural hypotension: What it is & how to manage it.

  7. Figueroa JJ, Basford JR, Low PA. Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: As easy as A, B, C. CCJM. 2010;77(5):298-306. doi:10.3949/ccjm.77a.09118

  8. National Health Service U.K. Low blood pressure (hypotension).

  9. Saljoughian M. Hypotension: A clinical care reviewUS Pharm. 2014;39(2):2-4.

  10. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin B12.

  11. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Folate.

  12. Mount Sinai. Shock.

  13. American Heart Association. Monitoring your blood pressure at home.

  14. American Heart Association. Understanding blood pressure readings.

By Ann Pietrangelo

Ann Pietrangelo is a freelance writer, health reporter, and author of two books about her personal health experiences.

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A community group in north Norfolk is helping people to improve their health, not through the usual routine of push-ups, pull-ups or crunches - but through singing.

The Singing for Breathing group meets on Monday afternoons at St Joseph's Church Hall on Cromer Road in Sheringham.

It is run by an organisation called Playing for Cake, which was set up by Sheringham woman Tina Blaber.

Eastern Daily Press: People doing breathing exercises at a Singing for Lung Health group in Sheringham.People doing breathing exercises at a Singing for Lung Health group in Sheringham. (Image: Sonya Duncan)

Ms Blaber, 56, said: "We meet and have coffee and tea, then we have an hour of singing.

"They are all breathing exercises, all based around good breathing, from the belly, the diaphragm, exercising the support muscles.

"We get people working their abs," she added.

Ms Blaber worked with the pulmonary rehabilitation team at Kelling Hospital to develop the course.

This was in line with work going on within the local Norfolk and Waveney Integrated Care System (ICS) to help join NHS and community-based services, so people can help themselves stay well and relieve pressures on the NHS.

Eastern Daily Press: Tina Blaber leading a Singing for Breathing group in Sheringham.Tina Blaber leading a Singing for Breathing group in Sheringham. (Image: Sonya Duncan)

Ms Blaber became a musician after a career in local government, community development and research into environmental sciences at the UEA.

Her own music career began during time off work in 2007.

"I started playing music, self-taught, when she was off work for six months. I dusted down an old guitar in the loft and started teaching myself again."

She initially formed Playing for Cake as a band  - the name inspired by their reward for performing in cafes and teahouses - but when her bandmate was diagnosed with early onset dementia, and had to go to a care home, she set up the community group and gave it the same name.

In 2017, she trained with the British Lung Health Foundation, where she learned about singing for health.

"It has taken over my life really. It's been so rewarding. I meet the most amazing people at the Singing for Health group," she said. 

"We have a wonderful team of volunteers who help so much. We couldn't do it all without them."

Eastern Daily Press: People doing breathing exercises at a Singing for Lung Health group in Sheringham.People doing breathing exercises at a Singing for Lung Health group in Sheringham. (Image: Sonya Duncan)

As well as the Monday group, there are also community sessions, called Singing for Health, Wellbeing and Fun, which take place on the first and third Tuesdays of the month at Sacred Heart Hall in North Walsham and every Wednesday at Sheringham Community Centre.

More information about the sessions can be found at playingforcake.uk.

Eastern Daily Press: People at a Singing for Breathing group, run by Playing for Cake, in Sheringham.People at a Singing for Breathing group, run by Playing for Cake, in Sheringham. (Image: Sonya Duncan)

Singing for Breathing

Ms Blaber works with the Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) Team at Kelling Hospital, Active Norfolk and Asthma and Lung UK to bring Singing for Lung Health (SFLH) services to north Norfolk. 

The current Singing for Breathing course, which lasts 10 weeks, is full, but to register interest for the next course you can email Ms Blaber at [email protected]

In the Singing for Breathing group, the songs used are specifically tailored around breathing exercises using established Singing for Lung Health techniques.  

Some gentle movement is also encouraged as part of warm-ups and throughout the session to help increase general health benefits and physical activity. 

Although sessions are designed for participants with lung conditions and breathing difficulties, the course is also ideal for people with anxiety, stress or depression. 

Kelling Hospital also run the North Norfolk Breathe Easy Support Group which meets at Sheringham Community Centre monthly.












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Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market Size Projections :  The allergic asthma therapeutics market is estimated to be valued at US$ 6,704.8 million in 2022 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 2.9% during the forecast period (2023-2030).

The market study on Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market examines the topic in respect to a number of industry elements, including market size, status, trends, and prediction. Additionally, the report offers a brief synopsis of rival companies as well as particular growth opportunities with significant market drivers. The research includes a thorough evaluation of the Allergic Asthma Therapeutics market, split by companies, regions, types, and applications.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung illness brought on by inflammation and airway constriction brought on by hereditary and environmental factors. One of the most prevalent types of asthma is allergic asthma. Allergic asthma symptoms include chest tightness, fast breathing or shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Allergic asthma is brought on by inhaling allergens such as mould, pollen, pet dander, and dust mite allergen.

Edition : 2023

Scope of Allergic Asthma Therapeutics For 2023:

Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market research assesses the rate of growth and market value based on market dynamics and growth generating variables. Complete understanding is based on the most recent industry news, prospects, and trends. The research includes a thorough market analysis and vendor landscape, as well as a SWOT analysis of the top vendors.

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** Note – This report sample includes:

  • Scope For 2023
  • Brief Introduction to the research report.
  • Table of Contents (Scope covered as a part of the study)
  • Top players in the market
  • Research framework (structure of the report)
  • Research methodology adopted by Coherent Market Insights

Major companies in Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market are: Aslan Pharmaceuticals Pte. Ltd., Baxalta Incorporated, Axikin Pharmaceuticals, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, CSL Limited, Circassia Pharmaceuticals Plc, Fountain Biopharma Inc., Hydra Biosciences, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Mabtech Limited, Kineta, Marinomed Biotechnologie Gmb, NeoPharm Co., Mycenax Biotech Inc., Panacea Biotec Limited, and Oxagen Limited.

→ Additionally, this report discusses the major factors influencing market growth as well as the possibilities, risks, and challenges that the industry as a whole and key competitors in particular face. It also looks at important new trends and how they might affect both present and future growth.

→ The in-depth review of the global Allergic Asthma Therapeutics market’s new developments, controversial trends, market pilots already in place, challenges, norms, and technical domain.

This report also splits the market by region:

Americas, United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, APAC, China, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, India, Australia, Europe, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Russia, Spain, Middle East and Africa, Egypt, South Africa, Israel, Turkey, GCC Countries

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Global Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market 2022 Key Insights:

– Examine the current state of the Allergic Asthma Therapeutics market and its future prospects in relation to production, Allergic Asthma Therapeutics pricing structure, consumption, and previous experience.

– The research identifies the many segments and sub-segments that make up the structure of the Allergic Asthma Therapeutics market.

– Market historical information from 2016 to 2022 and forecast through 2028. Market breakdown information by company, products, end-users, and key countries.

– Analysis of the Allergic Asthma Therapeutics market’s growth patterns, prospects for the future, and contribution to the entire keyword market.

– Report on the Global Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market 2022 examines competitive developments such as contracts, the introduction of new products, and Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market acquisition.

– To characterise sales volume, Allergic Asthma Therapeutics revenue, growth potential, drivers, SWOT analysis, and Allergic Asthma Therapeutics development plans in the upcoming years, the research report targets the major international Allergic Asthma Therapeutics players.

Highlights of the Global Allergic Asthma Therapeutics report:

‣ A complete backdrop analysis, which includes an assessment of the Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market

‣ An objective assessment of the trajectory of the market

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‣ Reporting and evaluation of recent industry developments

‣ Important changes in market dynamics

‣ Emerging niche segments and regional markets

‣ Historical, current, and projected size of the market from the standpoint of both value and volume

‣ Market shares and strategies of key players

‣ Recommendations to companies for strengthening their foothold in the market

The research was compiled based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of data gathered from numerous sources on the parent market. Furthermore, the economic conditions and other economic indicators and determinants have been studied in order to analyse their respective impact on the Allergic Asthma Therapeutics Market, as well as the current impact, in order to generate strategic and informed forecasts regarding the market scenarios. This is mostly due to the developing world’s unmet potential in terms of product pricing and income creation.

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In this study, we analyzed the relationship between Gal-3 and innate immunity cytokine profile (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12), functional phenotype of lymphocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells, clinical, biochemical, and radiographic outcomes with disease severity. Patients with COVID-19 were classified into the mild, moderate, severe and critical group. We found correlation between gender and age with disease severity. Most patients in critical group were male (71.4%) and older (over 68 years), meaning older male patients are more prone to develop the most severe stage of COVID-19 with worse clinical symptoms. Our results are in line with the studies of Statsenko et al., Liu et al. and Meng et al. where authors suggested that age and gender corelates with disease severity confirming that increased risk of developing the most severe form of COVID-19 is often in elderly and male patients12,13,14. Frequency of fever, fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, auscultatory attenuated breathing sound, crackles, whistling was significantly higher in moderate, severe and critical groups compared with the mild one (Table 1).

As disease progresses, we noted increased values of white blood cell count, neutrophil count, values of urea, glycemia, creatinine, BILD, BILT, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, D-dimer, CRP, PCT, Ferritin, as well as decreased values of lymphocyte and monocyte count, albumin, Sa02 and p02. The same findings were reported in studies of Rathores et al. and Bairwa15,16.

COVID-19 can affect lungs, heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and brain by specific host defense responses associated with inflammatory activity and coagulopathy2,17,18 . In patients with severe and critical features occurs uncontrolled immune-inflammatory response with rapid production of cytokines of IL-1 family, TNFα, IL-6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and several chemokines19. Significantly higher sera levels of PCT were noted in severe and critical group and might be marker of cytokine storm or multiple infections20. As the clinical picture of the patients deteriorated, the damage to the lung tissue was bigger. These results suggest a correlation between CXR findings and disease severity and indicate significant difference between CXR findings in defined groups.

We measured serum values of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 and anti-inflammatory IL-10. During COVID-19 progression, abnormal levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and others can be detected in patient’s blood21,22. IL-10 is anti-inflammatory cytokine important for immune response suppression and tissue damage restriction. Several studies confirmed dramatically increment of IL-10 in COVID-19 patients23,24. Possible explanation is that parallel with rising of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-10 increases in order to limit inflammation25. Our results showed significantly higher level of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-10 in patients with stage IV of COVID-19 in comparison to milder forms of the disease (Fig. 1). These results are in line with previous studies confirming growing level of inflammation as COVID-19 progresses. The almost unchanged ratio between IL-10 and proinflammatory cytokines during COVID-19 progression (Fig. 1) points on similar dynamics of all cytokine’s growth.

Flow cytometry analyses revealed higher percentages of TNF-α+T cells, IL1-β producing dendritic cells and IL1-β+ and TNF-α producing monocytes in the peripheral blood of patients in the stage IV. (Fig. 2). Previous study confirmed that cytokine release syndrome is in positive correlation with the degree of COVID-19 severity, which is depicted by higher production of proinflammatory cytokines26. It has been shown that TNF-α can directly propagate production of other proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β27. In line with these confirmations is our result showing predomination of TNF-α producing T cells, IL1-β producing dendritic cells and IL1-β+ and TNF-α producing monocytes in the most severe stage of the disease (Fig. 2). Higher numbers of TNF-α/IL1-β producing T cells/dendritic cells/ monocytes represent most likely source of increased systemic TNF-α and IL1-β. CCR5 is a protein expressed constitutively on many immune and non-immune cells involved in different immune processes. Our analyses showed significantly higher expression of CCR5 on T cells in stage IV compared to milder forms of COVID-19 (Fig. 2). During COVID-19, infected airway epithelial cells increase production of CCL5 that functions as chemotactic molecule by binding to CCR528. So, higher expression of CCR5 on T cells can enable linking of CCL5 to CCR5 stimulating migration of T lymphocytes in patient’s lungs and promoting inflammation and more severe form of disease. This result explains reduced lymphocyte count in patients with more severe COVID-19 (Table 2).

As different studies confirmed that Gal-3 can act as stimulative or inhibiting molecule, the next goal of our study was analysis of Gal-3 in COVID-19 patients29,30. Significantly higher level of Gal-3 was detected in sera of patients in stage IV in comparison to patients in other stages of disease (Fig. 1). This result is in line with studies of Kazancioglu et al. and Cervantes-Alvarez et al. showing higher levels of Gal-3 in the patients with severe COVID-1910,31. We further investigate Gal-3 expression in T cells from peripheral blood. Flow cytometry analyses showed that patients in stage IV of COVID-19 had significantly higher percentage of Gal-3+ T cells compared to patients with milder disease (Fig. 2). Increased production of Gal-3 in T cells may be the source of elevated systemic Gal-3 in patients with severe form of COVID-19. Previous study showed that Gal-3 placed in the serum or on the cell membrane can increase inflammation via stimulation of migration and infiltration of neutrophils and other proinflammatory cells and massive production of different proinflammatory cytokines to the infected site32,33. It is possible that after migration to lung via CCR5-CCL5 interaction, T cells by expressing Gal-3 amplify airway inflammation via attracting immune cells and stimulating production of proinflammatory cytokines. After being released from the cell, Gal-3 can link to receptors on innate immune cells and act as alarmin by stimulating production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1234. These potential actions of Gal-3 are substantiated by increased systemic values of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 (Fig. 1) as well as strong positive correlation that is measured between Gal-3 and IL-1β and moderate positive correlation between Gal-3 and TNF-α and IL-12 (Table 3). As part of innate immunity, inflammasomes are receptors and sensors that can activate caspase-1 and facilitate inflammation in response to microorganisms35. Recent study showed that during COVID-19, as a response to the presence of Corona virus, human macrophages induce inflammasomes activity, that is followed by secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 and the extension of inflammation in lungs36. Moreover, some studies explained that in different diseases Gal3 can stimulate the function of inflammasome thus inducing proinflammatory process37. According to these data, it is possible that besides direct effect of Corona virus on the function of inflammasome, indirectly gal-3 can also potenatiate inflammation via inflammasome activity. Interestingly, elevated systemic values of Gal-3 were detected in patients in stage IV of COVID-19. This group is dominated by older male patients. As it is already known that Gal-3 levels in sera increase with age and have been associated with different diseases very frequent in the elderly population such as cardiovascular disease38, it appears that elevated Gal-3 may be due to aging itself.

Gal-3 significantly correlated with several biomarkers and clinical parameters (Table 4). Moderate positive correlation detected between Gal-3 and D dimer, CXR findings and urea. Moderate negative correlation noted between Gal-3 and p02, Sa02, lymphocyte and monocyte percentage (Table 4). All these biomarkers and parameters important for monitoring of COVID-19 patients correlate with Gal-3 and point on potentially important pathophysiological role of Gal-3 in COVID-19.

Our results revealed that Gal-3 could predict critical stage of COVID-19. According to our findings, systemic Gal-3 could be a valuable marker for COVID-19 severity.

We found higher systemic values of Gal-3, IL-10 and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with critically COVID-19. The increment of systemic Gal-3 is followed by increased expression of Gal-3 and chemokine CCR5 in T cells, increased production of TNF-α and IL1-β from PBMCs. Systemic values of Gal-3 strongly correlate with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical parameters of disease severity.

Taking all these in account we believe that Gal-3 may facilitate acquired proinflammatory immune response, and with intense innate pro-inflammatory immune response leads to severe inflammation in the lungs and poor outcome, which makes it a promising therapeutic target.

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Underlying these phenomena is an inflammation of the airways, accompanied by a narrowing of the muscles of the bronchi and an increase in bronchial secretion, all of which impede the flow of air.

These processes are almost always triggered by exposure to triggering factors that, while in non-asthmatic subjects they are harmless, in asthmatic subjects they can cause various problems, such as pollen, food, a simple laugh, a deep breath or a short run.

Doctors distinguish between two types of asthma: intrinsic (or non-allergic) and extrinsic (or allergic) asthma

The former is not sustained by an allergic process, while the latter is.

Generally, non-allergic asthma appears in adulthood, while allergic asthma can begin at any time in life, although it often appears as early as childhood.

Since sensitisation to allergy-inducing substances (called allergens) increases as the child’s exposure increases, the peak incidence of allergic asthma usually occurs at school age.

How to know if you have asthma

Symptoms of asthma vary from person to person: some people have attacks infrequently, some have manifestations only at certain times, for example when in a dusty environment or in the middle of a lawn or when exercising, and some have discomfort constantly.

In any case, the signs and symptoms of an attack may include:

  • Shortness of breath;
  • Sense of chest tightness
  • chest pain
  • coughing or wheezing attacks
  • wheezing during exhalation
  • sleep disturbances caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing

These attacks can be greatly aggravated by the presence of viruses, such as those that cause the common cold or flu, which is a common sign of asthma especially in children.

Signs that asthma is probably worsening are an increase in breathing difficulty and the appearance of the symptoms described, manifesting poor control of the disease, which is measured at home with a device that checks the functioning of the lungs (peak flow meter), and the need to use a fast-acting inhaler more often.

For these reasons, people prone to asthma attacks should always carry a spray with bronchodilator substances, which are capable of rapidly reducing bronchial spasm (so-called ‘life-saving’).

When asthma attacks occur

For some people, the signs and symptoms of asthma occur in certain situations:

  • when they do sport. In this case, we speak of exercise-induced asthma, which can worsen when the air is cold and dry;
  • when carrying out one’s profession. We speak, in fact, of occupational asthma, a condition that is triggered by irritants breathed in at work, such as chemical fumes, gases or dust;
  • in the case of exposure to allergenic substances. In this case we speak of allergic asthma, a type caused by airborne substances such as pollen, mould spores, dust mites or pet dander;
  • during the night. This situation is referred to as nocturnal asthma;
  • when taking acetylsalicylic acid drugs, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs in general, anaesthetics. In this case, other symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, sinus pressure and coughing are also present, and we speak of drug-induced asthma.

The different types of asthma

Based on symptoms, doctors classify asthma into:

-intermittent mild, in which symptoms are mild and appear less than twice a week. Nocturnal symptoms appear less than twice a month;

-persistent mild, with symptoms present three to six times a week and nocturnal symptoms present three to four times a month. Asthmatic attacks may affect normal activities;

-moderate persistent, with daily manifestations and nocturnal attacks five or more times a month. Symptoms may affect the person’s activities;

-severe persistent, with symptoms persisting both during the day and at night, such that the person is forced to limit their activities.

Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening, which is why they must be addressed promptly.

Signs of an emergency include: rapid worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing; no improvement even after using a quick-relief inhaler; shortness of breath at rest.


Asthma, the risk factors

Certain risk factors are thought to increase the chances of developing asthma, including:

  • having a relative with asthma, such as a parent or sibling;
  • suffering from another allergic condition, such as atopic dermatitis (which is characterised by the presence of symptoms such as red, itchy skin) or hay fever (which causes runny nose, congestion and itchy eyes)
  • being overweight;
  • smoking;
  • being exposed to second-hand smoke, exhaust fumes or other types of pollution;
  • being exposed to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in agriculture and by hairdressers.

Asthma, when to go to the doctor

People who have a frequent cough and/or wheeze lasting more than a few days or other signs or symptoms that can be attributed to asthma should consult their doctor as soon as possible, who may then decide to refer them to a pulmonary specialist.

It is important not to underestimate the situation and not to wait too long: if treatment of the disease is started early, the risk of long-term lung damage and worsening of the disease over time is significantly reduced.

Good long-term control of the disease helps you feel better day after day and can prevent a life-threatening asthma attack.

To monitor asthma after diagnosis, it is important to work with your doctor, also because the disease often changes over time and changes to the prescribed treatment may be necessary.

Do not take more medication than prescribed without first consulting your doctor, as overuse of asthma medication can cause side effects and worsen the situation.

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Bronchoscopy: Ambu Set New Standards For Single-Use Endoscope

What Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): How We Protect Our Children

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), 5 Tips For Parents

Infants’ Syncytial Virus, Italian Paediatricians: ‘Gone With Covid, But It Will Come Back’

Italy / Paediatrics: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) A Leading Cause Of Hospitalisation In The First Year Of Life

Respiratory Syncytial Virus: A Potential Role For Ibuprofen In Older Adults’ Immunity To RSV

Neonatal Respiratory Distress: Factors To Take Into Account

Stress And Distress During Pregnancy: How To Protect Both Mother And Child

Respiratory Distress: What Are The Signs Of Respiratory Distress In Newborns?

Emergency Paediatrics / Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (NRDS): Causes, Risk Factors, Pathophysiology

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Therapy, Mechanical Ventilation, Monitoring

Bronchiolitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Chest Pain In Children: How To Assess It, What Causes It

Bronchoscopy: Ambu Set New Standards For Single-Use Endoscope

Bronchiolitis In Paediatric Age: The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (VRS)

Pulmonary Emphysema: What It Is And How To Treat It. The Role Of Smoking And The Importance Of Quitting

Pulmonary Emphysema: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Tests, Treatment

Bronchiolitis In Infants: Symptoms

Bronchial Asthma: Symptoms And Treatment


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JOSEPH Carter, the Head of Asthma and Lung UK Scotland, has called for the greater enforcement of the ban on pyrotechnics at sporting events following a spate of alarming incidents this season.

Kick-off in the Edinburgh derby match at Easter Road last Sunday was delayed because smoke bombs had been thrown onto the pitch by both Hibernian and Hearts supporters.

More smoke bombs were then set off by fans of the Tynecastle club after Josh Ginnelly had opened the scoring in the first-half of the Scottish Cup fourth round game.

Exposure to smoke can cause breathing difficulties in people who suffer from medical conditions like asthma, bronchitis and emphysema and Carter is concerned about the worrying trend.

It has been illegal to take a pyrotechnic device into a stadium since the Sporting Events (Control of Alcohol) Act was passed at Westminster in 1985.

READ MOREDisabled Kilmarnock fan, 77, calls for an end to pyro lunacy

Carter wants to see clubs and the football authorities do far more to prevent their use before “something serious” happens at a match in this country. 

“Smoke from flares and smoke canisters can stay in the air for quite a long time, creating areas of air pollution that can trigger asthma attacks or symptoms such as coughing, wheezing and breathlessness,” he said. 

 “With two in five people with asthma surveyed in Scotland saying that poor air quality, including smoke, can trigger their condition, we would like to see better enforcement of the ban of these items at sporting events.

“It is fortunate that no serious incidents have occurred for people with lung condition, such as asthma, so far. The increased use of flares and smoke canisters at games only increases the risk of something serious happening in the future.”


David Hamilton of the Scottish Police Federation this week called on Scotland's clubs to do more to stop supporters using pyrotechnics inside football stadiums and warned they may have their stadium safety certificates taken away from them if they are unable to create a safe environment for spectators. 

"What we really need is for the football clubs themselves to be much, much stricter on the use of pyrotechnics within grounds and search regimes to be much, much tighter," he said. "Sometimes they have not been as tight as they should be.

“I would also really like to see a clear and unambiguous statement from football clubs that pyrotechnics are absolutely unacceptable within grounds and that people found with them will get bans, if not life bans, if they are caught with them.

“We now have the legislation in place, which is helpful, but we need to see a renewed and invigorated response from the clubs. They have to make it clear there is no place for pyrotechnics in football.

READ MOREScotland's clubs told to crack down on pyrotechnics in stadiums

“If the clubs are not going to take responsibility then maybe we need to start looking at their ground safety certificates and asking if they are actually fit and proper organisations to be holding events like that.

“These certificates are there to ensure audiences can watch games in a safe environment. If you have got a proportion of your fans setting off flares and making it unsafe and you are not pursuing them actively enough then I would say there is a real question mark over the ability of clubs to be protecting people.

“That is a last-ditch resort. But our position is that everything should be on the table. What we need to see is clubs dealing very firmly with those who use pyrotechnics. There is a role here for clubs to play.

“People sometimes feel a bit cowed because it is big clubs, big money and a lot of people are involved. But we need to get over that. People cannot be put at risk going to watch a game of football. They need to be able to do that safely.”



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Fear often triggers one’s fight-or flight instincts. Depending on the circumstances, when it happens to me, I’ll either persevere through an unwanted situation or become paralyzed by fear. When I become frozen, I don’t want to do anything, and I let the fear caused by the situation just flush over me.

One of my biggest fears is something that’s pretty common for people with cystic fibrosis (CF): having a lung transplant and rehabbing afterward.

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What CF feels like

A popular blog post by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation describes having cystic fibrosis as like breathing through a coffee straw. I wouldn’t exactly describe it like that for me, as everyone with CF is different. But the coughing fits I have make me really struggle to catch my breath. That’s when it feels like breathing through a coffee straw for me.

I think I’d describe CF as more like breathing with two 50-pound dumbbells on my chest. It can feel like my entire body is compressed against a wall.

I don’t exactly have anything to worry about, though, as my FEV1/FEVC ratio numbers — which measure a person’s vital lung capacity — are in the 80s. That would be considered great for most people with CF, and it is well above the numbers that would lead to consideration for a transplant. My fear, though, is that as I get older, my breathing will drastically decline at a rapid rate.

The statistics for lung transplant are quite impressive for people with cystic fibrosis. According to the CF Trust, nine out of 10 people survive a lung transplant, and most survive the year after the operation. About half survive another five years, and many survive for 10 years or more. The process isn’t exactly foolproof, but the survival rate is exceptional.

So why am I worried? Why am I afraid of having a lung transplant?

I think it comes from the usual cause: a fear of the unknown. I’m scared to have someone else’s body inside my own. I’m scared my own body won’t respond well to change. I fear I would let down the loved ones of the person who donated their lungs.

Ultimately, my fears are probably unwarranted, at least for now. Hopefully, my breathing will continue at a level in which I don’t need a lung transplant.

Note: Cystic Fibrosis News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The opinions expressed in this column are not those of Cystic Fibrosis News Today or its parent company, BioNews, and are intended to spark discussion about issues pertaining to cystic fibrosis.

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COPD in Delhi: Who does not want to settle in the capital Delhi, but living here is becoming harmful for health day by day. There are many areas of Delhi where serious lung diseases are spreading rapidly. In such a situation, living here can not only be fatal, but it is also affecting the healthy lifestyle. ICMR’s Jodhpur-based National Institute for Implementation Research on Non-Communicable Diseases (NIIRNCD), NEERI Nagpur, IIT Delhi, Delhi University and Health Effect Institute of Boston This thing has come to the fore in the study cum research done by a total of 6 institutes including.

The lead author of this research-study and Director, NIIRNCD and community medicine Specialist Dr. Arun Sharma Talking to News18 Hindi, it is said that there are some areas of Delhi where two major lung diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ie COPD and Bronchial Asthma are spreading. In the survey conducted on 40040 thousand people of 8510 houses in Delhi, 443 people were found suspected of COPD. While this disease was confirmed in 394 people. In such a situation, COPD has been found in 9.8 people out of 1000 people in Delhi. At the same time, the special thing is that the presence of COPD is not uniform in the whole of Delhi, rather some areas are hotspots where this crisis is hovering over the lungs.

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ie COPD, the airways of the lungs get narrowed. That’s why there is a problem in breathing. In this situation, oxygen reaches inside but carbon dioxide cannot come out from inside the body and the person starts suffocating. When this disease progresses, the patient dies.

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Bronchial Asthma is a chronic disease that causes irritation and inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Due to which the patient has difficulty in breathing and has to exert force. When this disease occurs, there is cough, wheezing in breathing, chest discomfort.

Research has found that in Delhi, the area of ​​Dilshad Garden located in North East Delhi, some areas of Jahangir Puri, all industrial areas of Delhi, and almost all JJ Colony i.e. slum areas, especially COPD and Bronchial Asthma diseases have increased. Has been There are a total of 27 approved industrial areas in Delhi, where industrial activities are carried out. These include Narela, Bawana, Samaypur Badli, Narayana, Tilak Nagar, Anand Parvat, Najafgarh, Okhla, Mayapuri, Anand Parvat, Mangolpuri etc. in 27 areas. It has been observed in research that people living in industrial areas are more likely to have COPD than other people. While people in the rural areas of South and East Delhi have very less COPD.

The research also looked at the air quality of Delhi homes, including cross ventilation, presence and amount of dust, insects, household solid and organic waste disposal, and cooking fuel. was made the basis. On the other hand, in the second question paper, whether any member of the family has COPD or not, for how many years the person has been living in that area of ​​Delhi, information about all these things was taken. Dr. Arun Sharma says that apart from all these things, the big thing for COPD is the pollution of Delhi. Day by day increasing pollution in Delhi, poisonous air, bad environment are possible reasons for these diseases.

Tags: delhi air pollution, delhi news, ICMR, research

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Lung health

Lung diseases, excluding lung cancer, cause an estimated 235,000 deaths each year

New Delhi: Like other parts of the body, the lungs are an extremely important organ, which needs utmost care.

According to the National Heart, Blood and Lung Insititute, chronic lower respiratory diseases, including obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the leading causes of death globally, every year.

Lung diseases, excluding lung cancer, cause an estimated 235,000 deaths each year.

Lungs age faster than other parts of the body since we breathe in toxic air, pollution, and dust, involve in smoking, and other things that deteriorate the organ. With time, the lungs lose their strength, which can make it more difficult to breathe.

But by adopting certain healthy habits, you can better maintain the health of your lungs, and keep them working optimally even into your senior years.

Your body relies on your respiratory system to supply the oxygen necessary for your organs to function. And if you struggle to breathe, your body may not get enough oxygen, and without enough oxygen, other critical organs may shut down.

Warning signs of respiratory distress

It is very important to learn to recognise the signs and symptoms of respiratory problems that may help you protect your life. If you notice any of these symptoms, you must contact your doctor immediately.


Many people suffer from chronic breathlessness which means they are short of breath and the lungs are not able to get enough oxygen to breathe.

Even though it is normal to get breathless occasionally when you exert more than normal, sudden and regular shortness can be a sign of impending danger.

According to health experts, the lungs are involved in transporting oxygen to your tissues and removing carbon dioxide, and problems with either of these processes affect your breathing. Causes of breathlessness can be due to:

  • Asthma
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Excess fluid in the lungs
  • COPD
  • Covid-19
  • Lung collapse
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Lung cancer
  • Croup
  • Anaphylaxis

Change in skin colour or Cyanosis

Health experts say that people who have less oxygen in their blood have a bluish colour to their skin. The condition is known as cyanosis, and it develops along with breathlessness and other symptoms. Cyanosis is caused due to lung problems and is a slow-progressing ailment, which needs immediate attention.

Causes of cyanosis in the lungs include:

  • High altitudes
  • Asthma
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Blood clots in the arteries of the lungs
  • COPD
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pneumonia


Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract. Massive hemoptysis can cause the production of more than 600 ml of blood within 24 hours, and lead to lung collapse.

Doctors say in hemoptysis, the blood arises from this bronchial circulation when there is a trauma causing damage to pulmonary arteries because of a tumour caused by lung cancer. Hemoptysis is also caused by:

  • Severe pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Severe respiratory tract infection
  • Bronchitis


If you are constantly wheezing or breathing noisily, it could be an indication that your airways have become obstructed and there is a problem with the functioning of the lungs.

Doctors say it is important to report the first sign of experiencing wheezing. It is a result of inflammation and narrowing of the airway in any location from your throat to the lungs.

The most common causes of wheezing are:

Chest pain

If you suffer from lingering chest pain, you must contact your doctor immediately, as it can be due to:

  • A blood clot in the lung is known as a pulmonary embolism, where the artery can block blood flow to lung tissue.
  • Inflammation of the membrane covering the lungs, known as pleurisy in which chest pain, worsens when you inhale or cough.
  • A collapsed lung when air leaks into the space between the lung and the ribs.
  • High blood pressure in the lung arteries is known as pulmonary hypertension. This condition affects the arteries carrying blood to the lungs and can produce chest pain.

Disclaimer: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purposes only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor or a dietician before starting any fitness programme or making any changes to your diet.

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What Is Asthmanefrin?

Asthmanefrin (racepinephrine) is an inhaled bronchodilator (a type of medication used to make breathing easier) used to relieve symptoms of intermittent asthma in adults and children 4 and older.

Asthmanefrin is classified as a non-selective beta agonist (a group of drugs that lower artery and vein pressure) and is further categorized as a short-acting bronchodilator that can temporarily relieve mild symptoms of intermittent asthma.

Asthmanefrin works by stimulating the beta receptors found in the respiratory tract's smooth muscles, resulting in the opening of airways which can subsequently lessen wheezing, shortness of breath, and Angina (chest tightness) as a result of an asthma diagnosis.

Asthmanefrin, a brand-name drug, contains the active ingredient racepinephrine. However, racepinephrine is not available as a generic product.

Instead, Asthmanefrin is available without a prescription as an over-the-counter (OTC) solution for inhalation.

This medication requires the use of the short-acting racepinephrine inhalation solution bronchodilator, categorized as a handheld nebulizer. For context, the nebulizer turns the liquid medication into a fine mist that you breathe into your lungs.

Drug Facts

Generic Name: Racepinephrine

Brand Name(s): Asthmanefrin

Drug Availability: OTC

Therapeutic Classification: Bronchodilator

Available Generically: No

Controlled Substance: N/A

Administration Route: Inhalation

Active Ingredient: Racepinephrine

Dosage Form(s): Inhalation solution

What Is Asthmanefrin Used For?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Asthmanefrin to treat the symptoms associated with intermittent asthma in adults and children 4 and older. Mild intermittent asthma symptoms include wheezing, angina, and shortness of breath.

Asthmanefrin is not the same as short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs), such as albuterol, an oral drug that provides rapid relief from asthma attacks.

For context, intermittent asthma is the occurrence of asthma symptoms that occur a maximum of two days per week, alongside nighttime symptoms that occur twice a month at most.

However, it should be noted that the FDA does not approve this drug for asthma treatment.

How to Take Asthmanefrin

Inhale Asthmanefrin using a nebulizer. Don't use more than 12 inhalations in 24 hours. Do not use more Asthmanefrin than directed.

An adult should supervise the use of this product by children.

When using the handheld rubber bulb nebulizer, add 0.5 milliliters (contents of one vial) of the solution to the nebulizer.

To use the handheld nebulizer:

  1. Wash your hands.
  2. Remove the plastic vial from its foil pouch.
  3. Open the vial and pour the medication into the medicine cup.
  4. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth, wrapping your lips tightly to create a seal.
  5. Turn on the nebulizer (if you use a bulb nebulizer, you would instead squeeze the rubber bulb to pump the atomized medication into the lungs).
  6. Breathe in through your mouth only.
  7. Inhale until all of the medication is delivered.
  8. Turn off the machine.
  9. Wash the medicine cup and mouthpiece with water, and allow them to air dry.


Store Asthmanefrin vials in their protective foil pouches in the refrigerator or at room temperature (36 F to 77 F).

Moreover, keep away from excessive heat, direct light, or freezing temperatures, and be sure to keep out of reach of children and pets, if applicable.

How Long Does Asthmanefrin Take to Work?

Asthmanefrin should begin to relieve asthma symptoms within minutes. If there is no relief within 20 minutes, seek care from a healthcare provider.

What Are the Side Effects of Asthmanefrin?

This is not a complete list of side effects, and others may occur. A healthcare provider can advise you on side effects. If you experience other effects, contact your healthcare provider. You may report side effects to the FDA at fda.gov/medwatch or 1-800-FDA-1088.

Common Side Effects

The most common side effects experienced when taking Asthmanefrin include:

Severe Side Effects

Call your healthcare provider immediately if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency.

Serious side effects and their symptoms associated with the use of Asthmanefrin may include the following:

  • Angina
  • Increased blood pressure or tachycardia (a fast heartbeat), side effects that could increase your risk of heart attack or stroke and potentially death.
  • Numbness or weakness in the arm or leg or on one side of your body
  • Allergic reactions, such as rash, fever, flushing, or tachycardia

Because asthma may be life-threatening, see a healthcare provider if you:

  • Are not better in 20 minutes
  • Get worse or need more than 12 inhalations in 24 hours
  • Use more than nine inhalations in 24 hours for three or more days a week
  • Have more than two asthma attacks in a week

Report Side Effects

Asthmanefrin may cause other side effects. Call your healthcare provider if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your healthcare provider may send a report to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting Program or by phone (800-332-1088).

Dosage: How Much Asthmanefrin Should I Take?

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IBM Micromedex®

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For inhalation dosage form:

    • For relief of asthma symptoms:

      • Adults and children 4 years of age and older—1 to 3 inhalations for each dose. Wait at least 3 hours between doses. Do not use more than 12 inhalations in 24 hours.
      • Children younger than 4 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.


The following factors may affect whether you take Asthmanefrin or how you take it:

Pregnancy: The safe use of Asthmanefrin in pregnancy has not been established; therefore, the decision to use it during pregnancy must consider the benefits and potential risks to the pregnant person and fetus. Consult with a healthcare provider before using this medication during pregnancy.

Breastfeeding: It is not known if Asthmanefrin is present in human breast milk. However, most experts agree that inhaled bronchodilators, including epinephrine, are compatible with breastfeeding, as they are poorly absorbed via ingestion and have low maternal serum levels after use.

Children: The safety and efficacy of Asthmenefrin have not been established in children under 4 years old.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Asthmanefrin, take it as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time.

Do not take an extra dose to make up for the missed dose. 

Because this medication should be used only when needed in response to asthma symptoms, missed doses are typically not an issue.

Overdose: What Happens If I Take Too Much Asthmanefrin?

The symptoms associated with an overdose of Asthmanefrin may include tachycardia, high or low blood pressure, nervousness, tremor, heart palpitations (abnormal heart rhythms), hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), nausea, or vomiting.

Also, injecting this medication intravenously (into the vein) may result in serious heart problems, including heart attack and death.

Treatment of overdose should be symptomatic and supportive. Cardiac monitoring is recommended for those experiencing cardiac symptoms. Medications may be needed to treat severely high blood pressure.

What Happens if I Overdose on Asthmanefrin?

If you think you or someone else may have overdosed on Asthmanefrin, call a healthcare provider or the Poison Control Center (800-222-1222).

If someone collapses or isn't breathing after taking Asthmanefrin, call 911 immediately.


Drug Content Provided and Reviewed by

IBM Micromedex®

It is very important that your doctor check your or your child's progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly and to check for unwanted effects.

Check with your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse. Your asthma may be getting worse if:

  • You are not better in 20 minutes.
  • You need more than 12 inhalations in 24 hours.
  • You use more than 9 inhalations in 24 hours for 3 or more days a week.
  • You have more than 2 asthma attacks in a week.

Check with your doctor right away if you have trouble sleeping, fast heartbeat, tremors, nervousness, or seizures.

Do not use this medicine if you are using or have used an MAO inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid [Marplan®], linezolid [Zyvox®], phenelzine [Nardil®], selegiline [Eldepryl®], tranylcypromine [Parnate®]) within the past 14 days.

This medicine may cause high blood pressure, which may increase your risk for heart attack or stroke. Check with your doctor right away if you are having chest pain or discomfort, nausea or vomiting, pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck, slurred speech, or weakness.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

What Are Reasons I Shouldn’t Use Asthmanefrin?

You should not take this medication if the following applies:

  • You have not been diagnosed with asthma by a healthcare provider
  • You are currently or have recently taken a prescription monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the last two weeks (drugs used to treat depression, psychiatric conditions, or Parkinson's disease)
  • If the product is brown in color or cloudy

Additionally, you should speak to a healthcare provider before starting treatment with Asthmanefrin if the following applies:

  • You have been hospitalized for asthma
  • You have a history of heart disease
  • You have a history of high blood pressure
  • You carry a diabetes diagnosis
  • You carry a thyroid disease diagnosis
  • You currently or in the past have suffered from seizures
  • You carry a narrow-angle glaucoma diagnosis
  • You have trouble urinating due to an enlarged prostate gland

What Other Medications Interact With Asthmanefrin?

Some medications should not be taken along with Asthmanefrin. Be sure your healthcare provider has an updated list of all medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

Medications that may interact with Asthmanefrin include:

Also, diet pills, stimulants (e.g., caffeine), and decongestants, such as Sudafed 12 Hour (pseudoephedrine), may increase the risk of side effects when used with Asthmanefrin.

What Medications Are Similar?

Asthmanefrin belongs to a family of inhaled drugs known as short-acting bronchodilators, commonly used to treat asthma.

Other medications in this family include:

People with asthma should only use one short-acting bronchodilator at a time.

The prescription bronchodilator, albuterol, is available both as a multi-dose inhaler and as a solution for a nebulizer.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What side effects can I expect while using Asthmanefrin?

    The most common side effects associated with the use of Asthmanefrin include palpitations, anxiety, tremor, restlessness, nausea, and vomiting.

  • How does racepinephrine differ from epinephrine?

    Racepinephrine is a mixture containing dextro-epinephrine and Levo-epinephrine, while epinephrine consists of Levo-epinephrine, the more potent form.

  • How do OTC inhaled medications like Asthmanefrin compare to prescription inhalers like albuterol?

    There are limited data comparing racepinephrine to albuterol, but one small study showed that albuterol was more effective in protecting against bronchospasm.

    Some people believe having some asthma medications available without a prescription is convenient for people without access to regular healthcare or insurance. However, there are safety concerns with self-diagnosing and self-treating breathing problems.

    It may seem like seeing a healthcare provider who then prescribes medications for asthma would be more costly than purchasing medication over the counter.

    However, many programs provide free or reduced-cost asthma medications for people who qualify based on finances.

How Can I Stay Healthy While Taking Asthmanefrin?

Do not exceed the recommended dose of Asthmanefrin. Excessive use of Asthmanefrin does not lead to increased therapeutic effects and can result in serious side effects, including cardiac emergencies and potential death.  

Don’t use caffeine or other stimulants, as these can increase the likelihood of side effects. 

If your Asthmanefrin treatment becomes less effective or requires more frequent use, meaning more than nine inhalations a day for three days a week, speak to your healthcare provider promptly.

These signs may indicate that your asthma is not well-controlled, and you may need other medications to improve your lung function.

Medical Disclaimer

Verywell Health's drug information is meant for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a healthcare provider. Consult your healthcare provider before taking any new medication(s). IBM Watson Micromedex provides some of the drug content, as indicated on the page.

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Global Spirometer Market

Global Spirometer Market

Spirometer Market Growth Overview:
The global spirometer market size was valued at USD 955.8 million in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.13% from 2023 to 2032. The market is anticipated to be driven by an increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory disorders, rising demand for home healthcare, and technological advances. 90% of people worldwide breathe dirty air, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The lungs are negatively impacted by pollutants and irritants in a variety of ways.

For screening purposes in an occupational setting, the spirometry apparatus assists in the diagnosis of a number of respiratory ailments, including obstructive chronic pulmonary disease, emphysema, asthma, and other breathing problems. In the upcoming years, there will probably be more demand for spirometers due to the rise in COPD patients around the world.

Companies are creating spirometers with enhanced design and functionality to help patients and medical professionals understand the complicated process involved in pulmonary function testing. The major goal is to create spirometers that produce more while improving patient comfort without any consequences. In order to avoid potential bacterial infections, businesses are also implementing novel packaging practises. These technological advancements simplify and ease the testing processes for patients.

Market Analysis and Size
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma, and that the condition has claimed the lives of 250,000 people. Around 16 million Americans had COPD in 2019, and there were around 65 million COPD sufferers worldwide. This number is anticipated to increase in the next years. In the management, monitoring, and therapy of respiratory illnesses, spirometers are frequently employed.

Market Definition
Spirometry is a common test that measures how much air someone breathes in and out to determine how well their lungs are functioning. It assists in the diagnosis of breathing-related disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and others. The test, which monitors lung health and determines whether or not a treatment for a chronic lung ailment is effective, uses a spirometer.

Report Scope:
The primary and secondary research is done in order to access up-to-date government regulations, market information and industry data. Data were collected from the Spirometer manufacturers, distributors, end users, industry associations, governments' industry bureaus, industry publications, industry experts, third party database, and our in-house databases. The report combines extensive quantitative analysis and exhaustive qualitative analysis, ranges from a macro overview of the total market size, industry chain, and market dynamics to micro details of segment by type, application and region and as a result provides a holistic view of as well as a deep insight into the Spirometer market covering all its essential aspects.

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Market Segmentations:
Global Spirometer Market: Segmentations

Global Spirometer Market: By Key Players
BD (CareFusion)
Welch Allyn
Fukuda Sangyo
SDI Diagnostics
Anhui Electronics Scientific Institute

Global Spirometer Market: By Types
Hand-held Spirometer
Table-top Spirometer
Desktop (PC) Spirometer

Global Spirometer Market: By Applications

Global Spirometer Market: Regional Analysis
The countries covered in the regional analysis of the Global Spirometer market report are U.S., Canada, and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, U.K., Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, and Rest of Europe in Europe, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) in the Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) as a part of Middle East and Africa (MEA), and Argentina, Brazil, and Rest of South America as part of South America.

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Covid-19 Impact
Positive effects are seen on the spirometer market. The major market participants are actively assisting the healthcare systems and professionals as the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) continues throughout the international community. This epidemic has slowed economic growth across a wide range of economies. One of the top causes of death worldwide is respiratory illness. Furthermore, the third most common cause of death is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The COVID-19 outbreak has increased the prevalence of respiratory illnesses. As a result, it is projected that the number of ARDS patients who need respiratory support would rise, which could lead to a rise in the need for spirometers.

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Allergies, climate change, and air pollution are further propelling the market's expansion. The expansion of the market is being driven by the creation of technologically sophisticated devices, governmental approvals, and product launches. However, lack of knowledge about respiratory illnesses and the existence of spirometer alternatives limit market expansion. Additionally, authorities and governments are projected to take more actions to enhance healthcare systems and raise awareness of the advantages of spirometers, which will help the worldwide spirometer market grow.

Q1. Does the spirometer Market report provides Value Chain Analysis?
Q2. What are the key trends in the spirometer Market report?
Q3. What is the market value of spirometer Market?
Q4. What is the total market value of spirometer Market report?
Q5. Which are the top companies hold the market share in spirometer Market?
Q6. Does the spirometer company is profiled in the report?
Q7. Which is base year calculated in the spirometer Market report?
Q8. What would be forecast period in the market report?

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Adults living in rural areas of the United States have a 19% higher risk of developing heart failure compared to their urban counterparts, and Black men living in rural areas have an especially higher risk - 34%, according to a large observational study supported by the National Institutes of Health.

The study, one of the first to look at the link between living in rural America and first-time cases of heart failure, underscores the importance of developing more customized approaches to heart failure prevention among rural residents, particularly Black men. The study was largely funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of NIH, and the findings, produced in collaboration with Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, publish today in JAMA Cardiology.

We did not expect to find a difference of this magnitude in heart failure among rural communities compared to urban communities, especially among rural-dwelling Black men. This study makes it clear that we need tools or interventions specifically designed to prevent heart failure in rural populations, particularly among Black men living in these areas."

Véronique L. Roger, M.D., M.P.H., study's corresponding author and senior investigator with the Epidemiology and Community Health Branch in NHLBI's Division of Intramural Research

Study co-author Sarah Turecamo, a fourth-year medical student at New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York City, and part of the NIH Medical Research Scholars Program, agreed. "It is much easier to prevent heart failure than to reduce its mortality once you have it," Turecamo said.

Researchers from NHLBI and Vanderbilt University Medical Center analyzed data from The Southern Community Cohort Study, a long-term health study of adults in the southeastern United States. They compared the rates of new onset heart failure among rural and urban residents in 12 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia). The population, which included 27,115 adults without heart failure at enrollment, were followed for about 13 years. Nearly 20% of participants lived in rural areas; the remainder lived in urban areas. Almost 69% were Black adults recruited from community health centers that care for medically underserved populations.

At the end of the study period, the researchers found that living in rural America was associated with an increased risk of heart failure among both women and Black men, even after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic status. Overall, the risk of heart failure was about 19% higher in rural residents than their urban counterparts. However, Black men living in rural areas had the highest risk of all — a 34% higher risk of heart failure compared to urban-dwelling Black men.  

The study showed white women living in rural areas had a 22% increased risk of heart failure compared to white women in urban areas, and Black women had an 18% higher risk compared to Black women in urban areas. No association was found between rural living and heart failure risk among white men.

The exact reasons behind these rural-urban health disparities are unclear and are still being explored. Researchers said a multitude of factors may be at play, including structural racism, inequities in access to health care, and a dearth of grocery stores that provide affordable and healthy foods, among others.

"Finding an association between living in rural areas and an increased incidence of heart failure is an important advance, especially given its implications for helping to address geographic-, gender-, and race-based disparities," said David Goff, M.D., Ph.D., director of NHLBI's Division of Cardiovascular Sciences. "We look forward to future studies testing interventions to prevent heart failure in rural populations as we continue to fight heart disease, the leading cause of death in the U.S."

Heart failure is a chronic and progressive condition that develops when the heart does not pump enough blood for the body's needs. Common symptoms include shortness of breath during daily activities or trouble breathing when lying down. The condition, which has few treatment options, affects about 6.2 million American adults.

Heart failure can be prevented by following a heart-healthy lifestyle. NHLBI's Roger, who is also a practicing cardiologist, noted one of the biggest contributors to heart failure is hypertension, or high blood pressure, which Black men experience at disproportionately high levels. The condition should be intensively managed by checking blood pressure regularly and taking medications as prescribed. Other ways to reduce heart failure risk include avoiding all forms of tobacco, eating healthy, and exercising.

Research reported in this study was funded by the NIH Medical Research Scholars Program, a public-private partnership supported jointly by NIH and contributions to the Foundation for the NIH. The research was also supported by the NHLBI's Division of Intramural Research, the NHLBI Training Award in Cardiovascular Research (T32 367 HL007411), the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the National Cancer Institute (grants R01 CA092447 and 368 U01 CA202979), and supplemental funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (3R01 CA 029447-0851). The Southern Community Cohort Study is funded by the National Cancer Institute. For a complete listing of funding support, please see the published journal article.


Journal reference:

Turecamo, S.E., et al. (2023) Association of Rurality With Risk of Heart Failure. JAMA Cardiology. doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2022.5211.

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This air travels to the alveoli, the small cavities located at the end of the bronchioles that are responsible for allowing gas exchange between air and blood.

In the case of atelectasis, these small air sacs deflate and cannot inflate properly and/or absorb enough air and oxygen.

If the disease affects a large enough area, the blood may not receive enough oxygen, which can trigger various health problems.

Generally, it is not life-threatening, but in some cases it must be treated quickly.


Atelectasis: what it is

Atelectasis is one of the most common respiratory complications after surgery.

It is also a possible complication of other respiratory problems, including cystic fibrosis, lung tumours, chest lesions, fluid in the lungs and respiratory weakness.

Atelectasis can make breathing difficult, particularly if one already suffers from lung disease.

Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the collapse.

Pulmonary atelectasis, symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms? If atelectasis only affects a small area of the lungs, the person may not even have any symptoms.

But if it affects larger areas, the lungs cannot fill with enough air and the oxygen level in the blood may decrease.

When this happens, annoying and unpleasant symptoms may occur, including:

  • difficulty breathing (shortness of breath; rapid, shallow breathing; wheezing);
  • increased heart rate;
  • coughing;
  • chest pain;
  • bluish discolouration of the skin and lips.

If you experience these symptoms and have difficulty breathing, you should consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Keep in mind that other conditions, including asthma and emphysema, can also cause chest pain and breathing problems.

Why a lung can collapse

Atelectasis can be triggered by many factors: potentially, any condition that makes it difficult to take deep breaths or cough can lead to a collapsed lung.

Atelectasis can result from airway obstruction (called obstructive atelectasis) or from pressure from outside the lung (non-obstructive atelectasis).

The most common reason for people to develop this disease is surgery.

It must be known that anaesthesia can affect the patient’s ability to breathe normally or cough as it changes the normal breathing pattern and affects lung gas exchange.

All this can cause the air sacs (alveoli) to deflate.

In addition, the pain that is often experienced following surgery may make deep breathing painful: as a result, one may be inclined to adopt continuous shallow breathing, which may favour the development of the disease.

This explains why almost everyone who has undergone major surgery develops a more or less severe form of atelectasis.

Other possible causes of this pathology are:

  • thoracic trauma, e.g. a fall or a car accident, which prevent one from taking deep breaths (due to pain), which can cause compression of the lungs;
  • pressure at the level of the chest: pressure exerted on the lungs, which may depend on a tumour mass outside the bronchus, on a tumour inside the bronchus, which causes airway obstruction. In fact, if air cannot get past the blockage present, the affected part of the lung may collapse;
  • accumulation of mucus in the airways, which may cause a blockage in the airflow. This event commonly occurs during and after surgery because coughing is not possible in such cases. In addition, drugs administered during surgery cause people to breathe less deeply, so normal secretions collect in the airways. Suctioning the lungs during surgery helps to clear them, but sometimes it is not enough. Mucus plugs are also common in children, people with cystic fibrosis and during severe asthma attacks;
  • inhalation of small objects, such as a peanut, the cap of a biro, a small toy, which prevent air from flowing freely;
  • other lung diseases, such as pneumonia, pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Atelectasis is not to be confused with pneumothorax, another condition that commonly causes a collapsed lung.

It is the presence of air between the lung and chest wall.


Atelectasis, the risk factors

Factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disease include:

  • advanced age
  • any condition that makes swallowing difficult;
  • bed confinement with rare changes of position;
  • lung disease, such as asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis;
  • recent abdominal or thoracic surgery;
  • recent general anaesthesia;
  • weak respiratory muscles due to muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury or another neuromuscular condition;
  • use of drugs that may cause shallow breathing;
  • pain or injuries that may make it painful to cough or cause shallow breathing, including stomach pain or rib fracture;
  • cigarette smoking.

What is involved in atelectasis

A small area of atelectasis, especially in an adult, is usually curable.

However, one should be aware that this disease can give rise to the following complications

  • a low level of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). Atelectasis makes it more difficult for the lungs to carry oxygen to the air sacs (alveoli) and thus to the rest of the body;
  • pneumonia: the risk of pneumonia continues until the atelectasis disappears. This is because the presence of mucus in a collapsed lung can lead to infection;
  • respiratory failure: the loss of a lobe or an entire lung, particularly in an infant or in people with lung disease, can be life-threatening.

Prevention of post-surgery atelectasis

Some research suggests that performing deep breathing exercises and muscle training may reduce the risk of developing atelectasis after surgery.

In addition, many patients in hospital are given a device called an incentive spirometer that can encourage them to take deep breaths, thus preventing and treating atelectasis.

If you smoke, you can reduce your risk of developing the condition by stopping smoking before any operation.

Atelectasis in children is often caused by an airway blockage.

In such cases, to reduce the risk of atelectasis, keep small objects out of reach of children.


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Pulmonary Emphysema: What It Is And How To Treat It. The Role Of Smoking And The Importance Of Quitting

Pulmonary Emphysema: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Tests, Treatment

Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Occupational, Stable Bronchial Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A Guide To Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD

Bronchiectasis: What Are They And What Are The Symptoms

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Pulmonary Vasculitis: What It Is, Causes And Symptoms

Bronchiolitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Chest Pain In Children: How To Assess It, What Causes It

Bronchoscopy: Ambu Set New Standards For Single-Use Endoscope

What Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?


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Respiratory Therapist job description: Respiratory therapists help patients who are having trouble breathing. Respiratory diseases such as emphysema and asthma are examples of these. Read this article to see more details.InformationGuideNigeria 

Patients range from infants with undeveloped lungs to adults with lung disease. Respiratory Therapists also provide emergency care for breathing difficulties, heart attacks, drowning, and shock.

A respiratory therapy technician is another name for them. Patients with breathing or cardiopulmonary disorders are interviewed and examined by respiratory therapists.

Medical practices that want to hire the best people often start the job description with a few sentences that tell job seekers about the things that make your company environment unique and the value you bring to new employees. This is your chance to make your hospital, clinic, or medical facility stand out from the crowd of therapist job postings.

For consideration, you must have a degree in respiratory therapy from an accredited program or college, as well as an RCP license.JAMB Portal

Strong knowledge of pulmonary function and rehabilitation, as well as experience with respiratory equipment, are essential for success in this role.

Responsibilities of a respiratory therapy

  • Monitoring patient physiological responses to therapy, such as arterial blood gases, vital signs or blood chemistry changes, and changes in lung function, and consulting with physicians if there are any adverse effects.
  • Assisting with medical procedures as part of a team of healthcare professionals to manage patient care.
  • Configuring and operating therapeutic gas administration apparatus, mechanical ventilators, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators.
  • Treatment parameters must be followed.
  • Providing emergency care, such as external cardiac massage, artificial respiration, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation assistance.
  • Inspecting, testing, cleaning, and maintaining respiratory therapy equipment to ensure safe and efficient operation.NYSC Portal
  • Keeping records that include patient identification and therapy information.
  • Measuring arterial blood gases, reading prescriptions, assessing lung capacity, and reviewing other information to determine the patient’s condition.
  • Delivering blood analysis results to a doctor.
  • When necessary, make emergency visits to resolve equipment problems.
  • When necessary, order equipment repairs.
  • To gain cooperation from patients, explain health care treatment procedures.
    Examining patients’ pulmonary function.
  • By planning and administering medically prescribed respiratory therapy, the patient’s pulmonary function is restored, pain is relieved, and life is supported.
  • Meets the goals and needs of the patient while also providing quality care by performing pulmonary function tests, assessing and interpreting evaluations and test results, and determining respiratory therapy treatment plans in consultation with physicians and by prescription.
  • Assists patients in carrying out their treatment plans and maintaining their quality of life by administering inhalants, operating mechanical ventilators, therapeutic gas administration apparatus, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators.
  • Performs bronchopulmonary drainage, assists with breathing exercises, and monitors physiological responses to therapy, such as vital signs, arterial blood gases, and blood chemistry changes, to administer respiratory therapy treatments.
  • Treatments are directed by aides, technicians, and assistants.
  • Evaluates the effects of a respiratory therapy treatment plan by observing, noting, and evaluating the progress of the patient and recommending adjustments and modifications.
  • Consults with physicians, nurses, social workers, and other health care workers to complete discharge planning; participates in patient care conferences.
  • Assures that the therapeutic plan is followed after discharge by designing home exercise programs and instructing patients, families, and caregivers on how to use them.
  • Outpatient or home health follow-up programs are recommended and/or provided.
  • Charts in patient and department records to document patient care services.
  • By keeping information confidential, you can maintain patient trust while also protecting hospital operations. How to Recharge GOTV using First Bank USSD Code
  • Maintains a safe and clean workplace by adhering to procedures, rules, and regulations.
  • Adheres to infection-control policies and protocols to protect patients and employees.
  • Provides information and develops and implements in-service training programs for respiratory therapy staff.
  • Complies with federal, state, and local legal and certification requirements by researching existing and new legislation, anticipating future legislation, enforcing compliance, and advising management on appropriate actions.

Duties of a respiratory therapy

  1. Patients with breathing or cardiopulmonary disorders should be interviewed and examined.
  2. Consult with doctors about patients’ conditions and treatment plans.
  3. Conduct diagnostic tests.Respiratory Therapy Job Description
  4. Treat patients in a variety of ways.
  5. Track and record the progress of patients.
  6. Teach patients how to use medical equipment and medications.

Registered nurses, physicians and surgeons, and medical assistants collaborate closely with respiratory therapists. They use a variety of tests to assess patients.

Respiratory therapists, for example, perform pulmonary function tests to assess lung capacity by having patients breathe into an instrument that measures the volume and flow of oxygen as they inhale and exhale. Therapists may also take blood samples and test oxygen and carbon dioxide levels with a blood gas analyzer. How to Buy TikTok Followers using Cryptocurrency?

Respiratory therapists also treat airway obstructions to improve breathing. Chest physiotherapy, for example, may be used to remove mucus from the lungs by tapping the patient’s chest and encouraging him or her to cough.

In an emergency, respiratory therapists may connect patients who are unable to breathe on their own to ventilators that deliver oxygen to the lungs.

They set up and monitor the equipment to ensure that the patient receives the appropriate amount of oxygen at the appropriate rate.

Home respiratory therapists teach patients and their families how to use ventilators and other life-support systems. They may inspect and clean equipment, inspect the home for environmental hazards, and ensure that patients understand how to use their medications during these visits. When necessary, therapists also make emergency home visits.

Roles of a respiratory therapy

Respiratory therapists work under the supervision of doctors and treat a wide range of patients, from premature infants with underdeveloped lungs to elderly people with lung disease. They provide oxygen to patients, manage ventilators, and administer medications to the lungs. Romantic Love Messages

The registered respiratory therapist (RRT) applies scientific knowledge and theory to clinical respiratory problems. The respiratory therapist is qualified to assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of CRT functions.

Under the supervision of a physician, the respiratory therapist may be required to exercise considerable independent clinical judgment in the treatment of patients with respiratory dysfunction.

The respiratory therapist provides oxygen therapy, breathing treatments, humidity-aerosol therapy, pulmonary drainage procedures, mechanical ventilation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Respiratory care practitioners work with adults, premature infants, and geriatric patients in surgical services, air and ground transport, multi-disciplinary nutrition teams, emergency departments, neonatal/pediatric intensive care, and medical, cardiac, and surgical intensive care in acute care hospitals.

Practitioners can work in a variety of settings, including the diagnostic pulmonary laboratory, bronchoscopy laboratory, long-term acute care units, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) units, or as a traveling therapist, home respiratory therapist, or pharmaceutical sales representative.

In the hospital, the respiratory therapist has a wide range of responsibilities. Responsibilities daily include various respiratory care modalities in the treatment of pulmonary diseases as well as advanced critical care procedures. Good Morning Love Messages

The respiratory therapist is also skilled in the use of advanced diagnostic tools to accurately diagnose the severity of respiratory dysfunction in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly.

Respiratory therapy job qualifications/skills

An associate’s degree in respiratory therapy is typically required for respiratory therapists. Some companies prefer candidates with a bachelor’s degree. Except for Alaska, all states require respiratory therapists to be licensed; requirements vary by state.

Respiratory therapy salary structure in USA

What is the average salary for a Registered Respiratory Therapist in the United States? As of September 26, 2022, the average Registered Respiratory Therapist salary in the United States is $73,241, with a salary range of $66,544 to $79,619.JAMB Result

Types of Respiratory Therapy

  • Long-term care is available. Almost one in every seven middle-aged and elderly people suffers from chronic lung disease.
  • Neonatal-pediatrics. This type of respiratory therapy is used in neonatal and pediatric units.
  • Rehabilitation of the lungs.
  • Polysomnography is a type of sleep study.
  • Intensive care.

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Tammy Slaton stopped breathing in the middle of the night on 1000-lb Sisters, which led to fans fearing she had died. She didn’t die but was placed in a medically induced coma following the horrific incident.

Having survived yet another brush with death, Tammy recovered at rehab, as seen on 1000-lb Sisters season 4 episode 1. However, she didn’t see her sister Amy Slaton for three months while she was in rehabilitation.

Viewers are now asking who died on 1000-lb Sisters after scenes showed Tammy’s body shutting down and lying on a hospital bed. A hospital staff member hears beeping from her heart monitor and rushes in, leaving fans fearful.

Who died on 1000-lb Sisters?

Nobody died on 1000-lb Sisters but Tammy almost did when her breathing stopped in the middle of the night. She was rushed to hospital following the incident but doesn’t remember any of it. “I was gone,” Tammy revealed.

She almost died after her breath seized while at rehab. The reality TV star takes out her speaking valve every night when she goes to bed, preventing her from talking. At midnight, a nurse came in to check on the 1000-lb Sisters star.

The nurse realised Tammy wasn’t breathing. A blockage in her trach prevented her lungs from getting oxygen. “Last night, I literally about died,” Tammy admitted. Her oxygen level dropped to 20 and she began blacking out. 

“I could not breathe at all,” Tammy said. “I was about gone.” Thankfully, the nurse suctioned the mucus plug before it was too late. Following the scary incident, Tammy has said she’s ready to get back on track.

1000-lb Sisters: Baby was not ‘found dead’

In 2021, a 1000-lb Sisters episode suggested a baby’s body had been found in Amy and Tammy’s front yard. They lived near a busy road and the ‘baby’ was just a doll believed to have been dropped from a car window.

However, Amy was mourning the death of her Chihuahua, Little Bit, in April 2022, shortly after learning her pet had cancer. “RIP little bit. I love you so much. 2000-2022,” Amy, 34, wrote via Instagram.

Little Bit had lung cancer. As the dog had been a star on 1000-lb Sisters, fans were just as devastated about her death. She wrote in a tribute to her dog:

We took her to the vet five days ago for what we thought was allergies. He [the vet] did an X-ray and blood work to find out she had bad lung cancer. We kept her on meds and comfortable.

What happened to Tammy Slaton?

***WARNING: 1000-lb Spoilers***

Tammy reportedly lost enough weight to get gastric bypass surgery in August 2022, The US Sun reports. She returned to rehab for two weeks to recover but decided to stay there for longer.

Her heaviest weight, 717lb, aired on 1000-lb Sisters season 4 before she burst into tears at the scale numbers. Since then, though, Tammy has been undergoing an extreme weight-loss journey and looks significantly different.

Tammy is reportedly standing and walking. She told fans she wished she “could talk about all the stuff going on” with her weight but couldn’t spill any updates.

If you or someone you know needs support, there are many eating disorder helplines in the UK here to help. Beat can be contacted at 0808 801 0677 while Mind’s contact number is 0300 123 3393.

If you are based in the US, you can call NEDA on (800) 931-2237.



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