Some people breathe through the mouth, but research shows that breathing through the nose generally offers more health benefits.

This article discusses how humans breathe and the differences in nose breathing versus mouth breathing. It also answers some common questions about the two breathing methods.

The lungs sit inside a person’s chest, or thoracic cavity, on either side of the heart. A large muscle below the lungs, called the diaphragm, powers the process of breathing, or respiration. This muscle contracts in a rhythmic pattern to help draw air into the lungs from the nose or mouth.

To breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and becomes flattened. This increases the size of the thoracic cavity to decrease pressure inside the lungs. This decrease in pressure draws air into the lungs during inspiration or inhalation.

During the exhalation process, the diaphragm relaxes. This decreases the size of the thoracic cavity and increases pressure inside the lungs. Together, these actions expel air from the lungs.

The heart and blood vessels in the body make up the circulatory system. This system transports oxygen and other nutrients from the lungs to other parts of the body.

Breathing problems

For many people, breathing is an unproblematic process. However, in some cases, individuals may experience breathing difficulties that may lead to shortness of breath. Some of the more common reasons for this may include:

Individuals without these health problems may also experience shortness of breath because of improper breathing habits.

Breathing through the nose is important for warming and humidifying the air before it reaches the lungs. The nose also filters the incoming air, removing irritants. Proper breathing should also come from the stomach and diaphragm, not the chest.

An example of improper breathing includes breathing through the mouth. Mouth breathing may be necessary during an intensive workout or when someone has nasal congestion. But in most cases, breathing through the nose is the best option.

Following a healthy and active lifestyle is a good way to promote lung health. Relaxation techniques, such as meditation, may also help support proper breathing habits.

Research suggests that children who often breathe through the mouth develop speech disorders. Doctors may recommend speech therapy to treat these conditions. It may also be useful for developing better breathing techniques.

Nose breathing offers many health benefits that mouth breathing does not. For example, the nose filters, heats, and humidifies air as it passes through the nasal cavity.

This filtering process helps trap certain particles within the nose, which can keep certain microbes or allergens from entering the body. In turn, this may decrease the chance of developing conditions such as colds, allergic reactions, or flu. Because the nose retains some moisture from the air, nose breathing may also prevent nasal dryness.

On the other hand, chronic mouth breathing can lead to detrimental health effects. Some of these may include:

Additionally, mouth breathing does not humidify or clean the air like nose breathing. As such, this way of breathing may increase the risk of developing airborne infections. The delivery of cold and unfiltered air to the lungs may also worsen symptoms of breathing conditions such as asthma.

Physical effects of nose breathing vs. mouth breathing

One 2017 study examined the differences between nose breathing and mouth breathing during exercise. The researchers found that nose breathing during anaerobic exercise decreased the chance of hyperventilating.

They also noted that breathing through the nose produces nitric oxide. This may improve performance during exercise, although future studies are necessary to investigate this further.

Research also indicates that nose breathing may affect a person’s ability to think. Another study found enhancements in brain activity when participants were nose breathing. There was also a strengthening of connections between different brain regions during this breathing type.

The researchers did not observe these cognitive benefits during mouth breathing. They concluded that this breathing method may negatively affect a person’s ability to think.

Mouth breathing in children

Mouth breathing in early life may also restrict typical growth and development. In infants and young children, mouth breathing may decrease levels of growth hormones, which may reduce or slow a child’s growth and development.

Children who breathe through their mouths may even experience changes to their mouth or jaw structure. The position of the jaw bone may change over time in children who rely on mouth breathing. Additionally, mouth breathing may also affect the angle of certain teeth within the mouth.

Below are some of the most common questions and answers about nose and mouth breathing.

Do people get more oxygen through the nose or mouth?

Research shows that breathing through the mouth decreases the activity of respiratory muscles. It also reduces the expansion of the diaphragm muscle, leading to lower efficiency during mouth breathing.

A person’s respiratory muscles are more engaged during inhalation when they breathe through their nose, so their lungs can take in more oxygen. This increases the amount of oxygen a person’s body takes in, making nose breathing the more effective option.

How can someone stop mouth breathing?

In certain cases, mouth breathing may occur due to an issue with structures in the nose or mouth. Surgical treatment or dental devices may be necessary for these instances.

A person may find that lifestyle changes and relaxation techniques help them develop better breathing habits.

Anyone looking to change their breathing habits should speak with a doctor. The treatments may depend on any underlying conditions a person has.

Why is it better to breathe through the nose?

The nose cleanses and humidifies air before it enters the body. This reduces the chance of developing infections and improves airflow into the lungs. Breathing through the nose also increases the amount of oxygen circulating through the blood.

Nose breathing provides more oxygen than mouth breathing and may help protect individuals from infections.

Mouth breathing may be necessary when a person has a cold, but generally, it offers fewer health benefits than nose breathing. It may also increase the risk of developing infections or worsen symptoms of conditions such as asthma. Chronic mouth breathing early in life may affect a person’s face and jaw structure.

People who often practice mouth breathing may consider speaking with a medical professional to develop a plan to improve their breathing patterns.

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The most advanced study released by Data Lab Forecast on the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) market comprising key market segments such as Type, Application, Sales, Growth, Comprises details of company manufacturing field, production volume, capacities, value chain, product specifications, raw material sourcing strategies, concentration rate, organizational structure, and distribution channel.

The COVID-19 outbreak is now traveling around the world, leaving a trail of destruction in its wake. This report discusses the impact of the virus on leading companies in the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) sector.

The research is a precise offset bridging both qualitative and quantitative data of the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) market.The study provides historical data to compare evolving Sales, Revenue, Volume, and Value from 2017 to 2021 and forecasted till 2030.

It becomes necessary to analyze the competitor’s progress while operating in the same computing environment, for that purpose, the report provides thorough insights into the market competitor’s marketing strategies which include alliances, acquisitions, ventures, partnerships, as well as product launches, and brand promotions.

Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) Market with Impact Analysis of COVID-19: Key Major Players are 3M, Avon Protection Systems, Bullard Group, Honeywell International, MSA Safety, Alpha Pro Tech, Ansell, Bulwark Protective Apparel, Drgerwerk, Dynamic Safety International, Gentex, Grolls, Gurit, Intech Safety, International Enviroguard, Scott Health & Safety, Shanghai Baoya Safety Equipment, Tyco Safety Products, Venus Safety & Health, Wenaas.

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North America held dominant position in the global Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) market in 2022, accounting for XX% share in terms of value, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific, respectively.

Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) Research objectives

⇛ To study and analyze the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) market size by key regions/countries, product type and application, history data from 2017 to 2021, and forecast to 2030.

⇛ To understand the structure of the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) market by identifying its various subsegments.

Focuses on the key global Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) players, to define, describe and analyze the value, market share, market competition landscape, SWOT analysis, and development plans in the next few years.

⇛ To analyze the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) concerning individual growth trends, prospects, and their contribution to the total market.

⇛ To share detailed information about the key factors influencing the growth of the market (growth potential, opportunities, drivers, industry-specific challenges, and risks).

⇛ To project the size of Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) submarkets, concerning key regions (along with their respective key countries).

⇛ To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

⇛ To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

Competitive Structure and analysis of The Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) Market:

⇛ Constant growth, expanding margins

Some of the players have a stellar growth track record from 2014 to 2018, some of these companies have shown tremendous growth in sales and revenue while net income more than doubled in the same period with performance as well as gross margins expanding. The growth in gross margins over the years points to strong pricing power by the company for its products, over and above the increase in the cost of goods sold.

The report further features an analysis that contains details of companies manufacturing base, production volume, sizes, value chain, and product specifications.

⇛ Manufacturing growth forecasts and market share

According to DLF, key market segments sales will traverse the $$ market in the year 2021. Unlike classified segments by Type (Filter breathing protection, Isolated breathing protection.), by End-Users/Application (Healthcare, Metals and Mining, Processing Industries, Construction, Aerospace and Defense, Fire Services.).

The 2022 report version is the most advanced which is further divided and highlights a new emerging twist of the industry.

The keyword market will increase from $XX million in 2021 to strike $YY million by 2030, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of xx%. The most robust growth is anticipated in Asia-Pacific, where CAGR is presumed to be ##% from 2021 to 2030. This prediction is good news for market players, as there is good potential for them to continue developing alongside the industry’s projected growth.

Find out more about the growth of the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) market at:

⇛ Devised growth plans & rising competition?

Market players have determined strategies to offer a whole host of new product launches within several markets around the globe. Remarkable models are variants to be launched in eight EMEA markets in Q4 2020 and 2021. Acknowledging all-around exercises some of the player profiles that would be worth reviewing are 3M, Avon Protection Systems, Bullard Group, Honeywell International, MSA Safety, Alpha Pro Tech, Ansell, Bulwark Protective Apparel, Drgerwerk, Dynamic Safety International, Gentex, Grolls, Gurit, Intech Safety, International Enviroguard, Scott Health & Safety, Shanghai Baoya Safety Equipment, Tyco Safety Products, Venus Safety & Health, Wenaas.

⇛ Status of the market in today’s world

Although recent years might not be that inspiring as market segments have registered reasonable gains, things could have been better if manufacturers would have plan-driven move earlier. Unlike past, but with a decent estimate, the investment cycle continues to progress in the U.S., many growth opportunities ahead for the companies in 2021, it looks good for today but stronger returns can be expected beyond.

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Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) Market
Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) Market

Report Answers Following Questions:

⇛ What are future speculation openings in the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) scene investigating value patterns?

⇛ Which are the healthiest organizations with reaches and late advancement inside the market till 2030?

⇛ How is the market expected to create in the forecasting years?

⇛ What are the principal issues that will impact advancement, including future sales estimates?

⇛ What are the advertising openings and potential hazards related to the Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) by investigating patterns?

⇛ What impact does COVID-19 have made on Respiratory Protection Equipment (RPE) Market Growth & Sizing?

Thanks for reading this article, you can also get individual chapter-wise sections or region-wise report versions like North America, Western / Eastern Europe, or Southeast Asia.

With the given market data, Research on Global Markets offers customization according to specific needs.

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Perioperative management of a patient with super-morbid obesity (MO), defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of ≥50 kilograms per meter squared (kg/m2), is challenging due to large physiological changes, especially in the respiratory system [1-3]. Laparoscopic gynecological surgeries using robotic-assisted (RA) technology have been reported to reduce postoperative morbidity in morbidly obese patients [4-6] but suggested that the steep Trendelenburg position and pneumoperitoneum required for this surgery cause deterioration in respiratory physiology [2,4,6]. High-volume centers and university hospitals report [6,7] the necessity of multidisciplinary coordination for these complex cases [5,6]. The increase in the prevalence of obesity [8] means that there will be more opportunities for perioperative management of morbidly obese patients, even in hospitals without specific experience with obese patients.

In this case report, the perioperative management of a woman with super-MO who underwent RA total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) for treatment of endometrial cancer in a facility that is not a high-volume center for obese patients is described.

The patient was a 32-year-old American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 3 female with super-MO. Her height was 157.8 cm, body weight was 151.6 kg, and BMI was 60.9, and she was diagnosed as having endometrial cancer. She had no past medical history and was referred to a gynecologist for planning for RA-TLH with BSO. There was no high-volume center for morbidly obese patients with gynecological malignant diseases on our main island, so her gynecologist decided to perform her surgery in our hospital. Fourteen days after this, she was admitted and had a checkup by her anesthesiologist. Her neck circumference was 48 cm, she could not maintain a supine position due to dyspnea, and her oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry (SpO2) was over 90% on room air. A respiratory function test showed that vital capacity as a percentage of predicted (%VC) was 75.6%.

After admission, a program for preoperative weight loss by dietary restriction, exercise therapy, and respiratory rehabilitation was started. The goal for reduction in BMI was set to 10% at the time of the initial referral [9]. A total energy intake starting from 1360 kcal/day was decided.

Three days after admission, the initial simulation was performed by the patient, gynecologists, anesthesiologists, and dedicated room staff in the surgical theater. Her BMI was 59.9, and she suffered from dyspnea in the supine position. Dyspnea deteriorated, and slippage was seen in the Trendelenburg position of 15º.

The target BMI was achieved five weeks after admission and preoperative dieting was determined to continue until her gynecological procedure. The patient was scheduled for surgery two weeks later by consultation between gynecologists and anesthesiologists. The second simulation, performed 39 days after admission, verified her acceptance of the respiratory condition in Trendelenburg tilt of 15º. The patient's BMI reduced to 54 kg/m2, and her %VC improved to 82.2%.

Arterial blood gas analysis performed seven weeks post-admission on room air, reported arterial oxygen saturation of 93.6% with a partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) of 47.8 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), and a serum bicarbonate concentration of 27.9 mmol/L. Sleep studies revealed that the patient had severe obstructive sleep apnea with multiple desaturation episodes along with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. The obesity surgery mortality risk stratification (OS-MRS) [10] and the STOP-BANG screening questionnaire for obstructive sleep apnea [11] were scored as two and five, respectively.

On the day of surgery (49 days after admission), her BMI was 53.3 kg/m2. SpO2 was 94% on air. An upper body wedge was used to posture a ramped position [3], and the reverse Trendelenburg position was applied at the induction of anesthesia. Preoxygenation with 10 L/min of 100% oxygen via a face mask was conducted for 5 min. Remifentanil was dosed on lean body weight (LBW) and infused at 0.1 μg/kg/min. After the injection of 1 mg of midazolam, 8% of lidocaine was sprayed around her pharynx, larynx, and glottis using blade #3 of McGrath Mac (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan) in an awakening state. A tracheal tube (internal diameter of 7.0 mm) was successfully inserted into the trachea, and 60 mg of rocuronium (ROC) and 4 mg of midazolam were injected, and inhalation of sevoflurane was started. She was ventilated mechanically with the ventilator instrumented in a Carestation 650 Anesthesia Delivery System (GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo, Japan) using a pressure-controlled ventilation volume-guaranteed mode. Tidal volume was set at 400 mL, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 10 cm of water (cmH2O), peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak) did not exceed 35 cmH2O, and respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) within 45-55 mmHg. The inspiratory oxygen fraction was set at 0.5, and the anesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane, remifentanil, and fentanyl. Repetitive train-of-four (TOF) stimulation with the TOF-Watch SX monitoring program (MSD, Tokyo, Japan) using the corrugator supercilii muscle was performed. Ultrasound-guided subcostal transverse abdominis plane blocks were performed bilaterally.

After insertion of intra-abdominal trocars and establishment of pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg of insufflation pressure, the surgical procedure with a da VinciTM Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, USA) was commenced in the Trendelenburg position of 15º. During the surgical procedure, PETCO2 could be maintained between 41 and 46 mmHg with a respiratory rate of 13-16 breaths/min, and Ppeak was 21 and 32 cmH2O in the supine and Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum, respectively. Continuous infusion of ROC at 7 µg/kg of LBW/min was started at the appearance of T1. About two hours after starting the anesthetic management, the volatile anesthetic was changed to desflurane. Hyperinflation of the lungs by holding the inspiratory airway pressure at 30 cmH2O for five seconds was applied several times, and SpO2 could be maintained between 99% and 100% throughout the surgery.

Spontaneous breathing resumed 3 min after the cessation of anesthetics, and sugammadex at 2 mg/kg of real body weight was injected. After awakening and recovering from adequate spontaneous breathing, extubation was performed in the reverse Trendelenburg position. The duration of anesthesia was 304 min. Inhalation of 3 L/min of oxygen via a nasal cannula was started, and SpO2 was 99%. A continuous infusion of fentanyl at a dose of 25 µg/hr was started.

She was inhaling 2 L/min of oxygen via a nasal cannula with a 45º head-up tilt, and SpO2 was over 90% at the time of transfer to the intensive care unit. She was transferred to the general ward the next day without any complications.

Perioperative management of a woman with super-MO who underwent RA-TLH was achieved in a facility that is not a high-volume center for obese patients. Preoperative optimization using dietary restriction and several simulations performed by gynecologists, anesthesiologists, and operation staff were useful for achieving complex anesthetic management safely. Consultation between gynecologists and anesthesiologists was crucial to determining the duration of preoperative optimization.

Perioperative management of a patient with super-MO is challenging due to large physiological changes, especially in the respiratory system [1-3]. Guidelines for perioperative management of obese patients have been established [3,9], and preoperative optimization, ideally for four to eight weeks, is recommended to perform surgical procedures safely [9].

It has been reported that the OR-MRS score is associated with risk factors of mortality for obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery [10], and this would be applicable to obese patients undergoing non-bariatric surgery [3]. The mortality odds ratio for BMI ≥50 is 3.6 (the highest among variables in the score), and BMI could be the only adjustable factor for preoperative optimization. We decided, therefore, to attempt preoperative weight reduction even though our patient had a malignant disease. It has been recommended that preoperative dieting should be performed to reduce BMI by 10% or to <55 kg/m2 to perform laparoscopy safely [9].

The time from diagnosis to the first and definitive surgery, defined as time to surgery (TTS), has been reported to have a negative impact on overall survival in patients with several types of cancer [12-14]. A decrease in survival rate with the prolongation of TTS has also been reported for patients with endometrial cancer. TTS of more than six to eight weeks has a negative impact on overall survival in patients with endometrial cancer [15-17]. Prolongation of TTS in morbidly obese patients with endometrial cancer would improve respiratory function but worsen overall survival. TTS in the present case was nine weeks, and the period was determined by consultation between gynecologists and anesthesiologists. Shalowitz et al. [17] suggested that adequate preoperative optimization should have priority over expedited surgery. The discussion of the risk of case delay weighed against the risk of not optimizing the patient's health status should be performed between gynecologists and anesthesiologists. It has been reported that body weight can be reduced in two weeks by using a very low-calorie diet [18-20]. Weight reduction in the preoperative period should be considered for super-MO patients, even if the duration of preoperative optimization is short compared with that in the present case.

Teamwork and high-volume experience among multidisciplinary physicians and staff are necessary for achieving RA gynecological surgery in a patient with morbid obesity [5,6], and outcomes have been improved as the surgical team gains experience [5]. An increase in the prevalence of obesity has been reported [8], and there will be more opportunities for perioperative management of morbidly obese patients, even in hospitals without specific treatment for obese patients. We could not find high-volume centers for morbidly obese patients with gynecological malignancies on our main island. We, therefore, decided to perform her surgery in our hospital. Simulations were thought to have the potential for improving outcomes and reducing complications while enhancing teamwork in the present case. Good communication among all members of the team throughout the perioperative period is necessary for completing surgery safely in challenging situations [6].

Preoperative optimization using dietary restriction and several simulations performed by gynecologists, anesthesiologists, and operation staff were useful for achieving the perioperative management of a patient with super-MO safely in a hospital that is not specialized for obese patients. With multidisciplinary discussion, this specific high-risk patient had a good outcome from a high-risk anesthetic and procedure. The determination of the optimal time for surgery by consultation between gynecologists and anesthesiologists is crucial in the care of such a complex patient. Weight reduction in the preoperative period should be considered for super-MO patients with malignant diseases, even if the duration of preoperative optimization is shorter than four to eight weeks.

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New Jersey, United States – Analysis of Respiratory Trainer Market 2022 to 2028, Size, Share, and Trends by Type, Component, Application, Opportunities, Growth Rate, and Regional Forecast

The Global Respiratory Trainer Market is estimated to be valued at US$ 481.83 million in 2022 and is expected to reach US$ 844.72 million by 2028. over the forecast period (2022-2028). Handheld devices called respiratory trainers are made to make the muscles that control inspiration and expiration stronger. These tools are simple to use and beneficial for anyone looking to increase the strength of their breathing muscles. The addition of inspiratory muscle training to an exercise training program improves performance in people who have weak inspiratory muscles.

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The Respiratory Trainer market, which was valued at US$ million in 2022, is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately percent over the forecast period, according to our most recent report.

Based on discussions with industry experts about market development, consumer demand, sales trends, revenue projections, gross margins, and regional growth, this study makes strategic recommendations. In addition to market expansion, pricing, sales trends, revenue projections, and gross margins, it emphasizes regional developments. This study also includes information on the business profiles, industry sectors, market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities for the following years of the top main competitors’ competitive landscape analysis.

Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) is a method that uses particular exercises to enhance the respiratory muscles’ capacity for breathing. People with respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should consider RMT (COPD). Handheld devices called respiratory muscle trainers are made to make the muscles that control inspiration and expiration stronger. Anyone looking to increase the strength and endurance of their breathing muscles will find these portable gadgets useful and simple to use.

The respiratory trainer, also known as the breathing muscle exerciser, is a tool for enhancing the performance of the respiratory muscles. This gadget is portable, secure, practical, and simple to use. enhances the cardiopulmonary health of individuals as well as their general wellbeing and fitness. Respiratory trainers can help patients with asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and emphysema by building their respiratory muscles. In addition to prescribing respiratory trainers to post-operative patients, particularly those who underwent bypass surgery, doctors also recommend them to maintain and restore lung capacity.

Research that Industry has created offers a thorough analysis of Respiratory Trainer Market developments that will impact the expansion of the market as a whole. Additionally, it provides thorough details on the profitability graph.

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Segment Analysis:

A tool used to enhance respiratory muscle function is the respiratory trainer, often known as the breathing muscle exerciser. This gadget is small, convenient, safe, and simple to use. increases patients’ overall fitness and well-being as well as cardiopulmonary health. Patients with respiratory conditions such asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and emphysema can benefit from respiratory trainers by building their respiratory muscles. In addition, respiratory trainers are prescribed by doctors for patients after surgery, particularly after bypass surgery, to regain and preserve lung capacity.

The Respiratory Trainer Industry trends that would impact the expansion of the entire market have been intricately analysed in a study created by IBI. Additionally, it offers comprehensive data on the profitability graph.

The Respiratory Trainer research offers customers a thorough examination of significant influencing variables, consumer behaviour, growth trends, product use, key player analysis, brand positioning, and pricing patterns. Analysis of key companies’ and emerging market participants’ product prices yields pricing patterns. Additionally, the research offers insightful information on the industry’s overview, market segmentation, and strategies for both existing and up-and-coming competitors.

Based on the type of product, Respiratory Trainer is divided into two categories: resistance training devices and endurance training devices. Resistance training is the practice of breathing via a mouthpiece that restricts airflow to the user, increases airway resistance, and thus increases the work that must be done by the respiratory muscles to inhale and exhale. The capacity of the human body to engage in sustained, moderate-intensity exercise is known as respiratory endurance. It has a significant role in one’s general health. Longer periods of physical exercise increase the amount of oxygen that the heart and lungs can transport. Respiratory endurance is another name for the word endurance. It serves as a gauge of someone’s physical capacity and power.

The report’s market overview data was compiled from a wide range of sources, including regulatory and non-regulatory organisations, well-established businesses, trade and industry groups, industry brokers, and other government agencies. The data gathered from these businesses authenticates the Respiratory Trainer market research report, assisting clients in making better choices.

Regional Analysis:

Latin America, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa make up the five geographic divisions of the respiratory care equipment market. At the national levels, these regions are further examined. In 2022, North America had the biggest market share, followed by Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia Pacific market is anticipated to expand at the highest during the forecast period as a result of the region’s high concentration of respiratory patients, rising healthcare spending, quickly evolving healthcare infrastructure, rising per capita income, expanding middle-class population, and rising tobacco use rates. APAC is also becoming a hotspot for medical tourism and is thought to be one of the markets for medical procedures and devices that is expanding the fastest.

Competitive Analysis:

Key players operating in the global respiratory trainer market include Medline Industries, Inc., Koninklijke Philips N.V., Smiths Medical, Inc., Vyaire Medical, Inc., IngMar Medical, POWERbreathe International Limited, PN Medical, Aleas Europe LLC, Aspire Products, LLC, Airofit, Project Electronics Limited, Biegler GmbH, Nidek Medical India, Besmed Health Business Corp, Forumed S.L., and Angiplast Private Limited.

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Respiratory trainer is commonly known as breathe exerciser is a device that aims to improve function of the respiratory muscles through specific exercises. This device increases the amount one can breathe in and delivers a high mixture of oxygen and air.

Respiratory trainer strengthen the muscles of those who suffer from asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. There are variety of respiratory trainers are available in the market which include Ultrabreathe, Powerbreathe, PowerLung, and Expand-A-Lung.

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Respiratory trainer- Usage

To give daily workout to the lung, one should inhale through respiratory trainer for a few minutes twice a day in a simple breathing pattern. Respiratory trainer works on the principle of resistance. As patient inhale, the resistance created which makes the muscles work harder and the harder they work the stronger and more durable they become.

As the breathing power improves, lung exerciser can be gradually adjusted to provide more resistance with just the twist of a knob. These days’ doctors are also prescribing respiratory trainer for post-surgery patients to increase their lung power. Respiratory trainers are now also used to increase sports performance.

Respiratory trainer- Benefits

Respiratory trainers are compact, convenient and safe. They improve cardio-pulmonary status of the patient, enhancing the overall fitness and wellbeing. Respiratory trainers are best lung exercisers that improve oxygenation of blood and reduce fat levels by burning calories.

These trainers are good for athletes which boost their performance. Respiratory trainers also help in achieving optimum lung capacity and restoring disrupted breathing patterns. It also increases circulation of hormones in the blood which increase the blood blow to the heart, brain and lungs.

Now-a-day doctors prescribed respiratory trainer post-surgery, especially after bypass surgery to restore and maintains lung capacity. The most important advantage of respiratory trainer is it can be used by anyone. Considering the ever increasing pollution, even healthy person can use respiratory trainer to strengthen the lungs.

Respiratory trainer- Trends

Presently, respiratory trainer market is driven by rising incidence of respiratory disorder. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates 235 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. Besides, technological advancement such as low perfusion and motion tolerant in pulse oximeter, increasing government expenditure, growing patient awareness about various respiratory diseases and rise in demand for better healthcare services is also driven the growth of respiratory trainer market.

Some of the common factors that affect the rate of respiration are age, internal temperature, disease such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and angina is creating robust development in respiratory trainers’ market. However, critical regulatory compliance procedures inhibit the growth of the respiratory trainer market.

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Respiratory trainer- Region

North America dominates the global respiratory trainer market due to technological advancement and increasing incidence of respiratory cases, rising popularity of portable devices and growing demand for home health care devices such as respiratory trainer.

For instance, The American Lung Association states that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the third leading cause of death in the US. While, according to the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, asthma is estimated to grow by more than 100 million by 2025. Asia-Pacific is the fastest emerging market for global respiratory trainer market because of rising number of patients with respiratory diseases.

Respiratory trainer- Forecast

The respiratory trainer market in Asia Pacific offers large opportunities and is projected to expand at the highest CAGR in the next few years. This growth is mainly due to factors such as untapped opportunities, improving health care infrastructure, and increasing awareness about the available diagnostic procedure.

Improving health care scenario, rising prevalence of respiratory diseases, and growing investments by market players are the major factors fuelling the growth of global respiratory trainer market.

The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also contains projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to market segments such as geographies, types and applications.

The report covers exhaustive analysis on

  • Market Segments
  • Market Dynamics
  • Market Size
  • Supply & Demand
  • Current Trends/Issues/Challenges
  • Competition & Companies involved
  • Technology
  • Value Chain

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Regional analysis includes

  • North America (U.S., Canada)
  • Latin America (Mexico. Brazil)
  • Western Europe (Germany, Italy, France, U.K, Spain)
  • Eastern Europe (Poland, Russia)
  • Asia Pacific (China, India, ASEAN, Australia & New Zealand)
  • Japan
  • Middle East and Africa (GCC, S. Africa, N. Africa)

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

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Global Airway Clearance Systems Market: Introduction

The global airway clearance systems market is expected to reach USD 1.7 Billion by 2023 from USD 1.12 Billion in 2018, at a CAGR of 7.4%.

The growth of this market is propelled by the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases, technological advancements in airway clearance systems, and increasing awareness about the availability of these systems. However, the high cost of airway clearance systems and the lack of trained personnel are restraining factors for this market’s growth. The airway clearance systems market is growing at a rapid pace due to the increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases and the rising pollution levels. These systems help in clearing the airways and prevent the accumulation of mucus, which can lead to infections. There are various types of airway clearance systems available in the market, such as positive expiratory pressure devices, chest physiotherapy devices, and suction devices.

This report provides valuable information to shareholders, new entrants, frontrunners, and shareholders. It helps them formulate strategies for the future, as well as take the necessary steps to strengthen their market position. The report includes graphical representations and tabular representations to provide an in-depth analysis of every segment as well as their sub-segments. This report is intended to aid market players, investors, new entrants, and others in formulating strategies based on the fastest-growing segments and highest revenue generation. data from the latest shows that North America in 2021 will be the largest Airway Clearance Systems market. Mexico, Canada and the US are experiencing nominal CAGRs of [2022-2031] above the global average.

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Airway Clearance Systems Market – Competitive Landscape

Monaghan Medical Corporation
Koninklijke Philips N.V.
Vortran Medical Technology

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Airway Clearance Systems Market Segmentation

Based on the type, the Airway Clearance Systems market is segmented into

Positive expiratory pressure devices
Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation
Oral high-frequency oscillation
High-frequency chest wall oscillation
Flutter devices and
Incentive spirometry

Based on the application, the Airway Clearance Systems market is segmented into

Ambulatory Surgical Centers

Market Breakup by Region:

– North America (United States, Canada)

– Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, South Korea, Australia, Indonesia, Others)

– Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Russia, Others)

– Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Others)

– The Middle East and Africa

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1. Company revenue shares | revenue (US$ Mn)

2. Upcoming Regional opportunities

3. Latest trends & Market dynamics

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5. Key Financial Charts

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Q5. What is the potential of the Airway Clearance Systems Market?

Q6. Who are the prominent players in Airway Clearance Systems Market?

Q7. What are the different types of Airway Clearance Systems market?

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Q9. What is the future of Airway Clearance Systems?

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What is SARS?

It is an atypical severe pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov coronavirus (unknown at the time), a virus capable of surviving about three hours outside the host organism.

Coronaviruses are generally the main cause of mild to moderate respiratory illnesses such as the common cold, but which can worsen into pneumonia and acute respiratory syndromes, sometimes fatal.

Symptoms of SARS

The incubation period of SARS is rather short: between 2 and 7 days.

The first symptoms are very similar to those of influenza:

  • high fever (>38°C)
  • joint and muscle pain
  • dry throat
  • headaches
  • chills
  • cough
  • difficulty breathing.

In some cases, respiratory symptoms occur from the first onset of the disease and may worsen leading to hypoxia and pneumonia.

After about 7 days, the disease progresses with a dry cough that may lead to a poor oxygen supply to the blood and in 10-20% of cases may worsen to the point where supportive therapies such as assisted breathing, oxygen therapy or, in extreme cases, resuscitation are required. The mortality rate is around 9% (source: World Health Organisation).

SARS transmission, diagnosis and treatment

SARS is mainly spread by direct contact with infected patients, through their respiratory secretions (droplets of saliva expelled with coughs or sneezes) or their body fluids.

Diagnosis is made through the observation of symptoms and the results of a series of tests: chest X-ray, blood cell count (thrombocytopenia and leucopenia have been found in many patients), Gram culture and a search for respiratory viruses.

SARS is treated like any severe atypical pneumonia, i.e. mainly with antibiotics for bacterial and antiviral agents.

Oral or intravenous steroids may also be administered in combination with antimicrobials.

Preventive measures against SARS

As SARS is still being researched and therefore there is no vaccine or specific treatment, prevention still remains the only effective weapon to prevent the spread of the disease.

First and foremost, it is important to take some simple hygiene measures:

  • wash your hands often
  • cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing;
  • avoid sharing towels, glasses and cutlery.

Like all infectious diseases, SARS is more easily transmitted in crowded and poorly ventilated places, where the concentration of pathogens can be noticeably high. Wearing a face mask can be a good way to protect yourself and others from the spread of SARS and other respiratory diseases.

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Sinusitis: How To Recognise That Headache Coming From The Nose

Sinusitis: How To Recognise And Treat It

Flu Vaccine For Children? Paediatricians: ‘Do It Now, Epidemic Already Started’

Acute And Chronic Sinusitis: Symptoms And Remedies


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While World Lung Day on 25 September has come and gone, lung health is still something which needs to be considered.

Taking care of your lungs is now more important than ever. If the past few years have shown us anything, it’s how we take breathing for granted.

Breathing is a function we need to survive but because it is involuntary, it is easily overlooked. To know if you have healthy lungs, the best thing to do is to consult your doctor or pulmonary specialist.

However, most people who have lung problems will already know that they get short of breath very quickly, have tight chests or battle with breathing in general.

Poor lungs or bad breathing habits lead to low energy, slower metabolism and poor sleep. Steven Sadie, managing director at Airofit SA, gave some pointers on better lung health and breathing.

“The best way to increase lung health is to stop bad habits and immediately start breathing exercises and RMT [respiratory muscle training],” he said.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) said the following about RMT: “Increasing exercise and fitness can be aided by RMT. RMT can improve breathing through reducing the effort required by the body as it breathes.

Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is facilitated through the loading of inspiration, normally by using a breathing device.”

Sadie added: “We have had post-Covid patients down and out for months not able to recover who, once they start training their lungs, are able get back to normal in no time.”

Lung capacity can be measured as the full amount of gas in the lungs after a full inspiration – but normally measured on your expiratory amount.

Over time, our lung capacity and lung function typically decrease slowly as we age after our mid-20s. “There are many exercises such as diaphragmatic breathing – or “belly breathing” – to engage the diaphragm, and pursed lips breathing, said Sadie.

There are other options for breath training such as making use of the PEP flute, he added. You can live three weeks without food, four to five days without water but most people can’t live for more than a few minutes without breathing.

“So putting some time and effort into lung health makes sense,” said Sadie.

“By just spending five to 10 minutes a day exercising, you will have all you need to make a huge difference in your life. The biggest bonus is that you do not do this while running, at the gym or under duress, you do this calmly in your own home sitting on the couch.”

ALSO READ: Cleaning products can affect lung health in women but not men

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention headquarters in Atlanta. (Dreamstime/TNS)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention headquarters in Atlanta. (Dreamstime/TNS) (Dreamstime)

(Tribune News Service) — Doctors should be on the lookout for cases of a respiratory virus that can sometimes cause polio-like muscle weakness and paralysis in children, U.S. health officials said.

Young children with respiratory illnesses and muscle weakness may be infected with enterovirus D68, a lung virus strain that's been linked to rare, serious cases acute flaccid myelitis, a nervous system ailment, according to a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report Tuesday. The most common signs and symptoms seen in hospitalized children have been shortness of breath or rapid, shallow breathing, wheezing, coughing and nasal congestion. Infections can also worsen asthma symptoms.

While polio is one of the most dangerous enteroviruses, most other strains in the class are associated with mild disease. Peaks of enterovirus D68 cases and associated muscle weakness were noted in 2014, 2016 and 2018, the report said. While those waned in 2020, possibly as a result of masking and decreased social interaction during the early months of the pandemic, hospital visits from respiratory illness rose again during the summer of 2022.

In August, clinicians in several parts of the country told the CDC that they were seeing increases in hospitalizations of pediatric patients with severe respiratory illness and positive rhinovirus and enterovirus test results, the agency said. Among 5,633 children and adolescents needing emergency care or requiring hospitalization for respiratory illness from March 1 through Sept. 20, about 17% were positive for enterovirus D68. The rate during July and August 2022 was higher than during the same months of 2017, 2019 and 2021, and similar to the same period in 2018, the report said.

"Ongoing surveillance is necessary to understand when and where future circulation and EV-D68-associated severe illness might occur, given the potential changes in virus circulation and population immunity related to COVID-19 mitigation measures," the CDC said.

©2022 Bloomberg L.P.


Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

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For those who aren’t familiar, respiratory therapy is a discipline that involves caring for patients with breathing problems. They assess, diagnose, treat and manage patients with respiratory conditions, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Respiratory therapists also work with patients who have sleep apnea, lung cancer, and other respiratory diseases. They work in many settings, including the critical care unit of a hospital, assisting patients who are on a ventilator. Respiratory therapy is a growing field that offers the opportunity for a meaningful career where you can earn a good living. If you want to learn more, read on to find out about the benefits of a respiratory therapy degree.

What are the benefits of a respiratory therapy degree?

There are many benefits to earning a degree in respiratory therapy, but you should also consider online respiratory therapy programs. Online programs offer students the flexibility to complete their coursework on their own schedule, which is ideal for working professionals. Online degree programs also typically have accreditation from the Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care (CoARC), which is the gold standard in respiratory care education. While an on-campus education may be preferable for some students, there are real advantages to online learning.

Perhaps the most obvious benefit of earning your degree in respiratory therapy is that it will offer you a wealth of opportunities for career advancement. With a respiratory therapy degree, you can work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and home health care. You can also pursue specialized roles within the field such as critical care respiratory therapist or pulmonary rehabilitation therapist. Additionally, respiratory therapy degrees are in high demand, so you are likely to find plenty of employment opportunities once you graduate.

Respiratory therapists enjoy above-average salaries and excellent job security. The median respiratory therapist’s salary is $61,830, but top earners can make significantly more. The industry is also projected to experience 14 percent job growth over the next decade, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. This is explained by the fact that our aging population is increasingly in need of respiratory care. In addition, the rise in asthma and other respiratory illnesses led to a greater demand for respiratory therapists.

How can you prepare for your degree program?

Whether you choose an online program or not, you will need to have a quiet place to study when you have work to do. Pick a room in your house that is quiet and free from distractions. This could be a bedroom, home office, or even the living room. Make sure you have everything you need in your study zone, including a desk lamp, textbooks, a computer, and a notepad and pen. You could also invest in decor so you feel comfortable in the space. Plants make a perfect addition to any study spot or home office, as research has shown that can improve your mood, boost focus, and alleviate stress.

Time management is one of the most valuable skills that students can learn. One of the best ways to improve your time management skills is to create a schedule and stick to it. This means setting specific times for studying, homework, socializing, and relaxing, and then making a concerted effort to stick to that schedule. Of course, life can sometimes get in the way and you may have to adjust your schedule accordingly, but you will see improvement if you’re consistent. If there are big tasks that seem overwhelming, try breaking them down into smaller, more manageable tasks. This will make the task seem less daunting.

As you can see, becoming a respiratory therapist can be a smart and deeply fulfilling career choice. Respiratory therapists play a vital role in assisting patients who are struggling with breathing problems. They work with patients of all ages, from newborns to the elderly, and can help treat many respiratory conditions. What’s more, respiratory therapists are in high demand, and can typically find employment in a number of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities. Earning your degree in respiratory therapy is more accessible than ever, you can even look into online degree programs that allow you to work from home. Follow this advice and you’ll be well on your way to a successful career as a respiratory therapist.

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Global Airway Clearance Devices System Size is anticipated to be valued at US$ 589.3 Million in 2022, forecast to grow at a CAGR of 6.2% to be valued at US$ 1,137.8 Million from 2022 to 2032. Airway clearance devices systems are used to remove excess mucus from lungs. The excess production of mucus is a common feature in the COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and it leads to accumulation of mucus in the air way. It results in the coughing, wheezing, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and shortness of breath.

There are few types of airway clearance devices system, namely: positive expiratory pressure devices, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, oral high-frequency oscillation, high-frequency chest wall oscillation, flutter devices, and incentive spirometry. Positive expiratory pressure devices is an alternative to conventional physiotherapy, and it consists of the one-way valve to which expiratory resistance is applied.

Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation devices combine internal thoracic percussion and aerosol inhalations. Oral high-frequency oscillation is worked on the principle of high frequency and low volume of oscillations, and it is developed from the technique of jet ventilation with high frequency.

High-frequency chest wall oscillation devices is a mechanical device which works on the principle of positive pressure air pulse on the lungs by means of air pulse generator and inflatable chest. Flutter devices is a combination of high-frequency oscillations with positives expiratory pressure therapy. Incentive spirometry is used to measure inspiratory effort by using air volume and air flow.

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Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Drivers and Restraints

Conventional methods like chest physiotherapy used for bronchial drainage in different types of respiratory dysfunction. However traditional chest physiotherapy is time-consuming and labour intensive both for non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients. On the counterpart, airway clearance devices systems increasing the compliance with patients and is the less time-consuming process.

Reduced cost and independent application are other reason for changing the preference of patient population from conventional chest physiotherapy to airway clearances devices system market. All these factors influencing the burgeoning growth of the airway clearances devices system.

Others factors like decreased respiratory complications and demand for devices over conventional methods drives the growth of the airway clearance devices system market. Limited availability of evidence based data for effectiveness of devices act as a restraint on the growth of the airway clearance devices system market

Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Market Overview

Global Airway Clearance Devices System market has witnessed a robust growth due to increasing demand due to improving respiratory drainage and reduced infections. Airway Clearance Devices System market has a presence of many regional players which have a huge market share in emerging countries operating at regional or country level.

The future of Airway Clearance Devices System market anticipated with double CAGR during forecasting period.

Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Region-Wise Overview

Global Airway Clearance Devices System market segmented into following regions North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan and the Middle East and Africa. North America is dominant in the Global Airway Clearance Devices System market mainly due to increased acceptances by patient population.

In North America, particularly the USA is dominating due to the high penetration. Economic conditions in the APAC region are set to drive the Airway Clearance Devices System market to new heights. European and APAC are fastest growing region due to rising awareness of Airway Clearance Devices System Market.

Growth in the Middle East and African region is considerably less when compared to the other regions. However, North America would maintain its position in the Airway Clearance Devices System market, though, we are anticipating emerging economies such India, China, Brazil, to have the highest growth rate in Airway Clearance Devices System market.

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Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Key Participants

The key participants in the Airway Clearance Devices System market mainly include Monaghan Medical Corporation, Koninklijke Philips N.V., Vortran Medical Technology and others. Companies are mainly focused on R&D to strengthen core competencies of the company’s product portfolio.

The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also includes projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to market segments such as geographies, application, and industry.

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According to the Mayo Clinic, here are some biofeedback methods and devices.

Brain Wave and Neurofeedback

With this type of biofeedback, a therapist attaches sensors to your scalp to monitor brain activity using an electroencephalograph (EEG). According to the 2020 Therapeutic Advances in Urology article mentioned above, this technique is often used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Respiratory Feedback

Breathing bands placed around your abdomen and chest help monitor your breathing patterns. This type of biofeedback may be helpful in the treatment of asthma, per the aforementioned research paper.

Heart Rate Feedback

This type of biofeedback can involve a couple of approaches: finger or earlobe sensors with a device used to detect blood volume changes that show your heart rate or heart rate variability (photoplethysmography), or sensors placed on your chest, lower torso, or wrists to measure your heart rate using an electrocardiograph (ECG). This may be used for stress management, research has found.

Muscle Contraction Feedback

Placing sensors over your skeletal muscles with an electromyograph (EMG) can monitor the electrical activity that causes muscle contraction. This type of feedback is often used to help treat urinary and fecal incontinence, and in rehabilitation settings.

Sweat Gland Activity

With this type, the therapist attaches sensors around your fingers, palm, or wrist with an electrodermograph (EDG) to measure sweat gland activity. This method may help in the management of stress and anxiety.

Temperature Feedback

Attaching sensors to your fingers or feet can measure blood flow to your skin. This may also be used to help people manage stress and anxiety.

At-Home Devices

If seeing a specialist isn’t possible, there are consumer wearables and home biofeedback devices on the market, such as headbands that monitor your brain activity while you meditate, and wrist-worn sensors that monitor your breathing, though it’s important to note that these devices have varying degrees of accuracy and usefulness.

One portable biofeedback device, RESPeRATE, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for helping reduce stress and lowering blood pressure. Another example is the HeartMath Inner Balance sensor, which monitors heart rate variability.

Devices like these can be an entry point for those who can’t pay for biofeedback therapy, since the device may be added as a complementary approach under the guidance of your primary healthcare team. Just make sure to do some research beforehand, and as always, ask your professional healthcare provider before trying anything new.

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Editor's note: Find the latest long COVID news and guidance in Medscape's Long COVID Resource Center.

Long COVID: The name says it all. It's an illness that, for many people, has not yet stopped.

Eric Roach became ill with COVID-19 in November 2020, and he's still sick. "I have brain fog, memory loss," says the 67-year-old Navy veteran from Spearfish, SD. "The fatigue has just been insane."

Long COVID, more formally known as post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC), is the lay term to describe when people start to recover, or seem to recover, from a bout of COVID-19 but then continue to suffer from symptoms. For some, it's gone on for 2 years or longer. While the governments of the U.S. and several other countries formally recognize the existence of long COVID, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has yet to formally define it. There's no approved treatment, and the causes are not understood.

Here's what is known: Long COVID is a post-viral condition affecting a large percentage of people who become infected with the coronavirus. It can be utterly debilitating or mildly annoying, and it is affecting enough people to cause concern for employers, health insurers, and governments.

First, the Many Symptoms

According to the CDC, long COVID symptoms may include:

  • Tiredness or fatigue that interferes with daily life

  • Symptoms that get worse after physical or mental effort (also known as "post-exertional malaise")

  • Fever

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

  • Cough

  • Chest pain

  • Fast-beating or pounding heart (heart palpitations)

  • Difficulty thinking or concentrating (sometimes referred to as "brain fog")

  • Headache

  • Sleep problems

  • Dizziness when standing

  • Pins-and-needles feelings

  • Change in smell or taste

  • Depression or anxiety

  • Diarrhea

  • Stomach pain

  • Joint or muscle pain

  • Rash

  • Changes in menstrual cycles

"People with post-COVID conditions may develop or continue to have symptoms that are hard to explain and manage," the CDC says on its website. "Clinical evaluations and results of routine blood tests, chest x-rays, and electrocardiograms may be normal. The symptoms are similar to those reported by people with ME/CFS (myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome) and other poorly understood chronic illnesses that may occur after other infections."

Doctors may not fully appreciate the subtle nature of some of the symptoms.

"People with these unexplained symptoms may be misunderstood by their health care providers, which can result in a long time for them to get a diagnosis and receive appropriate care or treatment," the CDC says.

Health professionals should recognize that long COVID can be disabling,the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services says. "Long COVID can substantially limit a major life activity," HHS says in civil rights guidance. One possible example: "A person with long COVID who has lung damage that causes shortness of breath, fatigue, and related effects is substantially limited in respiratory function, among other major life activities," HHS says.

How Many People Are Affected?

This has been difficult to judge because not everyone who has had COVID-19 gets tested for it and there are no formal diagnostic criteria yet for long COVID. The CDC estimates that 19% of patients in the U.S. who have ever had COVID-19 have long COVID symptoms.

Some estimates go higher. A University of Oxford study in September 2021 found more than a third of patients had symptoms of long COVID between 3 months and 6 months after a COVID-19 diagnosis. As many as 55% of COVID-19 patients in one Chinese study had one or more lingering symptoms 2 years later, Lixue Huang, MD, of the China-Japan Friendship Hospital in Beijing, and colleagues reported in the journal Lancet Respiratory Medicine in May.

According to the CDC, age is a factor. "Older adults are less likely to have long COVID than younger adults. Nearly three times as many adults ages 50-59 currently have long COVID than those age 80 and older," the CDC says. Women and racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be affected.

Many people are experiencing neurological effects, such as the so-called brain fog, according to Ziyad Al-Aly, MD, of the Washington University School of Medicine and the VA St. Louis Health Care System, writing in the journal Nature Medicine in September. They estimated that 6.6 million Americans have brain impairments associated with COVID infection.

"Some of the neurologic disorders reported here are serious chronic conditions that will impact some people for a lifetime," they wrote. "Given the colossal scale of the pandemic, and even though the absolute numbers reported in this work are small, these may translate into a large number of affected individuals around the world — and this will likely contribute to a rise in the burden of neurologic diseases."


It's not clear what the underlying causes are, but most research points to a combination of factors.Suspects include ongoing inflammation, tiny blood clots, and reactivation of what are known as latent viruses, or those that linger quietly in your body without causing damage. In May, Brent Palmer, PhD, of the University of Colorado School of Medicine, and colleagues found people with long COVID had persistent activation of immune cells known as T-cells that were specific for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

COVID-19 itself can damage organs, and long COVID might be caused by ongoing damage. In August, Alexandros Rovas, MD, of University Hospital Munster in Germany, and colleagues found patients with long COVID had evidence of damage to their capillaries. "Whether, to what extent, and when the observed damage might be reversible remains unclear," they wrote in the journal Angiogenesis.

People with long COVID have immune responses to other viruses, such as Epstein-Barr -- evidence that COVID-19 might reactivate latent viruses. "Our data suggest the involvement of persistent antigen, reactivation of latent herpesviruses, and chronic inflammation," immunobiologist Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, of the Yale University School of Medicine, and colleagues wrote in a study posted in August that had not yet been peer-reviewed for publication.

This might be causing an autoimmune response. "The infection may cause the immune system to start making autoantibodies that attack a person's own organs and tissues," the NIH says.

There could be other factors. A study by Harvard researchers found that people who felt stressed, depressed, or lonely before catching COVID-19 were more likely to develop long COVID afterward. "Distress was more strongly associated with developing long COVID than physical health risk factors such as obesity, asthma, and hypertension," Siwen Wang, MD, a research fellow with Harvard University'sT.H. Chan School of Public Health, said in a statement. Plus, nearly 44% of those in the study developed COVID-19 infections after having been assessed for stress, Wang and colleagues reported in the journal JAMA Psychiatry.

Vaccine Protection

There's evidence that vaccination protects against long COVID, both by preventing infection in the first place, but also even for people who have breakthrough infections.

A meta-analysis covering studies involving 17 million people found evidence vaccination might reduce the severity of COVID-19 or might help the body clear any lingering virus after an infection.

"Overall, vaccination was associated with reduced risks or odds of long COVID, with preliminary evidence suggesting that two doses are more effective than one dose," Cesar Fernandez de las Penas, PhD, of King Juan Carlos University in Madrid, Spain, and colleagues wrote.

A team in Milan, Italy, found unvaccinated people in their study were nearly three times as likely to have serious symptoms for longer than 4 weeks compared to vaccinated volunteers. Writing in July in The Journal of the American Medical Association, Elena Azzolini, MD, PhD, an assistant professor atthe Humanitas Research Hospital, said the team found two or three doses of vaccine reduced the risk of hospitalization from COVID to 16% or 17% compared to 42% for the unvaccinated.


With no diagnostic criteria and no understanding of the causes, it's hard for doctors to determine treatments.

Most experts dealing with long COVID, even those at the specialty centers that have been set up at hospitals and health systems in the U.S.,recommend that patients start with their primary care doctor before moving on to specialists.

"The mainstay of management is supportive, holistic care, symptom control, and detection of treatable complications," Trish Greenhalgh, MD, professor of primary care health sciences at the University of Oxford, and colleagues wrote in the journal The BMJ in September. "Patients with long COVID greatly value input from their primary care clinician. Generalist clinicians can help patients considerably by hearing the patient's story and validating their experience … (and) making the diagnosis of long COVID (which does not have to be by exclusion) and excluding alternative diagnoses."

Evidence is building that long COVID closely resembles other post-viral conditions -- something that can provide clues for treatment. For example, several studies indicate that exercise doesn't help most patients.

But there are approaches that can work. Treatments may include pulmonary rehabilitation; autonomic conditioning therapy, which includes breathing therapy; and cognitive rehabilitation to relieve brain fog. Doctors are also trying the antidepressant amitriptyline to help with sleep disturbances and headaches; the antiseizure medication gabapentin to help pain, numbness, and other neurological symptoms; and drugs to relieve low blood pressure in patients experiencing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

The NIH is sponsoring studies that have recruited just over 8,200 adults. And more than two dozen researchers from Harvard; Stanford; the University of California, San Francisco; the J. Craig Venter Institute; Johns Hopkins University; the University of Pennsylvania; Mount Sinai Hospitals; Cardiff University; and Yale announced in September they were forming the Long COVID Research Initiative to speed up studies.

The group, with funding from private enterprise, plans to conduct tissue biopsy, imaging studies, and autopsies and will search for potential biomarkers in the blood of patients.


CDC: "Long COVID or Post-COVID Conditions."

CDC National Center for Health Statistics: "Nearly One in Five American Adults Who Have Had COVID-19 Still Have 'Long COVID.'"

National Institutes of Health: "Long COVID," "Long COVID symptoms linked to inflammation."

PLoS Medicine: "Incidence, co-occurrence, and evolution of long-COVID features: A 6-month retrospective cohort study of 273,618 survivors of COVID-19."

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine: "Health outcomes in people 2 years after surviving hospitalisation with COVID-19: a longitudinal cohort study."

Angiogenesis: "Persistent capillary rarefication in long COVID syndrome."

PLoS Pathogens: "SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells associate with inflammation and reduced lung function in pulmonary post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2."

Lancet eClinical Medicine: "Impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the risk of developing long-COVID and on existing long-COVID symptoms: A systematic review."

JAMA Psychiatry: "Associations of Depression, Anxiety, Worry, Perceived Stress, and Loneliness Prior to Infection With Risk of Post–COVID-19 Conditions."

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: "Guidance on 'Long COVID' as a Disability Under the ADA, Section 504, and Section 1557."

Long COVID Research Initiative:"Introducing LCRI."

Nature Medicine: "Long-term Neurologic Outcomes of COVID-19."

The BMJ: "Long covid—an update for primary care."

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Obesity constitutes an important threat to national and global public health in terms of its prevalence and rising incidence, quality of life, life expectancy, and economic burden [1,2]. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery is the most effective therapeutic option to achieve long-term weight loss and improve the associated comorbidities [3]. This has made Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and adjustable gastric banding the most popular and commonly performed bariatric surgeries [4]. However, a small proportion of patients have also been reported to not reach their optimum goal for weight loss two years after the procedure and very few can fail or regain the weight. While anatomical factors can play a part, behavioural and psychosocial optimizations are regarded as equally important. This includes eating patterns, depression, nutritional factors, and exercise [5,6].

Virtual reality (VR) development and applications have gained wide recognition in medical services by providing solutions to improve patients’ outcomes. This is through patients’ education, improving mental health, and post-operative care, including pain management, physical therapy, and rehabilitation [7,8]. VR is a computer-generated simulation of a real or imagined environment. It can be immersive or non-immersive according to its ability to involve the users [9]. The former has been the focus of many medical applications due to its ability to give the user control of the reproduced environment. Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is usually delivered in a variety of ways and the most popular being head-mounted displays or simply a headset [8].

We aim to provide insight on some of these immersive applications and how they can be included to enhance the patient pathway to optimize outcomes both in the pre- and post-operative period for patients undergoing bariatric surgery.


A systematic search following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) research criteria was conducted from January 2015 to December 2021. PubMed was searched using the following keywords: virtual reality, patient education, anxiety and pain, physical rehabilitation, behavioural support, obesity, eating disorders, body image, and substance cessation.

Thirty-four studies were identified and included in the final manuscript (Figure 1) supporting VR technology across applications that can be applied to bariatric patients’ surgical pathways. The applications were subcategorized into eight different areas of interest, which can help to shape the concept of the virtual ecosystem of bariatric patients (Figure 2).


VR applications have been described in the eight domains mentioned below, which can be applied in relation to patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

Virtual Reality Patient Education (VR PE)

VR education has been introduced to make the information more meaningful and patient-centred by enabling its users to be fully immersed in an interactive simulated and self-controllable visual and auditory experience [10]. In a study by Pandrangi et al. [11], VR was found to be a useful informative tool in educating patients about their aneurysmal disease through interactive reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images of their aortic anatomy. The majority of the patients in this study agreed that VR 3D anatomy helped to improve their understanding and therefore felt more engaged in their healthcare decisions [11].

VR PE has also played a role in improving the stress levels of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) by improving clarity and levels of education about their treatment. A randomized study on 60 patients with chest malignancy showed that patients who received VR PE showed significant improvement in comprehension and reduction in stress and anxiety levels when compared to standard education [12]. Another study on 43 patients utilized VR PE by creating 3D images of patients in RT sessions and what to expect during the treatment. After the VR PE, 95% of patients agreed that they had a clear understanding of how they would feel when lying on the treatment table. Also, patients’ understanding of the location and the size of their cancer had significantly improved from around 50% to 95% with an increase in the orientation of side effects of the treatment by 30% post-VR PE [13].

In bariatric surgery, there is no currently reported data on the applications of VR education. However, the potential impact of VR PE can be numerous across the weight management pathway. Preoperatively, bariatric patients could potentially utilize VR to be virtually educated about different surgical options versus conservative treatment through enhanced 3D interactive images. This could be seen to help in better understanding of their options including surgery and thereby enhancing informed consent and overall education.

Post-operatively, VR-enhanced education could provide an option for daily or weekly updates on lifestyle changes, which could help in improving compliance. Importantly, this can be done from the comfort of the patient’s home with the added advantage of reducing costs and time for travelling to attend appointments.

Anxiety Related to Surgery

A significant amount of anxiety related to surgery is due to the fear and uncertainty of the outcomes. Its psychological and physical effects are associated with longer recovery, an increase in the need for analgesia, anaesthetic requirement, and unfavourable behavioural and emotional outcomes [14]. Conventional methods of mitigation of preoperative anxiety are pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies [15].

Recently, with promising results in the management of anxiety and other psychiatric disorders, VR has been successfully applied to reduce anxiety related to surgery in different surgical settings [16]. Chan et al. [17] tested the effect of VR relaxing meditation and breathing exercises on 108 women undergoing hysteroscopy. This showed that anxiety scores were significantly reduced after the 10 minutes of VR content, which helped in reducing pain and stress related to surgery. Also, around 85% of patients reported the VR experience as good or excellent [17].

In minimally invasive abdominal surgery, Haisley et al. [18] used VR meditation as a perioperative tool with favourable results in reducing pain, anxiety, and nausea and around 75% of patients stated that they would use the VR again [18]. Similarly, VR meditation showed favourable results in reducing pain and anxiety in burns and complex pain [19,20].

The rationale for using VR to improve anxiety preoperatively is by immersing patients in a fully simulated relaxing environment with the objective of placing them in a more empowered state to deal with the triggers of their anxiety [21]. This could be applied to the bariatric population before surgery. It is to be seen from future studies whether these expected results can be validated in bariatric patients. There is therefore the potential for obtaining better evidence for patient satisfaction and reducing stress related to bariatric surgery.

Pain Management

Successful pain management is a key element of the post-operative course as it shortens recovery and reduces risks of cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. In bariatric surgery, pain management is essential to enhance recovery and prompt early mobilization, which helps to decrease venous thromboembolism, prevent other events, and reduce hospitalization [22]. Therefore, a multimodal approach through regional and systematic analgesia is considered the most effective method as it minimizes opiate use, which can induce obstructive sleep apnoea, which is more liable due to the co-morbidities of obesity [23].

Applications of VR in pain management in other surgical patients have been reported to have numerous benefits. This includes a reduction in pain scores after cardiac, knee, abdominal, and spinal surgery with overall patients reporting the use of VR as a pleasant experience and stating that they would use it again on further occasions [18,24,25]. VR pain management follows a similar concept to VR and anxiety meditation by immersing patients in a simulated relaxing environment, which can help to divert the patient's feelings from their pain. This could be playing a major role in bariatric patients' management of pain and anxiety related to surgery with proper application integration in their peri-operative pathway.

Optimizing Pulmonary Function for Surgery

Respiratory function in morbidly obese patients follows a restrictive pattern with up to 77% suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea [26]. This increases the risk of impaired post-operative oxygenation and other respiratory complications in the form of atelectasis. Optimization of pulmonary function for surgery includes smoking cessation, breathing exercises, including inspiratory muscle training, incentive spirometry, and optimization of chronic disease, for example, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CPOD) [27].

With the increase of applications of VR in different rehabilitation programmes, VR has been aiding in pulmonary exercises in both healthy individuals and COPD patients [28,29]. VR pulmonary rehabilitation is designed to enable home-based exercises in the form of a 3D avatar instructor in an immersive relaxing environment to guide patients through breathing exercises based on traditional rehabilitation programmes [30]. In COPD patients, VR-based respiratory rehabilitation has shown to have similar outcomes when compared to a conventional programme with the additional benefit of performing the exercises from home. Moreover, VR showed enrichment of experience by also decreasing the levels of anxiety during exercise and therefore optimizing cardiorespiratory function [31].

Physical Fitness Applications

Pre- and post-operative physical activity (PA) is regarded as an important element in enhancing recovery after surgery as it improves physical state, responses to stress from surgery, and improvement of cardiovascular function, thereby reducing complications [32].

In the bariatric population, a structured exercise regime is considered a feasible and effective adjunct therapy that benefits cardiometabolic parameters when compared to those with bariatric surgery alone [33]. Exercise before surgery has shown to be beneficial in reducing body weight, improving blood pressure, general fitness, quality of life satisfaction, and decreasing fasting plasma insulin and blood lipid. Exercise after bariatric surgery has been shown to preserve dynamic muscle strength and contribute to maintaining weight loss after calorie restriction [34].

Although PA promotion is recognized as an important component of weight loss programmes, there are no current evidence-based or standardized bariatric surgery-specific PA guidelines [35]. Reported exercise regimes ranged from walking, aquatic, resistance, and supervised exercises. Also, adherence to exercise before and after surgery plays a big role in physical rehabilitation. As in the bariatric population, many can face barriers in the form of low confidence levels in their abilities and not feeling comfortable going to the gym due to real and perceived discrimination. Therefore, many come up with the belief of not having time to participate in sports [36].

VR rehabilitation has gained much recognition from dedicated platforms like treadmills, diving, cycling simulators, and medically oriented VR rehabilitation. These studies have demonstrated increased participation of users utilizing VR exercise programmes [37]. VR rehabilitation and exercise have shown to be effective in healthy individuals and different medical rehabilitations. It was reported to be equivalent and sometimes more superior to standard physiotherapy in cerebral palsy, spinal injury, and stroke [38]. In healthy individuals, VR exercise was demonstrated to increase adherence and enjoyment with positive physiological effects during exercise [39]. It was also reported that obese children performed better on treadmills while using VR than traditional walking, as VR allowed more distraction and less discomfort [40].

VR exercises during rehabilitation can therefore potentially play a major role in pre- and post-operative PA improvement in bariatric patients. Given the feasibility and the safety of these home-based devices, it can decrease the load on healthcare services, as most of the standard pre-operative programmes are resource intensive.

Virtual Reality and Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Eating and depressive disorders significantly affect the bariatric population with a prevalence of 24% and 17%, respectively. Both can lead to less post-operative weight loss, weight regains, impaired general psychology, and quality of life [41]. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended for patients undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS). It has been shown to improve self-monitoring and control eating behaviours with significant improvement in depression and anxiety and therefore better results [42].

Over the last decades, VR-enhanced cognitive therapy (VRCBT) has been embraced for being a novel way to deliver CBT. The technique creates an interactive 3D environment to simulate successful goal achievement. This helps patients to overcome memories of previous real-life experiences through emotionally guided virtual exposure [43]. VRCBT has shown favourable results in anxiety, phobias, social anxiety disorders, and depression [21]. Moreover, randomized trials have shown VRCBT to be superior to conventional CBT in managing eating disorders and binge eating [44,45]. This helped in weight reduction therapy and adding adherence to programmes [46].

There is a paucity of evidence of the use of VR in the overweight and morbidly obese population. Phelan et al. [47] tested the use of a VR environment on 15 overweight adults for four weeks with the main hypothesis to evaluate the effect of the simulated scenes on behavioural skills related to eating habits. Although they showed no difference in weight loss among participants, VR intervention was more preferred by patients over traditional weight loss programmes [47]. Manzoni et al. [45] tested the efficacy of an enhanced VRCBT module aimed to unlock the negative memory of the body and modify its behavioural and emotional behaviour. A total of 163 female morbidly obese inpatients were randomly assigned to three CBT-based treatments: a standard behavioural inpatient programme (SBP), SBP plus standard CBT, and SBP plus VR-enhanced CBT. The study showed that patients in the VR group had a greater probability of maintaining or improving weight loss at one-year follow-up than SBP patients and, to a lesser extent, CBT patients. On the contrary, participants who received only a behavioural programme regained on average most of the weight they had lost [45].

VRCBT can therefore be a valuable tool in managing behavioural disorders related to obesity in patients undergoing WLS. This can help in maintaining weight loss and improving well-being and quality of life.

Virtual Reality and Body Image (VRBI)

Body image disorders (BIDs) are linked to various psychological and physical sequelae of impaired functions, for instance, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and poor quality of life [48]. Among the bariatric population, body image dissatisfaction is associated with binge eating, depression, and lower self-esteem, with one in five bariatric patients identifying appearance as their main motive for surgery [49]. Improvement in body image perception after successful surgery has been linked to a decrease in compulsive eating syndromes, reduction in body mass index (BMI), and improvement in self-esteem and intimate relationships [50].

A contrary aspect of body image after surgery includes the issue of excess skin with massive weight reduction. This has been linked to poor body satisfaction, dermatitis and skin fold irritations, and impairment in daily activities and exercise. In turn, this leads 85% of bariatric patients to seek body-contouring surgery (BCS) to elevate this problem [51].

The application of VR has been used to improve BID. This is by creating a 3D simulation of their bodies in the form of avatars through an immersive environment that reproduces situations related to their body image concerns. Through multisensory simulations, it produces an empowered feeling of ownership of one’s body, which consequently promotes a healthier body image and behaviour [52]. A recent systematic review of six studies utilizing avatars and VR in weight loss programmes showed that avatar-based interventions were effective in both short- and mid-term weight loss. Also, the technology helped to improve exercise adherence in the long term [53]. VR was also used to assess the BID of 78 women with different BMIs by exposing the participants to different versions of avatars: slimmer, same weight, and overweight. The study showed that women with higher BMI reported more BID on their replicated avatar and showed satisfaction with their slimmer version. This finding indicated that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring BID [54].

Potentially, VR avatars can also play a role in body image perception in bariatric patients. It can be integrated to improve BIDs by recreating slimmer avatars, which could promote adherence to weight loss and exercise programmes.

Smoking and Alcohol

While the increase in BMI is a risk factor for adverse outcomes related to surgical procedures, smoking's hazardous effects range from increased risks of pulmonary complications, wound infection, venous thromboembolism, and slower recovery. Similarly, alcohol consumption before surgery can lead to increased unfavourable outcomes [55]. Smoking and other substance abuse are recommended to be stopped four to six weeks pre-operatively [56]. VR has been tested as a potential solution to stop smoking and alcohol usage by inducing an advanced cue exposure therapy (CET), which was superior to static images or videos used in conventical settings [57]. Also, VR exposure therapy (VRET) has been reported to be more effective if combined with conventional cognitive behaviour therapy in relation to stopping smoking [58].

Although its applications are still under development and validation, VRET in smoking and alcohol cessation could play an important role in optimizing patients undergoing bariatric surgery as a part of a virtual reality surgical care package (VRSCP).


Patients who are candidates for WLS usually undergo variable preparatory phase and post-operative optimization to improve both short- and long-term results. Standard care models usually involve education and follow-up through multidisciplinary teams with reflection on the patient's progress through educational sessions and follow-up plans.

While VR applications are being investigated in many surgical and medical specialities, their application to patients undergoing WLS is limited and not yet explored. The favourable applications of VR in patient education, anxiety and pain management, preoperative optimization, and behavioural and physiological treatment can be packaged as a surgical care bundle making bariatric patients' journey more satisfactory with the potential for improved outcomes.

Despite its promising applications, VR is still an emerging technology and has its own initial drawbacks to gaining traction in the healthcare system. There are several reasons for this. Firstly, the obvious cost of the systems and the absence of adequate clinical validation could play a major role in limiting widespread adoption. Further delays in adoption would likely be seen within the education of both healthcare providers and their patients, particularly on the application and utilization of the systems. The technology is still seen to be clumsy to wear and will need educational support to use [59].

With the increased investments and advancement in VR technology, education of healthcare professionals and further studies demonstrating evidence of improved outcomes, VR will play a major role in surgical patients and more specifically bariatric patients. This could be even refined as a personalized surgical care package. This will contribute to a fully virtual ecosystem in health care.

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Baptist Memorial Hospital-North Mississippi’s pulmonary rehabilitation program was recently certified by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, recognizing the hospital’s commitment to enhancing standards of patient care.

To earn accreditation, Baptist North Mississippi’s rehabilitation program participated in an application process that requires extensive documentation of the program’s practices.

“The certification from the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation is a testament to the high-quality care of our pulmonary rehab program,” said Bill Henning, administrator and CEO of Baptist North Mississippi. “Our health care providers and colleagues at Baptist North Mississippi work diligently to provide advanced care for patients.”

AACVPR Program Certification is the only peer-reviewed accreditation process that assesses a program’s adherence to standards and guidelines developed and published by AACVPR and other related professional societies.

The certification is valid for three years. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs help people with pulmonary problems (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory symptoms) recover faster and live healthier.

Programs include exercise, education, counseling and support for patients and their families.

For more information, call 662-636-1000 or visit

Courtesy of BMH-NM

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It's a technique self-help gurus and influencers swear by for controlling stress levels. 

Now experts have shown that mindfulness breathing exercises can physically lower blood pressure.

Just 30 deep breaths a day with an inhaler-like device was found to be as effective as medication.

The device creates resistance, forcing the patient to use their breathing muscles to push and pull air through it. 

Scientists believe having strong respiratory muscles allows for deeper breathing without the device.  

It is thought that taking in deep breaths helps dilate blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow through them and lowering blood pressure.

But researchers say it should not be a replacement for other healthy habits like exercise, which have benefits beyond just blood pressure. 

Previous research has indicated that breathing exercises - often used during meditation of mindfulness practices - can help ward off hypertension.

Meditation is a popular mindfulness practice in which the subject focuses on their breath.

Meditation is a popular mindfulness practice in which the subject focuses on their breath. 

The POWERbreathe device strengthens the user's respiratory muscles with each use.

The POWERbreathe device strengthens the user's respiratory muscles with each use.

Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder and the University of Arizona looked at 128 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 for a span of six weeks.

Participants used a $32 PowerBreathe device for about five to 10 minutes each day, taking 30 deep breaths.

Within two weeks participants started to see improvements with very few side effects.

What is mindfulness? 

Mindfulness is a popular form of meditation in which you focus on being intensely aware of what you're sensing and feeling in the moment.

The practice involves breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.

It is often touted as a universal tool for boosting mental wellbeing by reducing stress, anxiety and depression.

Mindfulness has become popular in recent years as a way to improve mental and physical well-being. 

Celebrities endorsing it include Emma Watson, Davina McCall, Angelina Jolie and Oprah Winfrey.

How can it lower blood pressure?

It is thought that taking in deep breaths helps dilate blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow through them and lowering blood pressure.

Scientists believe having strong respiratory muscles allows for deeper breathing, increasing the effectiveness of the practice.

But researchers say it should not be a replacement for other healthy habits like exercise, which have benefits beyond just blood pressure. 

By the trial's end, researchers saw an average drop of 9 mmHg in systolic blood pressure among the participants. 

That is on par with many commonly prescribed medications, previous studies suggest.

Older volunteers who had higher blood pressure to begin with saw the most notable decreases in blood pressure but even young subjects benefitted.

'We would expect that if you went longer, blood pressure would go down even more,' lead study author Professor Daniel Craighead told Insider

He added: 'People with blood pressure at an unhealthy level could stand to benefit from adding this to their routine now.'

The study was published in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is defined as 130 or higher for the first number, or 80 or higher for the second number. 

Normal BP is 120/80 or lower. If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health problems including heart attacks and strokes. 

People who smoke, do not exercise or maintain a health diet, or are chronically stressed out are at far higher risk of experiencing high blood pressure. 

Roughly 116 million Americans and 12 million Brits have hypertension. 

Doctors have an arsenal of treatments designed to manage the condition. 

The most common medicines used to treat high BP include diuretics, which cause the kidneys to excrete more sodium and water, thus reducing fluid volume throughout the body and widening blood vessels. 

Doctors may also reach for ACE inhibitors, which block production of the hormone angiotensin II, a compound in the blood that causes narrowing of blood vessels and increases blood pressure. 

Young Female Medical Worker Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure Of Senior Black Man Using Cuff

Young Female Medical Worker Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure Of Senior Black Man Using Cuff

Oprah Winfrey, Sept. 21, 2022.

Sir Paul McCartney, Sept. 7, 2022.

Celebrities have gotten in on mindfulness meditation practices to cope with stress.  

Deep breathing is a key tenet of mindfulness, or the practice of being present with one's emotions without needing to react to them.

It often incorporates simple yoga as well as mindfulness meditation and body scanning, a technique where a person pays attention to their body and sensations in a gradual sequence from head to toe. 

The term 'mindfulness' has become a catch-all in certain circles for any activity that promotes self-improvement. 

A swath of celebrities have become proponents of mindful breathing and meditation, such as Oprah Winfrey, singer Katy Perry, and musician Paul McCartney.  

Mindfulness practice is on the rise, particularly in the US, with some studies estimating 5.7million Americans have tried it at least once. 

The true number could be much higher. Forty per cent of Americans meditate at least weekly, according to Pew Research.  

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If these last few years of the pandemic have shown us anything, it is that our society lived in constant stress. A stress that, when it stops being a punctual reaction and becomes a chronic situation, has multiple consequences. According to the American Psychological Association, chronic stress, if left untreated, can lead to anxiety, insomnia, muscle pain, and a weakened immune system. It can even contribute to the development of serious ailments such as heart disease, depression and obesity.” Although what many people are unaware of is that stress can even affect our pelvic floor. And it is that, according to various investigations, this is because the pelvic floor muscles actively contract in response to physical or mental stress.

Why emotional stress moves to the genital area

“It is common that when we feel tense or nervous we tend to tighten the gluteal muscles. Although it is a normal response, when it is caused by chronic stress, it can cause all kinds of pelvic floor disorders”, explains Rachel Gelman, physiotherapist specialized in pelvic floor and collaborator of INTIMINA. In this way, various consequences can appear that range “from pain during sexual intercourse, pelvic organ prolapse or low back pain to bladder dysfunction and constipation.” Something we might never have related.

Caroline Correia, director of Fisiofit Mujer, provides more information. “When we are stressed, we alter our postural and respiratory pattern, which leads to an alteration in the musculature of the diaphragm.” Specifically, this usually remains more tense, favoring the increase in intra-abdominal pressure and the downward thrust of the abdominal viscera. In this way, the pelvic floor muscles are forced to contract to counteract the increased pressure and ensure urinary continence. All this process of pelvic floor contraction over time will lead to the formation of trigger points, which are basically pain points. “Most of the time they are the cause of pain during sexual intercourse, back problems, pain that radiates to the leg or discomfort during the period. In addition to these problems, a constant contraction of the pelvic muscles can lead to muscle fatigue, favoring the appearance of the dreaded urinary incontinence”, explains the expert physiotherapist in pelvic floor.

In the case of pain during sexual intercourse, this can also become a vicious circle. According to a study by the University of Örebro (Sweden), only among women under 30 years of age, around 20% report recurrent sexual pain. This pain, in addition, causes fear of sexual relations and, therefore, the avoidance of them. In this way, according to this work, “women with pain reported higher levels of fear avoidance and pain catastrophizing, as well as depression and anxiety.” A situation that does nothing but maintain the stress and the underlying cause of the pain itself.

Identify the relationship between stress and pelvic floor

The first step is to identify that the symptoms may be due to a stressful situation and not to any other problem. Something that is not easy at first. The key is precisely to rule out other possible causes. As Correira exemplifies, “a very similar case is that of chronic constipation. There are many women who have a correct diet, adequate water intake and exercise regularly, but still suffer from constipation. The answer would be the level of stress.”

In the case of the pelvic floor, it would be necessary to rule out that the pain is due to a physical cause. For example, having gone through childbirth or having suffered some type of injury or infection in the area, as Gelman recalls. If we do not find another apparent cause and we know that we are going through a long stage of stress, perhaps we should first try to work on it. Obvious things like “going outdoors, doing gentle exercises like yoga and dancing, writing, spending time with friends, masturbating or of course going to therapy,” insists the physical therapist.

On the other hand, there are also specific exercises to relieve stress on a more physical level. Caroline Correia recommends breathing mindfully for at least a minute. “Something so simple helps stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for lowering stress levels.” It should be remembered that there is a relationship between respiratory and postural function with the pelvic floor. According to some studies, functional improvements in breathing patterns and pelvic stability could indirectly affect the changes produced in the pelvic floor, even in the case of symptoms such as urinary incontinence. In addition, some stretching could also be useful to favor the relationship of the diaphragmatic muscles. “Such as stretching that favors hip opening, psoas stretching and quadratus lumborum”, Correira adds.

Pelvic floor exercises when stress overwhelms us

Although working on stress, which is the underlying cause, is key, if we already suffer from pain in the pelvic floor area, there are also certain exercises that can help relieve it.

In this regard, Rachel Gelman proposes these three ideas:

  • Happy baby: “Lie on your back and gently pull your knees up toward your chest, but keep them pointing out to the sides. Place your hands behind your thighs or knees. She holds on and breathes deeply for about thirty to sixty seconds. If this puts too much pressure on your knees or hips, you can prop your ankles and feet up on a chair and let your knees gently drop to the sides while lying on your back.”
  • Child’s Pose: “Start on all fours and slowly lower your hips over your feet. You can put a pillow or something similar between the heels and the pelvis. Afterward, he extends his arms or keep them folded under his head. Hold this pose for thirty to sixty seconds, and breathe gently.”
  • Supported deep squat: “Lean against a wall and slowly slide down into a squat position. The lower back should remain against the wall. If your hip or knee hurts or you have difficulty squatting, you can use a pillow or stool under your hips. Hold the squat for 30 to 60 seconds and take a deep breath.”

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María Rossich: the teachings of the woman who «trains» the period

María Rossich: the teachings of the woman who «trains» the period

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The lungs are two of the most important organs that are affected by the coronavirus, which leads to Covid infection in the respiratory system. It has been noticed that while most patients recover completely after the infection, at least 5 per cent to 10 per cent experience prolonged symptoms that last for several months or even years. This is known as ‘long Covid‘.

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Dr Vishal Sehgal, the president of Portea Medical says “pulmonary rehabilitation” can improve a person’s lung function, their exercise performance, quality of life, and even counter any anxiety associated with the condition.

“Pulmonary rehabilitation is symptom-based; it requires a multi-pronged approach to deal with the various related complications. It is a holistic plan that comprises preliminary patient assessment followed by medicinal treatment, lifestyle modifications, physical exercise, nutritional support, self-awareness and psychological counselling,” he says.

According to the expert, some major aspects of a rehabilitation programme are as follows:

1. Physical activity

Physical activity can significantly improve the quality of daily living. From low-impact training for the chest and back muscles, to more intense forms of exercise, there is a range of activities that can help. Under the guidance of a trained specialist, these are done depending on individual progress and capacity, says Dr Sehgal.

2. Breathing techniques

Breathing techniques can help alleviate the pressure on the lungs. There are different types of breathing techniques including those that are part of yoga that can help in case the patient experiences symptoms of breathlessness, he adds. “For instance, pranayama — the ancient practice of breath control — helps in improving multiple aspects of physical health, including lung function.”

3. Diet and lifestyle

A balanced diet helps in boosting immunity and overall wellness. It can also help in alleviating certain symptoms of long Covid, the doctor states. “Those who are put under a pulmonary rehab programme are given a diet rich in complex carbohydrates and fibres, as well as other micronutrients. In case a patient lacks access to a proper rehabilitation facility at hospitals, it is possible to do this process at home.”

“People who survive Covid-19 can experience long-term consequences: respiratory, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine. There is a rapid increase in the burden of long Covid which calls for strategies that can help improve outcomes over time,” says Dr Sehgal, adding that on World Lung Day, it is important to understand and discuss these strategies as well as take precautions and prevent the spread of the virus further.

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While advanced technological and infrastructural developments have made life easier for all of us, they have also had a disastrous impact on the environment, particularly on air quality. Air pollution has become one of the biggest problems of our time. Fine particulate matter polluting the air can easily penetrate your bloodstream and adversely impact your overall health, especially your lungs. According to the data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO), ambient air pollution was the cause of 4.2 million deaths in 2016 and is estimated to lead to about 16 percent of all lung cancer deaths.

So, how can you keep your lungs healthy while living in a polluted city? Here we’re revealing how a few lifestyle tips can keep lungs healthy.

Follow these 9 tips to keep lungs healthy and strengthen them to fight pollution:

1. Keep an eye on pollution forecast

There are many applications and websites that provide nearly accurate predictive outdoor air quality reports every day. With their colour-coded system, these apps help you comprehend just how much pollution you will expose yourself to when you step outside that day.

2. Stay indoors on bad AQI days

Spend as much time indoors as you can, particularly on days when the pollution forecast or the AQI (air quality index) shows an alarming number. In case you need to step out, wear a high-quality face mask at all times to avoid inhaling harmful particles in the air.

3. Don’t exercise outdoors

Whenever the pollution levels are high, avoid exercising outdoors. Walking, jogging or any other strenuous activities that might increase your breathing rate can lead to the inhalation of harmful particles present in the air.

4. Drink enough water

Drinking enough water can help in flushing toxins out of your body. It is advisable to drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of water every day to stay hydrated.

tips to keep lungs healthy
Don’t reduce your water intake. Image Courtesy: Shutterstock

5. Maintain a healthy diet

One of the best ways to resist harmful effects of air pollution is by building up your immunity against infections. For this, maintaining a healthy diet rich in vital nutrients like vitamins C and E is essential. Make sure that your diet is packed with the nutrients to keep up the health of your respiratory tract.

6. Quit smoking

You need to quit smoking now, especially if you live in a polluted city. Nothing is more damaging to your lungs than smoking cigarettes. The harmful chemicals in cigarettes compounded with the harmful particles in the air can be immensely damaging to your lungs.

7. Get an air purifier

The air inside your home can also be polluted, sometimes even more than the air outside. For this reason, it is a smart choice to invest in an air purifier. Make sure to keep your air purifier clean and replace its filter frequently.

8. Practice breathing exercises

Practicing breathing exercises every day can prove to be helpful in improving lung functions. Some of these exercises include belly breathing and pursed lip breathing.

tips to keep lungs healthy
Breathing properly in the morning can improve lung health. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

9. Go green!

Make sure you do everything you can towards reducing air pollution and improving air quality. To do your bit, you can consume less energy in your homes, use hand-powered equipment, and take a bike, walk, or carpool whenever possible.


With air pollution posing such a huge risk to your lung health as well as overall well-being, it is best to follow the above-mentioned measures, especially if you are living in a polluted city. If you experience any respiratory problems or symptoms of lung issues, consult with a doctor right away.

Air pollution, if not more, is as dangerous and harmful to the human body as has been smoking over the years. It’s time we realize it is harmful and take preventive measures to safeguard ourselves from this growing menace.

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Every year, World Lung Day is celebrated on September 25 to advocate lung health and spread awareness. Lung disease is any problem that arises in the lungs and prevents it from working properly. Lung disease is divided into three main types - airway diseases, lung tissue diseases and lung circulation diseases.

The lungs, just like any other part of your body, age with time and that's why they need extra attention and care. People don't understand the importance of healthy lungs until they experience a breathing problem. After the Covid-19 pandemic took over the world, millions across the globe showed signs of weak lungs and reported breathing issues.

In 2022, it's crucial that we look after the health of our lungs and take precaution against harmful diseases that can make our breathing difficult. After all, the lungs are a crucial part of the respiratory system as they carry oxygen from the air and pump it through the body's airways and air sacs. The oxygen is then absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the heart via the blood vessels.

Understanding the three main types of lung disease:

Airway Diseases

These harmful diseases impact the tubes that carry oxygen, making it difficult for people to breathe.

Lung Tissue Diseases
These diseases affect the structure of the lung tissue, which then makes it difficult for the lungs to function properly and diffuse oxygen from the airways into the bloodstream.

Lung Circulation Diseases

This type of disease impacts the blood vessels in the lungs. These diseases affect the way blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body.

Most Common Lung Diseases:

Most common lung diseases emerge from one or more of these three main types. Here are the most common lung diseases:


Millions of people across the country suffer from asthma and have difficult breathing. Though there's no cure for this disease, the person can lead a healthy and normal life with the help of right treatment and managing the asthma.

The disease can be managed by working with a healthcare provider to develop a plan to keep your asthma under control by understanding your trigger and learning of simple ways to limit your exposure, understanding your medication, learning self-management skills and more.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
This disease includes Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema and is a long-term lung disease that makes it hard to breathe but is often preventable and treatable.


Most commonly referred to as bronchitis, acute bronchitis is a lower respiratory infection that impacts the air tubes of the lungs and usually comes on suddenly and can last for a week to 10 days.

Tips To Prevent Lung Diseases:

Stop smoking as it increases your risk of lung cancer. According to several reports, smokers are 12 to 13 times more likely to die from COPD than nonsmokers.

Exercise. Getting a regular workout will really help your health. It will not only make you fitter but also improve your overall health. When you workout, your heart beats faster and your lungs work harder.

Get some fresh air. It's no secret that we are exposed to pollutants on a daily basis. So give your lungs the much needed break and reduce the exposure to harmful air by making your home smoke-free zone, dusting your furniture, improving the indoor air ventilation by opening a window, avoid synthetic air fresheners, candles, and wear a good mask when you go outside.

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