NEWARK — Central Ohio Technical College (COTC) will launch of a new associate degree of applied science program in respiratory therapy technology.

The program is pending accreditation confirmation, but classes are expected to begin this autumn at the Newark campus, with an application deadline of June 15. COTC has branch campuses in Coshocton, Mount Vernon and Pataskala.

This program came about from a need for respiratory therapists in Licking County and in a broader medical community context, said program director Tyler Richards in a press release.

“More therapists are expected to retire than enter the workforce. Right now, there are hundreds of open positions and many more that are coming as hospitals expand,” Richards said.

Respiratory therapists are trained to help aide the recovery and/or rehabilitation of those with lung diseases or disorders. They are vital in all areas of the medical field. This includes emergency departments, intensive care units, rehabilitation centers and more.

During the two-year program students will study in the classroom and through clinical placements. Upon completion they will be eligible to sit for the registered respiratory therapist (RRT) credential offered through the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC).

Graduates from the program can expect to make an annual median wage of $65,760, per Ohio Labor Market information. Students may begin working in the field just one year into the program by applying for a limited permit. This does not count towards clinical hours, but it does offer students a way to gain experience in the field, make local connections and support themselves financially.

To be admitted, students must submit a free application for admission and a respiratory therapy technology program application.

For more information, visit or contact COTC’s admissions office at [email protected] or 740-366-9222.

This article originally appeared on Coshocton Tribune: COTC offering respiratory therapy technology program

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NEWARK – Central Ohio Technical College (COTC) is launching a new applied science associate degree program in respiratory therapy technology.

The program is awaiting confirmation of accreditation, but classes are expected to begin this fall on the Newark campus, with an application deadline of June 15. COTC has branch campuses in Coshocton, Mount Vernon and Pataskala.

This program grew out of a need for respiratory therapists in Licking County and in a broader medical community context, program director Tyler Richards said in a news release.

“It is expected that more therapists will retire than enter the labor market. There are currently hundreds of open positions and many more will be added as hospitals expand,” Richards said.

Respiratory therapists are trained to aid the recovery and/or rehabilitation of people with lung diseases or conditions. They are vital in all areas of the medical field. This includes emergency departments, intensive care units, rehabilitation centers and more.

During the two-year program, students study in the classroom and through clinical internships. Upon completion, they are eligible to apply for the Registered Respiratory Therapist (RRT) credential offered by the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC).

Graduates of the program can expect to earn an annual average wage of $65,760, according to Ohio labor market information. Students can begin working in the field after just one year of the program by applying for a restricted permit. This does not count toward clinical hours, but does provide students with a way to gain experience in the field, make local connections, and support themselves financially.

To be admitted, students must complete a Free Admission Application and an Application for a Respiratory Therapy Technology Program.

For more information, visit or contact the COTC admissions office at [email protected] or 740-366-9222.

This article originally appeared on Coshocton Tribune: COTC offers respiratory therapy technology program

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Microplastics and nanoplastics are found in the air, water, and food, leading to concerns about how they enter our bodies and the potential health risks they pose

Plastic pollution is a widespread environmental issue with extensive consequences. An emerging aspect of this problem is the increasing presence of microplastics and nanoplastics in our environment, which may impact human health. These small plastic particles, measuring less than 5 millimetres in size, are found in the air, water, and food, leading to concerns about how they enter our bodies and the potential health risks they pose.

Exposure routes

Research has identified three major routes through which microplastics and nanoplastics can enter the human body: Ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact.

  1. Ingestion

Ingestion, or oral consumption, is a primary route for exposure to microplastics and nanoplastics. These particles have been detected in various food and water sources, including drinking water, seafood, salt, bottled water, and even tea and coffee. Studies have found microplastics in fish, mussels, salts from lakes and oceans, as well as in commercial salts and bottled water. 

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) are among the most commonly reported polymers in bottled water. Additionally, tap water has been found to contain microplastics in both developed and developing countries. Even seemingly innocuous items like teabags, coffee, and food products have been found to contain microplastics, illustrating the pervasive nature of this contamination

  1. Inhalation

Inhalation, or breathing, is another significant route of exposure to MPs and NPs. These particles have been detected in the ambient air, with outdoor and indoor concentrations varying depending on location and environmental factors. 

Sources of airborne microplastics include synthetic textiles, industrial emissions, solid waste dumping sites, and agricultural activities. Sea breeze and sea spray near coastal areas also contribute to atmospheric microplastic pollution. 

Inhalation of microplastics may lead to their accumulation in the respiratory tract and potential translocation across the blood-brain barrier, raising concerns about respiratory and neurological health effects.

  1. Dermal Contact

Dermal contact, or skin exposure, is another route through which individuals may be exposed to microplastics and nanoplastics. Consumer products such as face creams, face washes, and cosmetics can contain microplastics, increasing the risk of dermal exposure. 

While absorption through the skin is unlikely due to the physicochemical properties of microplastics, deposition on the skin and potential absorption of nanoparticles raise concerns about skin exposure. Studies have suggested that microfibers and particles from cosmetics and toothpaste may be absorbed by the skin, indicating a need for further investigation into their potential health effects.

Potential health risks

Research on the potential health risks associated with exposure to microplastics and nanoplastics is ongoing, with findings indicating a range of adverse effects on human health. Here are some key areas of concern:

  1. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract system

Exposure to microplastics and nanoplastics via ingestion can lead to their translocation through the gastrointestinal tract and potential accumulation in tissues. Studies have shown that these particles may cause oxidative stress, inflammation, and histological changes in the intestines of animals. 

Furthermore, exposure to microplastics has been associated with immune system dysregulation and metabolic disorders, raising concerns about their long-term health effects.

  1. Respiratory tract system

Inhalation of microplastics and nanoplastics can lead to their accumulation in the respiratory tract, potentially causing irritation, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Research suggests that exposure to these particles may worsen respiratory symptoms and contribute to the development of respiratory disorders. 

Additionally, the size and concentration of microplastics can affect their toxicological impact on lung cells, emphasising the need for further research into respiratory health risks.

  1. Blood and immune system

Exposure to microplastics and nanoplastics has been shown to affect immune cell function and cytokine production in animal studies. Changes in serum levels and immune cell activity have been observed following exposure to these particles, suggesting potential systemic effects. 

Furthermore, the presence of microplastics in lymph nodes and blood circulation raises concerns about their long-term impact on immune function and overall health.

  1. Brain and nervous system

Studies have suggested that microplastics and nanoplastics may have neurotoxic effects, leading to oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and changes in neurotransmitter levels. 

Exposure to these particles has been linked to cellular damage and inflammation in brain tissue, raising concerns about their potential role in the development of neurological disorders. Moreover, the ability of nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier underscores the need for further research into their neurotoxic effects.

  1. Embryos and placental barrier

The presence of microplastics in the placenta and foetal tissues raises concerns about their potential impact on foetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Studies have shown that microplastics can cross the placental barrier and accumulate in foetal tissues, potentially leading to developmental abnormalities and embryotoxicity. 

Additionally, exposure to microplastics during pregnancy may have long-term implications for the health of both the mother and the developing foetus, highlighting the need for further research in this area.

Source: Sangkham et al., (2022). Potential pathways and routes of exposure to MPs/NPs and potential toxic effects on humans. A review on microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment: Their occurrence, exposure routes, toxic studies, and potential effects on human health. Marine Pollution Bulletin Volume 181, August 2022, 113832


The presence of microplastics and nanoplastics in our environment, along with their potential impact on human health, is a matter of increasing concern. Although ongoing research is providing more information on the health effects of these particles, evidence suggests that exposure to microplastics and nanoplastics could pose significant risks to various organ systems and physiological processes within the human body. 

It is crucial to continue efforts to understand the sources, pathways, and health implications of microplastics and nanoplastics to develop effective mitigation strategies and protect public health.

Addressing this issue requires a comprehensive approach that includes reducing plastic waste at its source, improving waste management practices, and finding innovative solutions for the removal of microplastics from the environment. 

By raising awareness, implementing robust policies, and adopting sustainable practices, we can mitigate the threats posed by microplastic contamination and ensure the well-being of future generations.

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Displaced Palestinians in a makeshift refugee camp in Gaza. (Photo: Abdallah Aljamal, Palestine Chronicle)

By Abdallah Aljamal – Gaza

“We have no alternative for cooking food but to light fires. Our hands have turned black and burnt, and so have our faces”.

The Government Media Office in the Gaza Strip has announced that diseases and health complications such as chest pain, breathing difficulties, respiratory illnesses, and asthma have spread across the region due to the lack of cooking gas, which forces residents to rely on open fires for cooking.

Along with a genocidal war, which has killed and wounded well over 110,000 Palestinians in Gaza, Israel has also imposed a complete siege on the enclave.

“There will be no electricity, no food, no fuel, everything is closed,” Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant said on October 9. Since that moment, only a very limited quantity of aid has entered Gaza, leading to a catastrophic humanitarian situation. 

The Palestine Chronicle spoke with three residents from Gaza, who talked about the hardship they have been enduring during the last seven months.

Secrets by the Sea – Gaza Survivors Seek Respite from Israeli Bombs, Heat and Tents

Our Faces are Burnt 

“We have been out of cooking gas in my house since the first month of the war, and there is no cooking gas in Gaza City to refill our cylinders,” Hajj Abu Mahmoud Shhaiber told The Palestine Chronicle. 

“I have searched everywhere, but there is no gas available, and the occupation prevents its entry into the north of the Gaza Strip,” he added.

Therefore, for the last seven months, the Shhaiber family has been forced to cook our food on firewood. This, however, has caused us significant health complications.

“My wife, my daughters who help us with cooking and myself, we all suffer from chest pain, respiratory issues, and breathing difficulties,” he told us, explaining that the problem is exacerbated by the fact that there is no medicine in Gaza City, and that all health centers and hospitals have been destroyed or shut down. 

‘Domicide’ – How and Why Israel Destroyed the Al-Sahli Towers in Gaza’s Nuseirat Refugee Camp

“We have no alternative for cooking food but to light fires. Our hands have turned black and burnt, and so have our faces,” Shhaiber continued. 

“I always feel short of breath, and I am constantly coughing and wheezing, but unfortunately, we have no alternative, due to the Israeli siege.”

No Other Option

“I still live with my children in the Northern Governorate. My home and my family’s home were destroyed, but we live in displacement centers,” Rond al-Masri told us. 

“I lost my gas cylinders during the bombing of my house, and I don’t have a stove or gas for cooking. Therefore, I have to rely on canned food when it’s available to feed my children,” she continued. 

Rond told us that they are forced to light fires to prepare food.

“There is no other option available to us, and there is no alternative to cooking gas but to light fires. Throughout the day, my children search for wood and cardboard for us, and if available, we light a fire and prepare food,” Rond said.

‘My Life is Sad’ – Palestine Chronicle Children’s Press Conference in Gaza

Rond’s children got sick and the woman explained that this is due to a combination of factors. 

“They have fallen ill due to poor hygiene, and from spending long hours under the sun searching for food. Moreover, exposure to carbon monoxide from the fires and the smoke they constantly inhale have caused us respiratory diseases,” the woman said, desperately.

“In northern Gaza, there are no hospitals or clinics to obtain medication . I can only heat some water for my children to drink and alleviate chest and respiratory pains,” Rond said. 

‘Immediate Actions’ 

According to another resident, Muatasim Jabr, this is part of Israel’s deliberate policy to kill Palestinians in every way possible. 

“They kill us by bombing and gunfire, but death by hunger is the most painful and agonizing. Killing through disease by spreading respiratory illnesses in the absence of treatment is also incredibly painful and deadly,” he said.

“Many respiratory diseases require oxygen, and the occupation destroyed the central oxygen room at Al-Shifa Hospital,” Jabr explained, adding that now there is only a small oxygen room at the Kamal Adwan Hospital, in the Jabaliya refugee camp.

‘Dizzy, Tired, Exhausted’ – How Palestinians in Gaza Speak about the Widespread Famine

“Unfortunately, it is insufficient to cover the thousands of cases in need of oxygen due to bombings, killings, and the spread of diseases,” the main said.

Jabr called on international institutions, the United States, Arab countries, and European countries to pressure the occupation to stop the war and to provide the basic needs for the residents of the Gaza Strip. 

“We need immediate action to save Gaza from the environmental, health, and humanitarian disasters caused by the occupation during this war”.

(The Palestine Chronicle)

Abdallah Aljamal is a Gaza-based journalist. He is a correspondent for The Palestine Chronicle in the Gaza Strip. His email is [email protected]

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Ever since the British government ended all legal Covid-19 restrictions earlier this year, cases numbers have continued to fluctuate.

Even as former prime minister Boris Johnson published his Living with Covid plan in February, ending mandatory masks, social distancing and self-isolation measures, the arrival of the contagious Omicron BA.2 sub-variant quickly drove the infection rate up before it fell away in spring, a pattern of ebb and flow that has continued ever since.

While lockdowns and tiers may now seem a distant memory, the virus is very much still with us. Cases have begun to rise again, with warnings that Covid will once again put pressure on the NHS this winter.

The Living with Covid plan brought an end to the legal requirement for employees to tell their employers when they have tested positive for the virus and need to self-isolate. But with the threat from Covid still very real, is going to work when sick really such a good idea?

Can I go to work with Covid?

Yes, you can go to work even after testing positive for Covid and there is no legal obligation to tell your employer if you are infected.

However, workers are encouraged to follow the government’s guidance for people who become infected with the virus and self-isolate for seven days.

Do I have to test for Covid before going to work?

No, you don’t have to test for Covid before going anywhere, including to work.

Most people in England are no longer advised to get tested and can no longer get free lateral flow tests from the NHS unless you are one of a small number of people who are eligible.

Those who want to get tested must buy a Covid-19 test from pharmacies and other retailers.

What should I do if I feel unwell?

The government has set out guidance for people who have symptoms of a respiratory infection but have not taken a test for Covid-19, as well as for those who have taken a test and received a positive result.

Symptoms of common respiratory infections and Covid-19 include a continuous cough; high temperature or fever; loss of, or change in normal sense of taste or smell; shortness of breath; lack of energy; lack of appetite; headache; sore throat and stuffy or runny nose.

According to the Department for Health and Social Care, you should work from home if you can and avoid contact with other people if you are experiencing these symptoms.

It is especially important to avoid close contact with anyone you know who may be at higher risk of becoming seriously sick if they catch Covid-19.

If you must leave your home, you should wear a face covering and avoid crowded or poorly ventilated places.

If you receive a positive Covid-19 test, you are also advised to stay at home and avoid contact with other people for five days after the day you took your test.

However, you should avoid meeting people at higher risk of serious illness from Covid-19 for 10 days after the day you took your test.

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IMARC Group’s report titled “Portable Oxygen Concentrators Market Report by Technology (Continuous Flow, Pulse Flow), Application (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Asthma, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Sleep Apnea, and Others), End User (Hospitals, Ambulatory Surgery Centers, and Others), and Region 2024-2032”. The global portable oxygen concentrators market size reached US$ 1.8 Billion in 2023. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the market to reach US$ 3.4 Billion by 2032, exhibiting a growth rate (CAGR) of 7.3% during 2024-2032.

For an in-depth analysis, you can refer sample copy of the report:

Factors Affecting the Growth of the Portable Oxygen Concentrators Industry:

  • Increasing Prevalence of Respiratory Diseases:

The rising number of individuals suffering from respiratory conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sleep apnea, is supporting the growth of the market. These conditions often necessitate oxygen therapy to improve breathing and overall health. The global population is aging, and elderly individuals are more susceptible to respiratory diseases. The growing number of individuals who require oxygen therapy to manage their conditions is offering a favorable market outlook. Portable oxygen concentrators offer a convenient solution for these patients. Advancements in medical diagnostics and increased awareness of respiratory health are leading to earlier and more accurate diagnoses.

Individuals are becoming more susceptible to respiratory conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, and obstructive sleep apnea. These conditions often necessitate oxygen therapy. As the elderly population is growing, the number of individuals requiring oxygen support. Aging is often accompanied by the development of multiple chronic health conditions. Many elderly individuals have comorbidities that can exacerbate respiratory issues, making oxygen therapy crucial for their overall well-being. Elderly individuals prefer to receive medical care in the comfort of their homes whenever possible.

  • Advancements in Technology:

Technological innovations are making it possible to design smaller and lighter portable oxygen concentrators. This reduction in size and weight is significantly improving the portability of these devices, allowing patients greater freedom of movement. Modern portable oxygen concentrators feature advanced battery technology that provides longer operational hours on a single charge. This extended battery life enables patients to use the device for an extended period without needing frequent recharges.

Leading Companies Operating in the Global Portable Oxygen Concentrators Industry:

  • Caire Inc. (NGK Spark Plug Co. Ltd)
  • Chart Industries Inc.
  • Drive Devilbiss Healthcare Limited (Drive International LLC)
  • Inogen Inc.
  • Invacare Corporation
  • Koninklijke Philips N.V
  • Nidek Medical India Pvt Ltd
  • O2 Concepts LLC
  • Precision Medical Inc. (BioHorizons Inc.)
  • Resmed Inc.
  • Teijin Limited

Portable Oxygen Concentrators Market Report Segmentation:

By Technology:

  • Continuous Flow
  • Pulse Flow

Pulse flow represents the largest segment as it offers a more efficient and tailored oxygen delivery method for patients with varying respiratory needs.

By Application:

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  • Asthma
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Others

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for the largest market share due to its reliance on long-term oxygen therapy.

By End User:

  • Hospitals
  • Ambulatory Surgery Centers
  • Others

Ambulatory surgery centers hold the biggest market share as they frequently require portable oxygen concentrators to support patients during outpatient procedures and surgeries.

Regional Insights:

  • North America (United States, Canada)
  • Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, South Korea, Australia, Indonesia, Others)
  • Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Russia, Others)
  • Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Others)
  • Middle East and Africa

North America enjoys the leading position in the portable oxygen concentrators market due to a large aging population and high prevalence of respiratory diseases.

Global Portable Oxygen Concentrators Market Trends:

The aging population is catalyzing the demand for portable oxygen concentrators. As the elderly population is growing, there is a higher prevalence of respiratory conditions, making these devices essential for managing health and improving the quality of life.

Ongoing technological innovations are leading to smaller, lighter, and more efficient portable oxygen concentrators. These advancements enhance device portability, battery life, and user-friendliness, making them more appealing to patients.

Note: If you need specific information that is not currently within the scope of the report, we will provide it to you as a part of the customization.

About Us:

IMARC Group is a leading market research company that offers management strategy and market research worldwide. We partner with clients in all sectors and regions to identify their highest-value opportunities, address their most critical challenges, and transform their businesses.

IMARCs information products include major market, scientific, economic and technological developments for business leaders in pharmaceutical, industrial, and high technology organizations. Market forecasts and industry analysis for biotechnology, advanced materials, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, travel and tourism, nanotechnology and novel processing methods are at the top of the company’s expertise.

Our offerings include comprehensive market intelligence in the form of research reports, production cost reports, feasibility studies, and consulting services. Our team, which includes experienced researchers and analysts from various industries, is dedicated to providing high-quality data and insights to our clientele, ranging from small and medium businesses to Fortune 1000 corporations.

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PUNE, India, March 27, 2024 /PRNewswire/ — The report titledInhaled Nitric Oxide Market by Application (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Malaria Treatment), End-Users (Clinic, Hospital) – Global Forecast 2024-2030 is now available on‘s offering, presents an analysis indicating that the market projected to grow from a size of $778.21 million in 2023 to reach $1,157.38 million by 2030, at a CAGR of 5.83% over the forecast period.

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Expanding Boundaries Revolutionizing Respiratory Care Using Inhaled Nitric Oxide Globally

Using inhaled nitric oxide in intensive care is a significant therapy, primarily benefiting newborns and children suffering from severe pulmonary conditions such as persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This innovative treatment, delivered directly to the lungs, effectively enhances oxygenation without influencing blood pressure elsewhere, marking a significant stride in medical care. Its application has broadened beyond hospital settings to include home care, thereby promising a better quality of life for patients as the incidence of conditions treated by inhaled nitric oxide rises with technological advancements in portable delivery systems. Nonetheless, the market faces challenges due to the high costs and rigorous regulatory standards governing its use. The continued research into new therapeutic uses and improvements in delivery technology are setting the stage for more accessible and cost-effective treatments. Globally, inhaled nitric oxide is gaining traction, especially in the Americas, driven by a high rate of respiratory illnesses and a robust healthcare infrastructure. Europe is witnessing a growing demand, backed by innovation and robust regulatory frameworks, whereas the Asia-Pacific region is rapidly adopting this therapy, fueled by healthcare advancements and an increasing awareness of cutting-edge treatments.

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Enhancing Respiratory Care: The Increasing Role of Inhaled Nitric Oxide Amid Rising Respiratory Disorders

The medical community is turning toward innovative treatments such as inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)owing to the global increase in respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the ongoing impacts of conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the long-term effects of COVID-19. Renowned for improving oxygenation in the lungs through vasodilation, iNO therapy is a groundbreaking solution in treating various respiratory issues, including pulmonary hypertension and ARDS. Its role in enhancing lung function while reducing reliance on mechanical ventilation is particularly notable in neonatal care, where it offers hope for premature infants facing hypoxic respiratory failure. The adoption of iNO in healthcare settings is gaining pace as respiratory disorders continue to affect millions globally due to respiratory illness. This treatment’s integration into patient care routines highlights a critical advancement in addressing the urgent need for effective, non-invasive therapies, driving improvements in respiratory health and patient recovery rates.

Revolutionizing Respiratory Care: The Expanding Role of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a treatment crucial in managing various respiratory conditions by enhancing oxygenation and easing pulmonary arterial pressures. Its capability to dilate lung blood vessels offers significant benefits, particularly for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. These individuals often face severe flare-ups that worsen their breathing difficulties. iNO offers expectancy during critical times, potentially improving gas exchange and lessening the effects of pulmonary hypertension. Emerging research highlights iNO’s potential in combating severe malaria, owing to its inflammation-reducing capabilities and improvement in blood flow. Furthermore, its established success in treating newborns with hypoxic respiratory failure highlights its life-saving impact. Additionally, exploring iNO in treating tuberculosis opens a new frontier, especially for combating drug-resistant strains, showcasing its versatility and potential as an adjunctive therapy. This multipurpose application of inhaled nitric oxide highlights its pivotal role in advancing respiratory care and offering hope to patients across a spectrum of conditions.

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Merck KGaA at the Forefront of Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market with a Strong 11.95% Market Share

The key players in the Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market include VERO Biotech Inc., Getinge AB, Air Liquide SA, Merck KGaA, GE HealthCare Technologies, Inc., and others. These prominent players focus on strategies such as expansions, acquisitions, joint ventures, and developing new products to strengthen their market positions.

Introducing ThinkMi: Revolutionizing Market Intelligence with AI-Powered Insights for the Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market

We proudly unveil ThinkMi, a cutting-edge AI product designed to transform how businesses interact with the Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market. ThinkMi stands out as your premier market intelligence partner, delivering unparalleled insights with the power of artificial intelligence. Whether deciphering market trends or offering actionable intelligence, ThinkMi is engineered to provide precise, relevant answers to your most critical business questions. This revolutionary tool is more than just an information source; it’s a strategic asset that empowers your decision-making with up-to-the-minute data, ensuring you stay ahead in the fiercely competitive Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market. Embrace the future of market analysis with ThinkMi, where informed decisions lead to remarkable growth.

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Dive into the Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market Landscape: Explore 180 Pages of Insights, 198 Tables, and 20 Figures

  1. Preface

  2. Research Methodology

  3. Executive Summary

  4. Market Overview

  5. Market Insights

  6. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market, by Application

  7. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market, by End-Users

  8. Americas Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market

  9. Asia-Pacific Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market

  10. Europe, Middle East & Africa Inhaled Nitric Oxide Market

  11. Competitive Landscape

  12. Competitive Portfolio

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Related Reports:

  1. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Delivery Systems Market – Global Forecast 2024-2030

  2. Medical Nitrous Oxide Market – Global Forecast 2024-2030

  3. Concentrated Nitric Acid Market – Global Forecast 2024-2030

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We are a dynamic, nimble company that believes in carving ambitious, purposeful goals and achieving them with the backing of our greatest asset — our people.

Quick on our feet, we have our ear to the ground when it comes to market intelligence and volatility. Our market intelligence is diligent, real-time and tailored to your needs, and arms you with all the insight that empowers strategic decision-making.

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Quinte Health is facing a great many challenges going forward but is making considerable progress to serve a population of more than 170,000 people in both Hastings and Prince Edward County, says president Stacey Daub.

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In a presentation Wednesday to community business leaders at the Belleville Chamber of Commerce breakfast, Daub said 444 new staff have been hired to care for patients exhibiting some of the highest per capita chronic ailments in Ontario.

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“Our region bears the burden of some of the highest levels of chronic illness in the province,” Daub said. “We have the highest rates of congestive heart failure, the highest rates of COPD, breathing and respiratory issues, diabetes, you name it, we have high rates.”

Part of the growing demand for health service includes a greying population in Quinte.

“We also have a rapidly aging population that is quite a bit older proportionate to other communities.”

Daub said she is often asked if Quinte Health has a recruitment or retention problem.

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“We have a growth problem, our beds, our hospital is growing so fast we can’t keep pace wth the number of people that we need,” she said. “So, Quinte Health has a formidable problem, we’ve grown by about 100 beds that are currently unfunded, this has created quite a financial challenge for the organization.”

Quinte Health is investing in its four hospitals in Belleville, Quinte West, Prince Edward County and in Bancroft to better respond.

“We have a new ICU as many of you know, we’re building a new hospital in Picton – it’s going to be North American renowned,” Daub said. “We’re building a new Emergency Department at Trenton, it’s quite outdated and the volumes in Trenton are almost the same as Belleville, quite high.”

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For Belleville General Hospital, Daub said Quinte Health is also hoping “to get funding for a new mental health component of our Emergency Department.”

She lauded “one of the most fantastic partnerships with Loyalist College” helping Quinte Health’s recruitment efforts to hire new medical graduates.

So far this year, “we’ve had 27 students [on placement] from Loyalist and we’re hiring 25 of them, so it gives you a sense of how powerful that model of developing and growing talents is,” Daub said.

Daub gave a big shout out to volunteers who provide more than 10,000 hours of support annually to the organization’s hospitals.

“They man the kitchens, they have cafes, they offer many of New to You and second-hand stores including the one in Belleville,” she said.

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Respiratory Care Credentialing Board funds scholarships to increase the number of respiratory therapists in the United States

2024 Scholarship Photo

RTs are a vital part of the healthcare team! Scholarship monies can be used to purchase practice exams, support activities for the recruitment or retention of students, or to purchase classroom teaching equipment, to name a few.
RTs are a vital part of the healthcare team! Scholarship monies can be used to purchase practice exams, support activities for the recruitment or retention of students, or to purchase classroom teaching equipment, to name a few.

Lori Tinkler, MBA, ICO-CCP

Chief Executive Officer of the NBRC
Chief Executive Officer of the NBRC

OVERLAND PARK, Kan., March 27, 2024 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Today, the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC) announced its investment of more than $4 million in scholarship funds for education programs across the United States as part of its continued goal to raise awareness of the value of the respiratory care profession and recruit and retain more respiratory therapists. More than 450 Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care (CoARC)-accredited respiratory care educational programs will each receive $10,000 to use toward scholarships for current and future respiratory care practitioners.

“By giving these monies, we are carrying out our mission-driven commitment to supporting education in hopes of recruiting and retaining more people into the field of respiratory care. The outpouring of gratitude we received when we did this in 2022 was amazing, and we know that this year’s increased contribution will only help to further build the next generation of respiratory therapists and enhance this life-saving profession,” said Lori M. Tinkler, MBA, ICE-CCP, Chief Executive Officer of the NBRC.  

The NBRC supports the long-term recruitment, retention and advancement of respiratory therapists. In 2022, they invested over $2 million in scholarship funds to CoARC-accredited respiratory care programs. The NBRC Board of Trustees voted late last year to again support and provide funds for educational scholarships, grants and awards for current and future practitioners through accredited education programs. In addition, the NBRC annually funds respiratory therapy scholarships through the American Respiratory Care Foundation (ARCF), the American College for Respiratory Therapy Education (ACRTE) and the Lambda Beta Society (the national honor society for respiratory care).

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, respiratory therapy jobs are projected to grow 13% by 2032, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. To address the shortage of respiratory therapists and advance specialization, Tinkler said the NBRC is also leading a multi-year, national campaign to raise awareness of the value of the profession, to improve recruitment and retention, and to identify, shape and inspire new leadership in respiratory care. Learn more about the campaign at

Victoria College in Victoria, TX, is one of 450+ educational institutions receiving The NBRC scholarship funds to advance the future of respiratory therapists. “I am profoundly moved by the invaluable support provided by the NBRC in granting funds for scholarships to each of the respiratory care programs across the nation. These funds signify more than just financial assistance; they symbolize a beacon of hope for our students, empowering them to pursue their dreams and aspirations. With heartfelt appreciation, I envision utilizing these resources to serve the students’ needs, foster innovation and cultivate a standard of excellence. This scholarship is a testament to the collective commitment towards shaping a brighter future, and I am dedicated to employing these funds to nurture the minds of tomorrow, equipping them with the tools they need for success and to be a positive influence,” said JJ Valdez, Clinical Coordinator of Respiratory Care at Victoria College.


About the NBRC: Established in 1960 and headquartered in the Kansas City area since 1974, the NBRC is the credentialing board for U.S. respiratory care practitioners. The NBRC’s mission is to promote excellence in respiratory care by awarding credentials based on high-competency standards.

The 49 states regulating the respiratory care profession recognize the NBRC examinations as the minimum standard for state licensure. The National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) accredits all of the NBRC’s examinations.

CONTACT: Hilary Groninger
The National Board for Respiratory Care
[email protected]

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The global respiratory care device market is poised for significant growth owing to the rising prevalence of respiratory diseases and increasing awareness about respiratory health.

The SNS Insider report indicates that the Respiratory Care Device Market Size was valued at USD 19.49 Billion in 2022 and is expected to reach USD 38.55 Billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 8.9% over the forecast period 2023-2030.

Market report Scope

Respiratory Care Devices are utilized for analysis, monitoring, and therapy of respiratory infections like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. These devices provide improved care to patients experiencing such acute and chronic respiratory illnesses.

The report analyses the respiratory care devices market based on product type, end-user, and geography. As the world’s population ages and environmental factors affect respiratory health, there is a growing demand for respiratory care equipment.

These medical supplies and apparatus help patients control respiratory conditions or provide breathing support when required. They are used in various healthcare settings, including clinics, hospitals, and home care settings.

Market Analysis:

Demand for respiratory care is driven by infectious respiratory diseases, which have increased during the pandemic, boosting the market. Government and non-profit initiatives like the global initiative for asthma (GINA) and awareness campaigns have also contributed to market growth.

Moreover, the increase in the geriatric population and the rising prevalence of respiratory diseases further accelerate market expansion.

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Major Key Players in Respiratory Care Device Market:

  • Koninklijke Philips N.V.
  • ResMed
  • Medtronic
  • Fisher and Paykel Healthcare Limited
  • BD
  • Chart Industries Inc.
  • Drägerwerk
  • AG & Co. KGaA
  • Hamilton Medical
  • Teleflex Incorporated
  • 3M

Key Segments Covered in Report:

By Product:

  • Therapeutic Devices                
  • Monitoring Devices        
  • Diagnostic Devices
  • Consumables and Accessories

By Indication:

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)             
  • Asthma              
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Infectious Disease        
  • Others

By End-User

  • Hospitals    
  • Home Care Settings
  • Ambulatory Care Centers
  • Others

Segment Analysis:

By disease indication, the COPD segment dominates due to factors such as tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor air pollution, and exposure to dust and chemicals, which contribute to COPD’s prevalence.

By end users, home care settings are witnessing rapid growth, especially in sleep apnea therapeutics, driven by the convenience they offer to patients.

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Regional Development:

North America leads the respiratory care devices market due to the high prevalence of respiratory illnesses like COPD. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific region is growing significantly due to a large pool of respiratory patients, air pollution, and the rise in tobacco smoking.

Additionally, APAC’s development as a medical tourism hub attracts patients due to lower costs and the availability of skilled medical professionals.

Key Takeaways:

The respiratory care device market is on a trajectory to reach USD 38.55 billion by 2030, fueled by rising respiratory diseases and increased awareness.

COPD and home care settings are dominant segments, driven by factors like tobacco smoking and patient convenience.

North America and Asia-Pacific lead in market size and growth, respectively, due to disease prevalence and healthcare infrastructure.

Recent Developments:

In July 2022, Smile Train, Inc. and Lifebox partnered to launch the Lifebox-Smile Train pulse oximeter, expanding access to critical care tools.

Omron Healthcare also introduced a portable oxygen concentrator, a breakthrough in oxygen therapy for continuous high-purity oxygen supply.

Respiratory Care Device Market Report:

Table of Content

Chapter 1 Introduction 

Chapter 2 Research Methodology

Chapter 3 Respiratory Care Device Market Dynamics

Chapter 4 Impact Analysis (COVID-19, Ukraine- Russia war, Ongoing Recession on Major Economies)

Chapter 5 Value Chain Analysis

Chapter 6 Porter’s 5 forces model

Chapter 7 PEST Analysis

Chapter 8 Respiratory Care Device Market Segmentation, By Product

Chapter 9 Respiratory Care Device Market Segmentation, By Indication

Chapter 10 Respiratory Care Device Market Segmentation, By End-User

Chapter 11 Regional Analysis

Chapter 12 Company profile

Chapter 13 Competitive Landscape

Chapter 14 Use Case and Best Practices

Chapter 15 Conclusion

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BMC Pulmonary Medicine calls for submissions to our Collection on cough sensitivity and chronic cough. Chronic cough remains a long-lasting and burdensome condition affecting a significant portion of the global population across all ages. Excessive coughing can significantly affect physical and mental health – it can disrupt daily life, leading to sleep disturbances, fatigue, and diminished productivity. The underlying conditions triggering chronic cough, if untreated, may escalate, potentially causing complications and compromising respiratory function. Multiple mechanisms and aetiologies may underlie chronic cough, making the disorder challenging to treat. 

Recent advances are improving our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to cough hypersensitivity and excessing coughing, paving the way for new therapies. However, more research is needed to improve patients’ lives and translate novel discoveries to the clinic.

In alignment with the Sustainable Development Goal 3: Good Health & Wellbeing, this Collection seeks to delve into the intricacies of chronic cough, addressing a broad spectrum of topics, including but not limited to:

• Epidemiological studies on cough hypersensitivity and chronic cough
• The mechanisms/pathophysiology of cough hypersensitivity and chronic cough
• Diagnosis, screening and prevention
• Management strategies
• Psychosocial impact of chronic cough
• Emerging research avenues for chronic cough management and treatment (e.g. personalized medicine)

Image credit: dragonstock /

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Spring allergies feel bad enough for people with nasal congestion and asthma symptoms. But imagine if aspirin is the culprit that makes everything feel worse and you didn’t know it. For some people with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), also known as Samter’s triad, it can be a challenging and long road to diagnosis.

Dr. Angela Donaldson, a Mayo Clinic otolaryngologist, focuses her research on this condition that is difficult to diagnose.

Coughing, wheezing, sinus pressure, the list goes on. It might describe a diagnosis that, for some, has been historically missed—aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

“These are patients who have horrible asthma. They also have nasal polyps, and they’re allergic to aspirin,” says Dr. Donaldson.

And aspirin doesn’t cause new illness. It aggravates asthma and sinus issues for these patients.

Credit: Mayo Clinic

“It’s a particular group of people who have been struggling with regular medical therapy that should work, and have both asthma that’s difficult to control and sinus disease that’s difficult to control,” says Dr. Donaldson.

She says most patients suffer for years before the correct diagnosis and treatment. And that’s a focus of her research.

“How best to get people to screen for that disease process, since it’s kind of overlooked multiple times, and then get people back to their normal lives,” she says.

Along with aspirin, people who are affected by AERD may have problems taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen. Aspirin or NSAIDs may be in cold medicines and other medications, so pay close attention to labels.

Treatments may include desensitization to aspirin and NSAIDs, surgery to remove nasal polyps, and therapeutics.

It’s important to remember that a diagnosis is arduous because aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease must include all three features of asthma, recurring nasal polyps, and problems with aspirin or NSAIDs.

Video: Can aspirin make your breathing worse? (2024, March 27)
retrieved 27 March 2024

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part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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Respiratory ailments never bothered my husband, Randy, or me in Fort Worth, Texas, where we grew up. Columbia, South Carolina, our destination in 1985, was wretchedly muggy but didn’t prompt any allergy issues, either.

In the early 1990s, we moved to Lenoir, North Carolina, where furniture factories thrived. That would’ve been fine had our son, Matthew, not attended an elementary school smack-dab in the middle of prolific pollution. His allergy symptoms gradually worsened over the next few years until one night, his breathing struggles landed us in the emergency room for an asthma diagnosis. An inhaler was prescribed.

Asthma was quite prevalent in Lenoir, so sure enough, not long after our daughter, Katie, entered kindergarten at the same school, she snagged an inhaler of her own.

In the middle of the following school year, with Matthew in fourth grade and Katie in first, we moved to the North Carolina mountains. The myriad adjustments kept life lively: a blizzard, flying squirrels in the house, salamanders in our drinking water, and a single bathroom with a temperamental toilet, for starters.

It didn’t take long to recognize the most exciting revelation: The clear air in our new rural area apparently rendered inhalers unnecessary. I was elated that respiratory issues were history!

But I was wrong.

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SMA’s destructive nature

Our third baby, Jeffrey, delivered a few surprises to us, starting with the positive pregnancy test. His arrival on May 18, 1997, came two weeks ahead of schedule. He was such an exceptionally contented, quiet baby that I jokingly wondered if we’d be making up for it during his teen years.

We didn’t get the opportunity to find out. A diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gobsmacked us eight weeks after Jeffrey’s arrival. Life for the next three and a half months was spent in survival mode, both for him and for us.

A newborn baby lies in a bed, sleeping.

Baby Jeffrey Baldwin in 1997. (Photo by Helen Baldwin)

Although SMA packs a potent punch, it was the respiratory struggles that left me limp. Seared into my memory are images of the panic in Jeffrey’s eyes during an impromptu, ill-fated In-Exsufflator trial and as SMA’s progression wreaked unforgiving havoc on his ability to breathe.

Jeffrey wrangled free from SMA’s deadly clutches before he reached six months. Witnessing your child’s final breath is devastatingly surreal. It isn’t normal in the scheme of things. However, neither is pumping your baby full of morphine, suctioning secretions every few minutes, and praying for God to take him.

As we adjusted to the unthinkable, our heavy hearts relied on reminders that Jeffrey was in the perfect place, safe from harm.

Incredibly, our family remained fairly and uneventfully upright for years.

Gasping for air

Years after our SMA assignment ended, I awoke one morning gasping for air. It was promptly deemed an emergency. I was treated in a hospital emergency room for reactive airway disease and given several prescriptions, including a pearl that would paralyze my throat if I bit down on it. I didn’t.

Since the ER folks couldn’t tell what had happened, I racked my brain until I hit upon a plausible culprit. Our old farmhouse doesn’t have air conditioning, so unless there’s a monsoon, the windows generally remain open from spring until fall. My computer is situated in front of a tall window on the side of the house mere yards from a small creek. The property on the other side of the creek tends to be untamed, as they say.

During a particularly chaotic schedule, Randy and I had hired someone to mow and cut weeds. It happened to be unusually dry at the time. Because our yard person mowed and used a Weed Eater with abandon, it was likely that the dry stuff being churned up and spit out in the direction of my window — and my lungs — included poison ivy, poison oak, and other irritants. It made sense that I’d likely breathed dust from pulverized poison ivy — an unfortunate event because now I know what to do next time.

Thankfully, next time didn’t come, and breathing issues became a moot point.

And then came James.

Battling different breathing challenges

A newborn baby lies in a bed sleeping.

Our grandson, James Baldwin, in 2018. (Photo by Helen Baldwin)

Randy and I are PopPop and MomMom to two delightful grandchildren, Clara and James. Clara’s diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome caught us off guard. Her case is mild, and we breathed a sigh of relief when it seemed a certainty that James wouldn’t follow suit.

At 14 months, though, James experienced such a horrific case of croup that he was admitted to a local hospital. Within hours of dismissal, he was on his way to a more sophisticated hospital for additional treatment. Seeing Matthew and our daughter-in-law, Jill, being utterly exhausted while driving off with a very sick little James unleashed a few memories, especially since their destination was Brenner Children’s Hospital in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where Jeffrey was diagnosed.

Today, James, 6, still experiences occasional respiratory issues that are significant. The doctor expects him to outgrow them, but until then, I’m confident that his angel “twin” will be breathing right along with him.

Because he can.

Note: SMA News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The opinions expressed in this column are not those of SMA News Today or its parent company, BioNews, and are intended to spark discussion about issues pertaining to spinal muscular atrophy.

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Inspired by the medical bay of the USS Enterprise from “Star Trek”, a research team from the University of Waterloo uses radar technology to monitor people’s health while at the wheel, turning an ordinary car or truck into a mobile medical hub. 

Dr. George Shaker, an adjunct professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Waterloo, is working with a team of graduate students to integrate radar with evolving vehicle technology to make health checks easier. The idea is to use the time people spend in their cars to gather data on their health for accurate analysis and proactive treatment — without the need for any type of wearable.

The radar, smaller than a USB thumb drive, is integrated into the vehicle cabin and sends out signals that detect human vibrations, which are then sent back to the radar. The built-in AI system collects and analyzes the data to build a medical picture and identify any potential conditions. At the end of the driver’s commute, the system sends the report directly to their cell phone for review.

“This radar technology is not new,” Shaker said. “Our first demos using radars for in-cabin sensing were developed back in 2017 for infotainment touchless control and to alert people to children and pets left alone in parked vehicles. This application, using the technology to monitor vehicle occupants’ health, is a step towards achieving our vision of cars as medical hubs of the future. 

The technology, which is the latest from Waterloo aimed at disrupting the boundaries of health, can detect tiny movements like the rise and fall of a chest from breathing or heartbeats. For Shaker and his team, the challenge was evolving the tech to identify changes in breathing patterns or heart rhythms that signify potential health issues related to cardiovascular conditions like Tachycardia and Bradycardia as well as respiratory system conditions like Tachypnea, Bradypnea and Apnea.

“We focused on enhancing data extraction for exact information related to people’s respiratory and cardiovascular systems and teaching the AI how to make medical interpretations from this data. Another important consideration was personal privacy and security — no data is stored on the cloud; it is sent to the monitored person’s cellphone only,” said Ali Gharamohammadi, the lead PhD student on the project.

A series of tests using synthetic data, i.e. subjects mimicked respiratory conditions’ symptoms by holding their breath and taking shallow breaths, validated the system’s capability for accurately detecting and interpreting respiratory conditions. The system has also been tested on individuals with heart conditions which it successfully detected and accurately identified. 

The research team is building on this work to expand the radar technology’s capabilities to monitor all vehicle occupants’ overall health and well-being, run diagnostics and generate quality medical reports that flag any issues that need attention, as well as assist with emergency communication in the event of an accident. 

More information about this work can be found in the research paper, “Multibin Breathing Pattern Estimation by Radar Fusion for Enhanced Driver Monitoring”, recently published in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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Asthma Inhaler Device Market

Asthma Inhaler Device Market

Market Overview

Based on the research findings, the Asthma Inhaler Device Market is anticipated to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 6.42% throughout the forecast period, reaching a revenue of USD 19,677.54 million by the end of 2030.

Asthma, a chronic lung condition, causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as coughing, chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and shortness of breath. Asthma inhaler devices, handheld devices, are crucial in managing these breathing difficulties by delivering medication directly to the airways, thereby treating or preventing associated diseases.

The report comprehensively covers the driving factors fueling market growth, shedding light on key players and their strategies to navigate the competitive landscape of the Asthma Inhaler Device Market. Furthermore, the report addresses the post-COVID-19 scenario of the market and provides insights into market segmentation and regional analysis.

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Market dynamics


The Asthma Inhaler Device Market is poised for growth during the forecast period, primarily driven by the increasing prevalence of asthma worldwide. Rising cases of asthma, particularly among children, coupled with growing awareness among the general population, are fueling the demand for metered dose inhalers and other asthma inhaler devices. This surge in demand, alongside heightened awareness of asthma-related issues, is a key factor propelling market growth.


The Asthma Inhaler Device Market presents numerous opportunities, with many prominent key players investing significantly in research and development activities. These investments, coupled with new product launches and collaborations among market players, are expected to create a multitude of opportunities within the market. Collaborative efforts and innovative product introductions not only enhance the competitiveness of the market but also expand the range of options available for asthma management, thereby driving growth and meeting the evolving needs of patients.

Competitive landscape

Major key players

GlaxoSmithKline plc (UK)

Koninklijke Philips NV (Netherlands)

AstraZeneca (UK)

Cipla Inc. (India)

Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH (Germany)

Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd (Bangladesh)

Merck & Co., Inc. (the US)

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd (Israel)

Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA (Italy)

Medisol Lifescience Pvt. Ltd (India).

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Segmental Analysis:

The Asthma Inhaler Device Market offers a variety of inhaler options, including metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, and soft mist inhalers. These inhaler devices come in both digitally and manually operated forms, catering to various preferences and needs. The market serves hospitals & clinics, homecare settings, and other end users.

Detailed Regional Analysis:

North America:Currently dominates the asthma inhaler device market due to the increasing prevalence of asthma, demand for cutting-edge technologies, and the popularity of metered-dose inhalers in the region. The region’s robust healthcare system, easy access to medical care, and substantial disposable income contribute to market growth. Government support and funding for innovative asthma monitoring devices further drive market growth.

Asia Pacific:Expected to witness rapid growth during the forecast period, attributed to the rising prevalence of asthma and respiratory diseases, improvements in the healthcare system, and increased awareness regarding asthma symptom tracking and monitoring benefits. Countries like China, India, and South Korea, with rapidly growing economies and high asthma prevalence, are driving market expansion.

Europe:Anticipated to be the second-largest market, driven by healthcare authorities’ initiatives to increase asthma awareness and improve asthma management.

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Competitive Analysis:

Innovation is expected to play a crucial role in the success of companies in the asthma inhaler device market. Factors such as the growing elderly population, increased awareness of respiratory disorders, rising disposable income, research and development efforts, and healthcare cost inflation positively impact market growth. Better distribution and commerce policies are expected to further boost market expansion. Mergers and acquisitions are likely to increase, with government organizations playing a crucial role in market growth. The market is poised for significant expansion in the coming years, driven by high asthma-related mortality rates and increased expenditures on asthma treatment. The presence of key market players and advancements in product technologies also contribute to market growth.

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A 2024 report by the National Parks Conservation Association found that 97% of parks have unsatisfactory levels of visibility impairment overall, indicating they are far from achieving clean air or clear skies. This finding, drawn from National Park Service data, encapsulates three categories evaluated in NPCA’s report: Hazy Skies, Unhealthy Air and Harm to Nature. 98% of national parks in the United States grapple with concerning levels of haze pollution, obscuring the scenic views and landmarks that draw millions of visitors each year. The report shows that 96% of these parks face concerning levels of ozone pollution, increasing health risks, such as respiratory illnesses and asthma attacks, for staff, visitors and nearby communities. And it underscores that 96% of national parks harbor sensitive species and natural habitats adversely affected by pollution.

Family enjoys a mountain view in Olympic National Park. Today, vistas are often obscured by haze pollution.
Family enjoys a mountain view in Olympic National Park. Today, vistas are often obscured by haze pollution.

Four high risk climate threats, also assessed in the report, emphasize the urgent situation that parks face serious and irreparable consequences from rising global temperatures. Responding to this alarming reality, the report also outlines ways NPCA has led efforts to urge the implementation of time-tested, effective programs like the Regional Haze Rule, the strengthening of national air standards, improved air monitoring in and around national parks and lastly, the advancement of climate-friendly policies.

“Our new Polluted Parks report showcases that while we’ve made some progress toward cleaner air, the job is far from done to protect nature, scenic views, our climate and human health. Visitors to national parks expect clean air and clear skies whether they are visiting stunning wilderness landscapes or urban monuments.

“The trouble with air pollution is that it knows no bounds and harms the places we love and communities which rely on them for clean air and a healthy climate,” says Ulla Reeves, Interim Director of NPCA’s Clean Air Program. “It’s imperative that we take timely action to protect our national parks that we love, safeguard the climate and ensure the health and wellbeing of visitors, nature, wildlife and surrounding communities.”

The report highlights that while all national parks are struggling with the effects of a rapidly changing climate, 57% of national parks face high risk threats from specific consequences of climate change, including wildfires, droughts, sea-level rise, and invasive species. As iconic landscapes standing on the frontlines of the climate crisis, NPCA emphasizes the urgent need to cut the air pollution driving climate change and safeguard national parks for future generations.

NPCA takes a leading role in addressing these challenges, not only focusing on risks to air quality but also tackling the various climate risks identified in the report. In fact, NPCA’s leadership has resulted in the reduction of 1.4 million tons of visibility-impairing pollution reduced, the closure of cleanup of over 150 park-polluting coal plants and the elimination of 171 million metric tons of climate pollution. Still, NPCA remains dedicated to its collaborative efforts across state and federal agencies to ensure a healthier and sustainable future for these invaluable national parks. Data, like that highlighted in the Polluted Parks report, demonstrates the urgent need for swift action to curb pollution and allow these treasured places to recover from decades of industrial pollution.

Ozone, one of the most pervasive pollutants in parks, not only impairs scenic beauty but also poses a direct threat to human and wildlife health. It makes breathing more difficult and puts individuals with asthma or respiratory illnesses at significant risk. The impact is felt across the nation, from Hawaii’s iconic volcanoes to Kentucky’s Mammoth Cave, as Americans endure muddied views and skies choked with dirty air.

The full report and the interactive web platform showcasing all air and climate data are available for download and exploration here:

About the National Parks Conservation Association

 Since 1919, the nonpartisan National Parks Conservation Association has been the leading voice in safeguarding our national parks. NPCA and its more than 1.6 million members and supporters work together to protect and preserve our nation’s most iconic and inspirational places for future generations. For more information, visit

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Watan-The Hebrew media continued to monitor the extent of the losses suffered by the Israeli army in the war it is waging on the Gaza Strip, amidst ground battles punctuated by strikes launched by the Palestinian resistance against the occupation forces.

In this context, the Israeli Sheba Medical Center conducted a new study revealing that 60% of the Israeli soldiers injured during the Gaza war, who reached rehabilitation centers, suffered from concussion, in addition to some being misdiagnosed with mental issues.

One of these soldiers, named Ofek Yanun, 21, was injured in November, and during his treatment, the severity of the injury was not immediately apparent, according to “Yedioth Ahronoth” newspaper.

Yanun said, “I was under the influence of anesthesia and artificial respiration for a month. When I woke up, I was a different person. I was hitting and cursing, even though I’m not that kind of person. Because I had tubes connected to my body, I kept tearing them off all the time.”

When he woke up from anesthesia, changes in his behavior indicated that he had suffered a concussion.

Like him, it turned out that too many Israeli soldiers injured in the war suffered from concussions, a problem that affects their quality of life but is often not diagnosed correctly.

Occupation army lossesOccupation army losses
Occupation army estimates confirm the accuracy of Abu Ubaida’s statements and expose Netanyahu’s lies.

Warnings of significant effects

Neurologists in Israel warned of the spread of dealing with the effects of concussions among the injured.

However, unlike other injuries, the majority of cases do not come to the hospital and suffer for months from symptoms such as anxiety, depression, cognitive problems, memory loss, confusion, and sudden behavioral changes, in addition to other symptoms.

Based on a study conducted by Dr. Rachel Gardner, Director of Clinical Research at the Sajol Neuroscience Center at the Sheba Medical Center, a particularly alarming picture emerged for the medical community in the occupied territories.

The study stated, “Approximately 60% of war-injured patients in rehabilitation centers suffered from concussions of varying degrees of severity. What is most worrisome is that some of them were not diagnosed with concussion on routine CT scans, or had not undergone any tests prior to that.”

Official statistics reveal the size of the direct losses caused by the aggression on GazaOfficial statistics reveal the size of the direct losses caused by the aggression on Gaza
60% of the occupation soldiers suffered from concussion after being injured during the war on Gaza.

The injured soldier, Ofek Yanun, mentioned that he is still dealing with the consequences of his injury. He explained, “I was in the areas adjacent to the Shefa Hospital, and we passed by a house that was seized. I was hit from above, and all the bricks fell on me. I suffered a head injury and part of the building collapsed on me. When that happened, I lost consciousness. When I was in the respiratory rehabilitation stage.”

He added, “Memory began to return again. I was told that I had suffered a concussion. I had strange behaviors that I don’t usually exhibit.”

He continued, “Now, as far as my thinking and brain are concerned, there is no problem, so to speak, because I am receiving treatment. But I definitely know that I have a problem with my memory. I have lost my memory, and even now when things happen to me, I have trouble remembering them.”

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  • Announces next-generation COVID-19 vaccine candidate as fourth respiratory vaccine to successfully meet its Phase 3 endpoints
  • Expects two more Phase 3 readouts in 2024, including combination vaccine against flu and COVID-19, and vaccine against CMV
  • Announces positive clinical trial data from three new vaccines against viruses that cause significant burden (Epstein-Barr virus, Varicella-Zoster virus, norovirus) and advances programs toward Phase 3 development
  • Anticipates U.S. launch of vaccine against RSV following FDA approval and ACIP recommendation in 2024
  • Announces development and commercialization funding agreement with Blackstone Life Sciences for up to $750 million to advance flu program

CAMBRIDGE, MA / ACCESSWIRE / March 27, 2024 / Moderna, Inc. (NASDAQ:MRNA) today announced at its fifth Vaccines Day event clinical and program updates demonstrating advancement and acceleration of its mRNA pipeline. The updates include data readouts in the Company’s respiratory and latent and other vaccine portfolios, as well as commercial, manufacturing and financial announcements for its vaccines business.

“Our mRNA platform continues a remarkable track record across our broad vaccine portfolio. Today, we are excited to share that four vaccines in our pipeline have achieved successful clinical readouts across our respiratory, latent and other virus franchises,” said Stéphane Bancel, Chief Executive Officer of Moderna. “With five vaccines in Phase 3, and three more moving toward Phase 3, we have built a very large and diverse portfolio addressing significant unmet medical needs. We are focused on execution to further build momentum across our pipeline and business, and to deliver for patients who are impacted by these infectious diseases.”

Portfolio Overview

The vaccine portfolio seeks to address infectious diseases that cause considerable health burdens and includes 28 vaccines addressing respiratory, latent and other pathogens.

Latent and Other Vaccine Portfolio

Moderna is advancing five vaccine candidates against viruses that cause latent infections, all of which are in clinical trials. When latent, a virus is present in the body but exists in a resting state, typically without causing any noticeable symptoms. Latent viruses can reactivate and cause clinical symptoms as a person ages, during times of stress or when immunity is compromised. The capacity for latency is a defining feature of members of the Herpesviridae family, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV).

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

CMV is the most common infectious cause of birth defects in the U.S. and is responsible for several billion dollars in annual healthcare costs. One in 200 babies in the U.S. are born with a congenital CMV infection, and of those affected, one in five will have severe, life-altering health problems. Possible short- and long-term sequelae of CMV infection include microcephaly, chorioretinitis, seizures, sensorineural hearing loss, cognitive impairment and cerebral palsy. There is currently no approved vaccine to prevent congenital CMV.

CMVictory is a pivotal Phase 3 trial evaluating mRNA-1647 against primary CMV infection in women 16 to 40 years of age. The trial is a randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of mRNA-1647. The trial is fully enrolled with approximately 7,300 participants from 290 clinical sites globally.

To date, 50 primary infection cases have accrued and are undergoing confirmation. The first interim analysis for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy, which will be triggered when both 81 confirmed per-protocol cases and 12 median months of safety follow-up have occurred, is expected as early as the end of 2024.

Moderna’s CMV vaccine candidate mRNA-1647 has advanced to indication expansion studies in adolescents 9 to 15 years of age and adult transplant patients, both of which have begun enrollment.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

EBV is a major cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in the U.S., accounting for more than 90% of IM cases annually. Importantly, EBV and IM are associated with a higher lifetime risk of more serious sequelae including certain cancers such as gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and multiple types of lymphoma. The lifetime risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is increased by 32-fold after EBV infection. There is currently no approved vaccine to prevent EBV.

Moderna’s EBV vaccine candidates are designed to tackle multiple EBV-associated conditions, including prevention of IM (mRNA-1189) and MS and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, a subcategory of lymphoma in solid organ transplant patients (mRNA-1195). The Phase 1 trial for mRNA-1189 was designed to test the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of four different dose levels in participants 12 to 30 years of age in the U.S. The randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study showed mRNA-1189 was immunogenic and generally well tolerated across all dose levels. The Company is advancing mRNA-1189 toward a pivotal Phase 3 trial.

The Phase 1 trial for mRNA-1195 was designed to test the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of two drug products at four different dose levels in healthy EBV seropositive participants 18 to 55 years of age in the U.S. The randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study is fully enrolled.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects approximately 13% of adults globally and is the primary cause of genital herpes. There are an estimated four billion people globally infected with HSV, of which 491 million cases are HSV-2. Recurrent genital herpes causes a reduction in quality of life, which antivirals (current standard of care) only partially restore. Moderna expects that if an HSV vaccine candidate could deliver similar efficacy as a suppressive antiviral treatment, compliance with recommended therapy and associated quality of life would improve. There is currently no approved vaccine to treat HSV-2.

The first in human, fully enrolled Phase 1/2 trial of mRNA-1608 is designed to test safety and immunogenicity and to establish a proof-of-concept of clinical benefit in adults 18 to 55 years of age with recurrent HSV-2 genital herpes. The randomized 1:1:1:1, observer-blind, controlled study is fully enrolled with 300 participants in the U.S.

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV)

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is caused by reactivation of latent VZV, the same virus that causes chickenpox. Declining immunity in older adults decreases immunity against VZV, allowing reactivation of the virus from latently infected neurons, causing painful and itchy lesions. Herpes Zoster occurs in one out of three adults in the U.S. in their lifetime and the incidence increases at 50 years of age. There is potential to reach a growing and underserved patient population.

Moderna’s VZV vaccine candidate mRNA-1468 has initial data available from a Phase 1/2 trial, which was designed to test safety and immunogenicity in healthy adults 50 years of age and older in the U.S. The randomized 1:1:1:1:1, observer-blind, active-controlled study of mRNA-1468 elicited strong antigen-specific T cell responses at one month after the second dose and was generally well tolerated. Results of the first interim analysis support the further clinical development of mRNA-1468 for the prevention of shingles. Additional results from the ongoing Phase 1/2 study will be available later this year, including persistence data. The Company is planning for a pivotal Phase 3 trial.


Enteric viruses, including norovirus, are a leading cause of diarrheal diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly among young children and older adults. Norovirus is highly contagious and a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally, associated with 18% of all acute gastroenteritis (AGE), resulting in approximately 200,000 deaths per year and substantial healthcare costs. Given the wide diversity of norovirus genotypes, a broadly effective norovirus vaccine will require a multivalent vaccine design. There is currently no approved vaccine to prevent norovirus.

The randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 1 trial was designed to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of trivalent (mRNA-1403) and pentavalent (mRNA-1405) norovirus vaccine candidates in 664 participants 18 to 49 years of age and 60 to 80 years of age in the U.S. An interim analysis showed that a single dose of mRNA-1403 elicited a robust immune response across all dose levels evaluated with a clinically acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. The Company is advancing mRNA-1403 toward a pivotal Phase 3 trial.

Respiratory Vaccine Portfolio

Moderna’s approach to ease the global burden of respiratory infections includes vaccine candidates against major causative pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus. Respiratory infections are a top cause of death in the U.S. and are particularly harmful to the young, immunocompromised, and older adults who experience more severe illness, greater incidence of hospitalization, and greater mortality than younger adults.

Moderna’s respiratory pipeline includes Phase 3 trials for investigational vaccines including a next-generation COVID-19 vaccine, an RSV vaccine, a flu vaccine, and a flu and COVID-19 combination vaccine. The pipeline includes three additional flu vaccine candidates with expanded antigen coverage as well as combination vaccine programs.


Moderna continues to address the needs of the endemic COVID-19 market by focusing on public health efforts to increase vaccination coverage rates to reduce the substantial burden of COVID-19 as well as by advancing next-generation vaccines. The Company’s mRNA platform can produce variant-matched vaccines on an accelerated time horizon, consistent with recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) comments on the timing of potential strain selection for the fall booster season.

A recent announcement of positive interim results from the NEXTCove Phase 3 trial showed that mRNA-1283 elicited a higher immune response against both the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 and original virus strains of SARS-CoV-2 compared to mRNA-1273.222, Moderna’s licensed COVID-19 vaccine. mRNA-1283 is designed to be refrigerator-stable and paves the way for a combination vaccine against influenza and COVID-19, mRNA-1083, enhancing the Company’s overall respiratory portfolio. This is Moderna’s fourth infectious disease vaccine program with Phase 3 data.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

RSV is the leading cause of respiratory illness in young children, and older adults are at increased risk relative to younger adults for severe outcomes. In addition to acute mortality and morbidity, RSV infection is associated with long-term sequelae such as asthma and impaired lung function in pediatric populations, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in older adults. Annually, there are approximately two million medically attended RSV infections and 58,000 to 80,000 hospitalizations in children younger than five years old in the U.S. In the U.S., each year there are up to 160,000 hospitalizations and 10,000 deaths in adults 65 years and older due to RSV. Across high-income countries in 2019, RSV caused an estimated 5.2 million cases, 470,000 hospitalizations and 33,000 in-hospital deaths in adults 60 years and older.


Moderna’s RSV vaccine candidate, mRNA-1345, is in an ongoing Phase 2/3, randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled case-driven trial (ConquerRSV) in adults over 60 years of age. In this study, approximately 37,000 participants from 22 countries were randomized 1:1 to receive one dose of mRNA-1345 or placebo.

Based on positive data from the ConquerRSV trial, Moderna has filed for regulatory approvals for mRNA-1345 for the prevention of RSV-associated lower respiratory tract disease (RSV-LRTD) and acute respiratory disease (ARD) in adults over 60 years of age.

The trial met both its primary efficacy endpoints, with a vaccine efficacy (VE) of 83.7% (95.88% CI: 66.1%, 92.2%; p<0.0001) against RSV-LRTD as defined by two or more symptoms, and a VE of 82.4% (96.36% CI: 34.8%, 95.3%; p=0.0078) against RSV-LRTD defined by three or more symptoms. These data were published in the New England Journal of Medicine in December 2023.

A subsequent analysis from the ConquerRSV study with a longer median follow-up duration of 8.6 months (versus 3.7 months in the primary analysis), with a range of 15 days to 530 days, and including subjects from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres was recently presented at the RSVVW’24 conference. In this supplemental analysis, mRNA-1345 maintained durable efficacy, with sustained VE of 63.3% (95.88% CI: 48.7%, 73.7%) against RSV-LRTD including two or more symptoms. VE was 74.6% (95% CI: 50.7%, 86.9%) against RSV-LRTD with ≥2 symptoms, including shortness of breath and 63.0% (95% CI: 37.3%, 78.2%) against RSV-LRTD including three of more symptoms. The stringent statistical criterion of the study, a lower bound on the 95% CI of >20%, continued to be met for both endpoints.

mRNA-1345 has been granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA for the prevention of RSV-LRTD in adults over 60 years of age. The Company is awaiting regulatory approvals and the U.S. ACIP recommendation in 2024.

Indication expansion studies for mRNA-1345

mRNA-1345 has the potential to protect all vulnerable populations from RSV. Moderna has initiated multiple Phase 3 expansion studies in adults over 50 years of age to evaluate co-administration and revaccination. Additional trials (Phase 1 – Phase 3) have been initiated for high-risk adults, as well as maternal and pediatric populations. Interim data from these studies could be available as early as 2024.

Influenza (Flu)

Worldwide, influenza leads to 3-5 million severe cases of flu and 290,000-650,000 flu-related respiratory deaths annually. Two main types of influenza viruses (A and B) cause seasonal flu epidemics, and the influenza A viruses lead to most flu-related hospitalization in older adults.

The Company has several seasonal influenza vaccine candidates in clinical development. Moderna’s seasonal flu vaccine, mRNA-1010, demonstrated consistently acceptable safety and tolerability across three Phase 3 trials. In the most recent Phase 3 trial (P303), which was designed to test the immunogenicity and safety of an optimized vaccine composition, mRNA-1010 met all immunogenicity primary endpoints, demonstrating higher antibody titers compared to a currently licensed standard-dose flu vaccine. In an older adult extension study of P303, mRNA-1010 is being studied against high dose Fluzone HD®; the trial is fully enrolled. The Company is in ongoing discussions with regulators and intends to file in 2024.

Combination Respiratory Vaccines

Moderna’s combination vaccine candidates cover respiratory viruses associated with the largest disease burden in the category. The Phase 3 combination study of the Company’s investigational combination vaccine against flu and COVID-19 (mRNA-1083) for adults aged 50 years and older is fully enrolled and data are expected in 2024. mRNA-1083 was granted Fast Track designation by the FDA in May 2023.

Commercial Updates

Respiratory viruses in addition to latent and other viruses represent large unmet or underserved medical needs, and the human and economic costs from these infectious diseases highlight the need for effective vaccines. To help address this need, Moderna expects multiple vaccine product launches in the next few years, each with significant addressable markets.

The 2024 global endemic COVID-19 vaccine market alone is estimated by Moderna to be approximately $10 billion. COVID-19 continues to show a high burden of disease, and while COVID-19 hospitalizations remain high relative to RSV and flu, the risks of Long COVID are also becoming better understood. Moderna is focused on improving education and awareness to increase vaccination rates as Long COVID data suggests even traditionally low-risk groups should be vaccinated. Moderna is also working with health authorities to align the timing of COVID-19 and flu vaccine launches to help improve public health.

For RSV, Moderna estimates the peak annual market to be approximately $10 billion. The Company expects a strong RSV vaccine launch into a large market in 2024. As the only mRNA investigational vaccine with positive Phase 3 data, Moderna’s RSV vaccine candidate has a strong profile with consistently strong efficacy across vulnerable and older populations, a well-established safety and tolerability profile, and ease of administration with a ready-to-use, pre-filled syringe formulation, which could relieve some of the burden that falls on pharmacies during the fall vaccination season.

An interim analysis from an ongoing time and motion study evaluating differences in preparation time between a pre-filled syringe (PFS) presentation and vaccines that require reconstitution showed that a PFS presentation could relieve some of the burden that falls on pharmacies during the fall vaccination season. Results from this study suggest that pharmacies may be capable of preparing up to four times as many doses of PFS in an hour compared to vaccines requiring reconstitution.

Moderna estimates flu vaccines represent an approximately $7 billion market in 2024. The market is expected to grow with the rise of more effective vaccines and there is an opportunity to expand the market with next-generation premium flu vaccines as well as combination respiratory vaccines, adding increased value to the health ecosystem.

CMV is expected to be a $2-5 billion annual market. With no vaccine currently on the market and a potential vaccine launch in 2026, Moderna could be the first CMV vaccine in multi-billion-dollar latent vaccine market. In addition, EBV has the potential to address and reduce the burden and cost of EBV infection in multiple populations, while VZV provides the opportunity to enter a large and growing market, which could be $5-6 billion annually. The market for norovirus vaccines is similar to that of rotavirus in pediatrics with opportunity to expand into the adult population, and represents a $3-6 billion annual market.

Moderna’s vaccine portfolio targets large addressable markets, with an estimated total addressable market (TAM) of $52 billon for Moderna infectious disease vaccines, which includes a respiratory vaccines TAM of more than $27 billion and a latent and other vaccines TAM of more than $25 billion.


The Company’s manufacturing innovation supports expanding commercialization of a diverse pipeline through efficiency and productivity gains. Its mRNA manufacturing platform enables benefits such as quality, speed, scale and cost efficiency across a footprint that broadly includes the manufacture of plasmid, mRNA, lipid nanoparticles, as well as fill/finish and quality control capabilities.

As the Company continues to build its footprint for the future, it is developing an agile global manufacturing network to meet commercial demand and support its growing pipeline. Pre-clinical through commercial manufacturing occurs at the Moderna Technology Center in Norwood, Massachusetts, which remains central to the Company’s network. New facilities being constructed in Australia, Canada and the UK are expected to come online in 2025, and drug product capacity is achieved through a flexible contract manufacturing network. Additionally, the Company has purchased and started build-out of a manufacturing site in Marlborough, Massachusetts, to enable commercial scale of its individualized neoantigen therapy program.

By continuing to pioneer new technologies, including advanced robotics, applying AI and other digital solutions, and driving network and capital efficiency, Moderna’s manufacturing network is expected to also drive more predictable cost of sales.

Research and Development Investment Strategy

Today’s updates provide further evidence that Moderna’s mRNA technology platform is working, and with a rate of success higher than industry standard. Looking ahead, research and development will continue to be the Company’s top capital allocation priority.

As Moderna looks to create value through the research and development strategy for its vaccine portfolio, it is taking three prioritization parameters into consideration: pipeline advancement, revenue diversification and risk reduction. As part of its strategy, the funding options Moderna considers are self-funding, project financing and partnerships.

Moderna recently entered into a development and commercialization funding agreement with Blackstone Life Sciences to advance the Company’s flu program. As part of the agreement, Blackstone will fund up to $750 million with a return based on cumulative commercial milestones and low-single digit royalties. Moderna expects to recognize the funding as a reduction in research and development expenses and will retain full rights and control of the Company’s flu program. This funding does not result in any change to Moderna’s 2024 research and development framework of approximately $4.5 billion.

About Moderna

Moderna is a leader in the creation of the field of mRNA medicine. Through the advancement of mRNA technology, Moderna is reimagining how medicines are made and transforming how we treat and prevent disease for everyone. By working at the intersection of science, technology and health for more than a decade, the company has developed medicines at unprecedented speed and efficiency, including one of the earliest and most effective COVID-19 vaccines.

Moderna’s mRNA platform has enabled the development of therapeutics and vaccines for infectious diseases, immuno-oncology, rare diseases and autoimmune diseases. With a unique culture and a global team driven by the Moderna values and mindsets to responsibly change the future of human health, Moderna strives to deliver the greatest possible impact to people through mRNA medicines. For more information about Moderna, please visit and connect with us on X (formerly Twitter), Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn.


SPIKEVAX (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals 18 years of age and older.


  • Do not administer to individuals with a known history of severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to any component of the vaccine.
  • Appropriate medical treatment to manage immediate allergic reactions must be immediately available in the event an acute anaphylactic reaction occurs following administration of the vaccine.
  • Postmarketing data demonstrate increased risks of myocarditis and pericarditis, particularly within 7 days following the second dose. The observed risk is higher among males under 40 years of age than among females and older males. The observed risk is highest in males 18 through 24 years of age.
  • Syncope (fainting) may occur in association with administration of injectable vaccines. Procedures should be in place to avoid injury from fainting.
  • Immunocompromised persons, including individuals receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may have a diminished response to the vaccine.
  • The vaccine may not protect all vaccine recipients.
  • Adverse reactions reported in clinical trials following administration of the vaccine include pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, nausea/vomiting, axillary swelling/tenderness, fever, swelling at the injection site, and erythema at the injection site, and rash.
  • The vaccination provider is responsible for mandatory reporting of certain adverse events to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online at or by calling 1-800-822-7967.
  • Please see the SPIKEVAX Full Prescribing Information. For information regarding authorized emergency uses of the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine, please see the EUA Fact Sheet.

Spikevax® is a registered trademark of Moderna.
Fluzone® is a registered trademark of Sanofi Pasteur.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, including statements regarding: the advancement of Moderna’s programs under clinical development; the timing for anticipated approvals of vaccine candidates; the efficacy, safety and tolerability of vaccine candidates; the total addressable markets for programs under development; the efficiencies and advantages of Moderna’s mRNA platform; future capital allocation and financing efforts; and anticipated spending for R&D in 2024. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by terminology such as “will,” “may,” “should,” “could,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “aims,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. The forward-looking statements in this press release are neither promises nor guarantees, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors, many of which are beyond Moderna’s control and which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties, and other factors include, among others, those risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” in Moderna’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and in subsequent filings made by Moderna with the SEC, which are available on the SEC’s website at Except as required by law, Moderna disclaims any intention or responsibility for updating or revising any forward-looking statements contained in this presentation in the event of new information, future developments or otherwise. These forward-looking statements are based on Moderna’s current expectations and speak only as of the date of this press release. ​


Moderna Contacts

Chris Ridley
Head, Global Media Relations
+1 617-800-3651
[email protected]

Lavina Talukdar
Senior Vice President & Head of Investor Relations
+1 617-209-5834
[email protected]

SOURCE: Moderna, Inc.

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Medical ventilators are advanced air circulation systems engineered to facilitate breathing for a patient unable to do so independently. A variety of medical ventilators are available for use in different medical environments.

The best methods to improve ventilator reliability and accuracy

Image Credit: Superior Sensor Technology

A variety of medical ventilators are available for use in different environments:

  • Transport ventilators: First responders, ambulance services, and helicopter transport use transport ventilators. In emergencies, these electronic ventilators supply breathing assistance until a patient is transferred to a hospital. They are more compact and robust than their hospital counterparts and offer diverse power source options. 
  • Intensive care (ICU) ventilators: Large ventilators are located in hospitals and powered by AC electricity. They are used in the surgical and ICU areas and offer comprehensive features and capabilities. 
  • Critical care ventilators: Although lacking some of the features of ICU ventilators, critical care ventilators are equipped with enough functionality to manage emergencies and long-term critical ventilation situations. These ventilators tend to be found in hospitals’ emergency and specialized care units.
  • Home ventilators: These smaller devices assist patients who cannot breathe independently after discharge. A home ventilator continues to support a patient’s breathing until they can do so without assistance.

Neonatal ventilators are medical ventilators designed explicitly for neonatal and infant patients. The key difference is that they are intended to provide lower and more precise rates of ventilation.

Modern medical ventilation systems are controlled electronically, with embedded processing that precisely regulates air pressure and flow according to each patient’s specific requirements. These systems are considered to be life-critical because a system failure could cause severe patient harm.

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, medical ventilators were fundamental to hospital care. However, the demand for ventilators has risen substantially over the last few years.

Hospitals routinely use high-pressure ventilators, which are tank-based and built into the infrastructure. However, the current trend in medical ventilation is towards portable solutions, specifically low-pressure units. These mobile units are equipped with a miniaturized O2 tank or can function without one.

Ease of transport is a major advantage of these devices. They can provide increased mobility for the patient and be easily relocated when required.

These modern systems have a blower mechanism that produces the required air on demand instead of full-sized tanks. The blower operates like a standard fan, using blades to create airflow. The blades’ noise is a challenge, and it must be addressed to guarantee accurate and efficient operation.

Examples of Low-Pressure Medical Ventilators

Figure 1. Examples of low-pressure medical ventilators. Image Credit: Superior Sensor Technology

Superior Sensor VN Series improves ventilator performance

A number of medical studies have suggested that approximately one-third of patients experience dyssynchrony during mechanical ventilation. This is when the ventilator does not match the patient’s breathing requirements.

This can result in increased respiratory work, lung damage, discomfort, extended ventilator reliance, and weaning difficulties. To improve synchrony, ventilators must respond faster to patient breathing demands and eliminate the impact of system noise.

Pressure sensors in ventilators, crucial for monitoring and controlling airflow, can be affected by system noise from internal blowers and external vibrations. Traditional systems often slow down response time by oversampling sensor data, further complicating the issue.

Designed specifically for medical ventilators, the VN Series by Superior Sensor uses an innovative oversampling technique that effectively eradicates all noise beyond the relevant band. This proprietary technology allows mechanical ventilators to use sensor outputs at their maximum speed, eliminating the requirement for oversampling sensor outputs and decreasing the system response time by as much as tenfold.

The series is made up of seven devices, each of which caters to a broad spectrum of system applications, ranging from flow measurement to inlet, inspiratory, expiratory, and barometric pressures. 

Advanced digital processing significantly reduces system-level noise interference. Additionally, the sensors boast 24-bit output resolution, improved filtering, remarkable zero stability, and are capable of supporting an update rate surpassing 1 kHz.

They have been meticulously designed to enhance system accuracy and reduce error rates. This proves especially advantageous for patients facing life-threatening respiratory conditions.

The table below highlights the uses of different sensors within the VN Series.

Table 1. VN Series product family. Source: Superior Sensor Technology

VN Series Product Family

The VN026CM and VN131CM offer extreme bandwidth resolution, enhancing the sensor’s effective resolution, amplifying the dynamic range, and reducing the noise floor by an additional 20 dB.

The VN026CM and VN131CM have the lowest noise floor and, for the first time, can offer manufacturers single-sensor solutions catering to numerous respiratory requirements for neonates and adults.

Comparing Extreme Resolution to Standard Resolution and Competitive Offerings

Graph 1. Comparing extreme resolution to standard resolution and competitive offerings. Image Credit: Superior Sensor Technology

The VN Series sensors have integrated additional features like advanced digital filtering and a three-mode pressure switch. These transform pressure sensors into sensing subsystems, increasing manufacturing efficiency and reliability.

Every VN Series sensor uses the same footprint and is pin-compatible with each other. The simplified PCB layouts allow manufacturers to easily interchange VN Series sensors for a variety of applications.


The VN Series employs cutting-edge digital signal processing and noise filtering methods to enhance medical ventilator performance. By facilitating rapid sensor data retrieval and eliminating interference, the sensors enable ventilators to adapt promptly and precisely to patient breathing patterns.

This heightened speed and accuracy, coupled with advanced functionalities such as three-mode pressure switching, can notably enhance patient-ventilator synchronization and minimize discomfort.

Offering industry-leading resolution and noise reduction within a standard footprint, the VN Series provides ventilator manufacturers with a flexible pressure-sensing solution to enhance system dependability and more effectively cater to the needs of critical care patients.

Major global ventilator manufacturers, like Vyaire, trust Superior Sensor Technology to supply their differential pressure sensors. 

About Superior Sensor TechnologyLogo

Superior Sensor Technology is an innovative, high technology company revolutionizing the high performance, cost driven pressure sensor market by developing integrative, highly intelligent solutions for industrial, HVAC and medical applications.

Our proprietary pressure sensor technology with advanced programmable software features enables customers to develop higher performing, more reliable equipment.

Sponsored Content Policy: publishes articles and related content that may be derived from sources where we have existing commercial relationships, provided such content adds value to the core editorial ethos of News-Medical.Net which is to educate and inform site visitors interested in medical research, science, medical devices and treatments.

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Cooler weather is on our doorstep and it’s bringing some very unwanted house guests — their names are COVID, influenza and RSV.

Some experts are predicting a particularly bad flu season and there’s concern vaccine uptake will remain low and, in turn, hospitalisations will increase.

There’s also talk of the dreaded “flurona”.

Past experience shows infections will ramp up soon, usually around late April. Some vaccine guidelines have also recently changed.

Let’s unpack the latest advice.


The 2023 flu season was particularly long, but the 2024 season could be even worse, says Michael Clements, vice president and rural chair of the Royal Australian College of GPs.

“We’ve been isolated in the past [during the pandemic] so there isn’t a lot of herd immunity.

“International travel is full steam ahead and we typically import our influenza from the northern hemisphere.”

However, he says a higher rate of infections can also reflect the fact people can now buy at-home testing kits and find out if they have influenza or RSV.

“So in the past we may never have even known they had influenza.”

Father wiping toddler daughters nose

Children aged between six months to five years old are at high risk of developing severe influenza symptoms.(Getty Images: MoMo Productions)

Christopher Blyth, a paediatric infectious diseases professor with the University of Western Australia, says every influenza season is different so it’s hard to make many predictions.

“But what I will say is a significant number of children will be hospitalised with influenza this year, like every year.”

Last year, children between the ages of five and nine had the highest influenza notification rates, and the number of deaths in children under 16 was higher than in many pre-COVID pandemic years

“The bulk of children hospitalised are in good health, they just aren’t vaccinated,” says Professor Blyth, who’s the director of the Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases at the Telethon Kids Institute.

According to the latest government data, influenza cases are higher than expected for this time of year (around 1.7 times greater than the same time last year).

Your immunisation guide:

Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for everyone over six months of age.

The following groups can receive their vaccine for free under the National Immunisation Program (NIP):

  • children aged between six months and five years
  • those over 65
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • anyone pregnant
  • those with medical conditions that increase their risk of severe influenza

The Queensland government also recently announced it would pay the cost of the flu vaccine for all residents not covered by the NIP. 

Dr Clements says pharmacies are starting to see vaccines trickle in, but the government stock is not due until around early April.

“I know some people are really keen but we actually want to tell them it’s OK to wait, as it takes a month or so to get peak effect from the vaccine and it does taper off at between four to six months.”

Professor Blyth says getting a vaccine in April will mean you’re protected when infections start ramping up in May and still be covered for the peak, which is typically in August.

A COVID vaccination being administered to a young child.

A flu vaccine is needed every year as influenza virus strains mutate.(ABC News: Herlyn Kaur)

Vaccination coverage last year was low, with around 32 per cent of the population vaccinated.

Dr Clements says it’s “heartbreaking” to see people suffer from something preventable and he particularly wants to see more pregnant women and young children vaccinated this year.

He says the higher the vaccine uptake, the lower the peak of infections. This will make the entire community safer, including those who aren’t vaccinated.

“Because there’s always people who can’t get the vaccine or have it but it doesn’t work.”

The vaccine’s effectiveness rate is between 40 to 60 per cent.


Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are common and can be very disruptive.

“Most parents can give a really good history of being awake at night worried about the wet cough their child has,” Dr Clements says.

“For the elderly, it’s often RSV that triggers the pneumonia that kills them.”

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