PRESS RELEASE

Published February 2, 2023

The Airway Clearance System is a set of techniques and methods used to help clear mucus from the lungs, which can improve breathing in people with cystic fibrosis, COPD, and other chronic respiratory conditions. It involves deep-breathing exercises, coughing techniques, postural drainage, chest percussion (clapping), and mechanical devices such as the Flutter or Acapella. Proper airway clearance is essential for reducing symptoms and improving quality of life. It is an important part of any treatment program for chronic lung diseases.

This factor is expected to play a key role in increased revenue of the global respiratory devices market over the forecast period.

Top Players such as Hill-Rom Holdings, Inc., Philips Respironics (Koninklijke Philips N.V.,), Aptalis Pharma US,Inc., Thayer Medical, Electromed Inc., General Physiotherapy, Inc., Vortran Medical Technology, Monaghan Medical Corporation, Others.

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North America to Lead the Global Market with Rising Disposable Income and Increasing Geriatric Population-

Improvement in healthcare policies in various countries, such as the U.S., has improved the affordability for various diagnostic and treatment services, and in turn amplified the life expectancy of the people. The burgeoning ageing population will increase the number of people diagnosed with COPD and asthma.

Europe to Witness Decent Progression in Upcoming Years-

The cost structure of home care and hospitals or institutional services in Europe fluctuates considerably owing to the quality of services offered by respiratory care service providers or manufacturers, which comprise other type of monitoring and hospitality services.

Market Segments:

By Application Type:

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Immotile Cilia Syndrome
  • Others

By End User:

  • Hospitals and Clinics
  • Home care settings
  • Ambulatory Surgical Centers
  • Others

 

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A never-before seen medical ailment has evolved in the world over the last few years as a result of the worldwide COVID-19 epidemic.

The condition, called “Long COVID-19,” is still so novel that intervention research is only beginning to emerge.

But La Mesa Rehab has already used all available data at hand to create a new, intensive program for those suffering from its symptoms. La Mesa Rehab will reportedly continue to refine its protocols as scientists and doctors learn more about the disease’s etiology.

Long COVID-19 is a condition defined as the continuation, recurrence of, or emergence of virus symptoms lasting more than four weeks after recovery from the initial, acute phase of the disease. Some patients’ symptoms last up to two years. As of the June 2022 report from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC,) 1 in 13 adults in the U.S. (7.5%) had Long COVID-19 symptoms.

La Mesa Rehab’s new Long COVID-19 program is offering continuity of care, working as a total network for patients with the condition. It’s a team approach, with pulmonologists, respiratory therapists, and physical therapists working together for the betterment of “long haulers,” as they’ve come to be known.

Treatment plans unique to each patient

Each patient gets a new treatment plan that differs from that of any other patient because of the widely-varying symptoms across the population, as well as symptoms that change over time within an individual.

These may include: difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, chest tightness or pain, stomach pain, headache, low stamina, fatigue or weakness. And with these sensations comes fear. One patient at the clinic described their plight “You take for granted, that you’re going to breathe…it’s such a natural thing. And when that gets taken away, it’s very scary!”

According to Tami Peavy, MBA, DPT, and founder of La Mesa Rehab, what makes their treatments so unique is that “We design individual protocols, with respiratory therapy and physical therapy at the center of the program. We identify patients’ symptoms and address them systematically and adjust their protocols accordingly.”

Respiratory and physical therapists work closely with referring physicians, together designing individually-tailored programs that reduce shortness of breath, eliminate mucus, and increase lung capacity through exercise, postural strengthening, and breathing techniques. Specialized equipment and techniques are employed in order to more quickly and effectively achieve results. A few of these treatments include: vest therapy, bubble breathing, oxygen therapy, nebulizer treatments, gas exchange analysis, and balloon therapy.

Salt chamber therapy is the newest tool in the arsenal

Salt chamber therapy involves the inhalation by patients of dry salt in the form of a mist to clear lung mucus. Saline solution is placed in a nebulizer, a device that facilitates the inhalation of the mist into the lungs. Compressed oxygen or ultrasonic power breaks up the medicinal liquid into small aerosol droplets that are inhaled from a mouthpiece. Corticosteroids or bronchodilators can be added to the nebulizer to extend the effectiveness.

This procedure is administered within a specially designed salt chamber. The process, also called halotherapy, is quite remarkable, especially considering that it’s derived from a naturally-occurring substance. Dry salt particles shrink and liquefy lung mucus plugs that obstruct airways and aggravate breathing issues. The particles accelerate mucus transport and allow for enhanced cough efficiency. Coughs are more “productive” and the lungs are relived of mucus.

Peavy, a practicing clinician and innovative thinker, came up with the novel methodology. The lofty goal, which she successfully achieved, was to enhance the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation, and minimize patients’ reliance on prescriptions. Previously, patients would have had to undergo bronchoscopies to remove such mucus plugs.

La Mesa Rehab’s new Long COVID-19 program is based on the clinic’s experience with other lung impairments and diseases. These include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD,) emphysema, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. Therapists share their knowledge of these conditions with each other and with those who come to them for help. Patient education is provided to help get people with Long COVID-19 back to work more quickly, which is more important than ever during these times of economic difficulty and diminished workplace numbers.

Most lung diseases are treated with drug therapies, including steroids and inhalers. However, numerous published medical reports have shown that pulmonary rehabilitation is much more effective at easing symptoms, and results in a superior quality of life. It has also been documented that improved lung function leads to greater longevity, strength, and endurance, and reduces the number of hospitalizations and readmissions.

For more information, call (619) 466-6077 or view their website at: lamesarehab.com.

The facility is located at: 8380 Center Drive, Suite E, La Mesa.

Editor’s note: This article was provided by Carol Holland Lifshitz.

Photo credit: Pixabay.com

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Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Appears Robust With 75+ Key Pharma

DelveInsight's, "Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Insight, 2022," report provides comprehensive insights about 75+ companies and 80+ pipeline drugs in the Cystic Fibrosis pipeline landscape. It covers the Cystic Fibrosis pipeline drug profiles, including Cystic Fibrosis clinical trials and nonclinical stage products. It also covers the Cystic Fibrosis pipeline therapeutics assessment by product type, stage, route of administration, and molecule type. It further highlights the inactive pipeline products in this space.
In the Cystic Fibrosis pipeline report, detailed description of the drug is given which includes mechanism of action of the drug, clinical studies, Cystic Fibrosis NDA approvals (if any), and product development activities comprising the technology, Cystic Fibrosis collaborations, licensing, mergers and acquisition, funding, designations and other product related details.

Key takeaways from the Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Insight Report

• DelveInsight's Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline report depicts a robust space with 75+ active players working to develop 80+ pipeline therapies for Cystic Fibrosis.

• The leading Cystic Fibrosis Companies such as Eloxx Pharmaceuticals, NovaBiotics, Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, SolAeroMed, Translate Bio, Inc., Path BioAnalytics, Aridis Pharmaceuticals, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, AlgiPharma, Corbus Pharmaceuticals, Galapagos NV, Santhera Pharmaceuticals, Calithera Biosciences, Inc, AbbVie, Spyryx Biosciences, Inc., Verona Pharma, Laurent Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim, OrPro Therapeutics, Protalix Biotherapeutics, Krystal Biotech, Insmed Incorporated, BiomX, Arcturus Therapeutics, and others are developing potential drug candidates to improve the Cystic Fibrosis treatment scenario.

• Promising Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Therapies such as OligoG, Ensifentrine, MRT5005, CB280, KB407, SPL84231, and others

• The Cystic Fibrosis companies and academics are working to assess challenges and seek opportunities that could influence Cystic Fibrosis R&D. The therapies under development are focused on novel approaches to treat/improve Cystic Fibrosis.

Request a sample and discover the recent advances in Cystic Fibrosis treatment and click here for Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Report @ www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/cystic-fibrosis-pipeline?utm_source=openpr&utm_medium=pressrelease&utm_campaign=ypr

Cystic Fibrosis Overview
Cystic fibrosis is a progressive, genetic disease that causes long-lasting lung infections and limits the ability to breathe over time. More than 30,000 children and adults in the United States have CF (70,000 worldwide) and CF affects people of every racial and ethnic group. In people with CF, mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause the CFTR protein to become dysfunctional.

Recent Breakthroughs of Cystic Fibrosis Treatment Landscape

• In December 2021, AlgiPharma has been awarded up to NOK 16 million from the Norwegian Research Councils Innovation Project for the Industrial Sector program for the project "Therapeutic Alginates for Resistant and Recurrent Infections: Generating Eradication Therapies (TARRGET)". The project grant awarded from the Research Council combined with the Norwegian government tax incentive scheme (SkatteFUNN) results in a total award value for AlgiPharma of about NOK 22 million (about EUR 2.2 MM / USD 2.5 MM).

• AlgiPharma has received more than USD 46 million in research and development grants from EU's 7th framework program, Horizon 2020, and Eurostars programs, the Norwegian Research Council, Innovate UK, US Army through Congressional Earmark funding, and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF).

• In November 2021, Calithera Biosciences shared interim safety and efficacy results from a Phase 1b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial evaluating CB-280, the company's investigational arginase inhibitor, in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). The data were shared in a poster presentation at the North American Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Conference (NACFC; Abstract 529).CB-280 demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics with plasma exposure increasing proportionally with dose. Complete and continuous target inhibition in plasma was achieved at the 100 mg dose and above. CB-280 also demonstrated robust pharmacodynamic effects, with rapid and significant dose-proportional increases in plasma arginine, the key driver of NO production.

• In November 2021, Eloxx Pharmaceuticals announced positive topline results from the monotherapy arms of its Phase 2 clinical trial of ELX-02 in Class 1 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with at least one G542X nonsense allele mutation. ELX-02 was well tolerated and achieved a statistically significant 5.4mmol/L reduction in sweat chloride in patients at the1.5mg/kg/day dose.

• In October 2021, Boehringer Ingelheim, IP Group, the UK Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium (GTC, consisting of researchers from Imperial College London and the Universities of Oxford and Edinburgh) and Oxford Biomedica (OXB), today that Boehringer Ingelheim has exercised its options on intellectual property and know-how from the partners to progress and further accelerate the development of a potential, new treatment option for patients with CF. In the partnership, IP Group, acting on behalf of the three GTC host Universities, is granting exclusive global rights to develop, manufacture, register, and commercialize this lentiviral vector-based gene therapy for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. The GTC is additionally contributing its knowledge in pre-clinical research and clinical gene therapy development. OXB is adding its leading competence in manufacturing lentiviral vector-based therapies to Boehringer Ingelheim's expertise in the development of novel breakthrough therapies for respiratory diseases.

• In August 2021, Sanofi entered into a definitive agreement with Translate Bio (NASDAQ: TBIO), a clinical-stage mRNA therapeutics company, under which Sanofi will acquire all outstanding shares of Translate Bio for $38.00 per share in cash, which represents a total equity value of approximately $3.2 billion (on a fully diluted basis). The Sanofi and Translate Bio Boards of Directors unanimously approved the transaction.On the therapeutic side, Translate Bio has an early-stage pipeline in cystic fibrosis and other rare pulmonary diseases. In addition, discovery work is ongoing in diseases that affect the liver, and Translate Bio's MRTTM platform may be applied to various classes of treatments, such as therapeutic antibodies or vaccines in areas such as oncology. Sanofi's recent acquisition of Tidal Therapeutics expanded the company's mRNA research capabilities in both immuno-oncology and inflammatory diseases. The Translate Bio acquisition further accelerates Sanofi's efforts to develop transformative medicines using mRNA technology.

• In August 2019, Path BioAnalytics Inc. (PBA) announced it had licensed rights to cavosonstat from Laurel Therapeutics. Cavosonstat is a novel CFTR modulator designed to correct a subset of CFTR mutations by increasing stability of the CFTR protein in the cell membrane through inhibition of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and preservation of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO).

Request a sample and discover the recent advances in Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Therapies, visit Cystic Fibrosis Treatment Landscape @ www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/cystic-fibrosis-pipeline?utm_source=openpr&utm_medium=pressrelease&utm_campaign=ypr

Cystic Fibrosis Emerging Drugs Profile

• ELX-02: Eloxx Pharmaceuticals
ELX-02, is a eukaryotic ribosomal selective glycoside (ERSG) designed to increase the read-through activity in patients with nonsense mutations and enable the production of sufficient amounts of full-length functional protein to restore activity. It is currently in phase II stage of development to treat Cystic fibrosis.Eloxx has also begun evaluation of inhaled (nebulizer-based) delivery of the current subcutaneous formulation of ELX-02. Eloxx believes that inhaled delivery has the potential to further improve the activity of ELX-02 as a single agent and in combination with other drugs given potential for increased drug exposure in the lung versus plasma. Prior animal studies have shown a 19-fold increase in ELX-02 exposure at a similar dose when administered as an inhalation agent versus subcutaneously. We expect to submit an Investigational New Drug application in the second half of 2022.

• S1226: SolAeroMed
S1226 is SolAeroMed's lead therapy. S1226 is formulated to rapidly reopen constricted, mucus plugged airways, and should increase the effectiveness of respiratory drug delivery. The S1226 formulation consists of aerosolized carbon dioxide (CO2) and nebulized perflubron; which is delivered into the lung. The delivery of this formulation results in an immediate relaxant effect on the patient's constricted airways, supported by a lowering of surface tension in inflamed areas (resulting in enhanced bronchial dilation) and possible clearing of mucus plugs of blocked airways.SolAeroMed has completed a phase I trial demonstrating S1226 is safe in healthy subjects and a phase II clinical trial showing S1226 is safe and effective in relieving an allergen-induced asthma. SolAeroMed is currently conducting a phase II clinical trial in cystic fibrosis.

• Lenabasum: Corbus Pharmaceuticals
Lenabasum is a novel, oral, small molecule that selectively binds as an agonist to the receptor type 2 (CB2) and resolves inflammation and limits fibrosis in animal and human models of disease. CB2 is preferentially expressed on activated immune cells and on fibroblasts, muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Lenabasum has demonstrated acceptable safety and tolerability profiles and has not been immunosuppressive in clinical studies to date.CF-002 was a multinational Phase 2b study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lenabasum in CF. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, with dosing of lenabasum at 5 mg twice per day, lenabasum 20 mg twice per day or placebo twice per day for 28 weeks, with 4 weeks safety follow-up off active treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the event rate of new PEx per subject per 28 weeks, when the primary definition of new PEx was physician diagnosis of PEx, prescription of new antibiotics for that PEx starting more than 28 days after completion of the last antibiotic course for any previous PEx, with 4 out of 12 Fuch's criteria present in the subject. The Phase 2b CF study was funded in part by a Therapeutic Development Award for up to $25 Million from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

• Lonodelestat: Santhera Pharmaceuticals
Lonodelestat (previously known as POL6014), a highly potent and selective peptide inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (hNE), is in development for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, it is in Phase I/II stage of development. Santhera obtained the worldwide, exclusive rights from Polyphor AG to develop and commercialize lonodelestat in CF and other diseases. In preclinical studies lonodelestat was effective in animal models of neutrophil activation in lung tissue and of acute lung injury (ALI). Currently available clinical data demonstrated that single and multiple doses (Phase 1b) of lonodelestat when administered by inhalation via an optimized eFlow® nebulizer (PARI Pharma GmbH) can lead to high drug concentrations within the lung, resulting in inhibition of hNE in sputum of patients, an enzyme associated with lung tissue inflammation. The Phase 1b study further confirmed the tolerability of lonodelestat after treatment of up to four weeks in patients with CF. Lonodelestat may also show therapeutic benefit for a range of neutrophilic pulmonary diseases with high medical need such as non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Lonodelestat has EU orphan drug designations (ODD) for the treatment of CF as well as for AATD and PCD in both the EU and US.

DelveInsight's Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Report covers around 80+ products under different phases of clinical development like
• Late stage products (Phase III)
• Mid-stage products (Phase II)
• Early-stage product (Phase I) along with the details of
• Pre-clinical and Discovery stage candidates
• Discontinued & Inactive candidates
• Route of Administration

Get to know more information about the Cystic Fibrosis Emerging Drugs and Cystic Fibrosis Companies of the report @ www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/cystic-fibrosis-pipeline?utm_source=openpr&utm_medium=pressrelease&utm_campaign=ypr

Scope of the Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Report
• Coverage- Global
• Cystic Fibrosis Pipeline Segmentation: Product Type, Molecule Type, Mechanism of Action, Route of Action
• Cystic Fibrosis Companies- Eloxx Pharmaceuticals, NovaBiotics, Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, SolAeroMed, Translate Bio, Inc., Path BioAnalytics, Aridis Pharmaceuticals, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, AlgiPharma, Corbus Pharmaceuticals, Galapagos NV, Santhera Pharmaceuticals, Calithera Biosciences, Inc, AbbVie, Spyryx Biosciences, Inc., Verona Pharma, Laurent Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim, OrPro Therapeutics, Protalix Biotherapeutics, Krystal Biotech, Insmed Incorporated, BiomX, Arcturus Therapeutics, and others
• Cystic Fibrosis Therapies- OligoG, Ensifentrine, MRT5005, CB280, KB407, SPL84231, and others

Dive deep into rich insights for drugs for Cystic Fibrosis Market Drivers and Cystic Fibrosis Market Barriers, click here Cystic Fibrosis Unmet Needs and Analyst Views @ www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/cystic-fibrosis-pipeline?utm_source=openpr&utm_medium=pressrelease&utm_campaign=ypr

Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Executive Summary
3. Cystic Fibrosis: Overview
4. Pipeline Therapeutics
5. Therapeutic Assessment
6. Cystic Fibrosis - DelveInsight's Analytical Perspective
7. Late Stage Products (Phase III)
8. Drug name: Company Name
9. Mid Stage Products (Phase II)
10. OligoG : Algi pharma
11. Early Stage Products (Phase I)
12. CB280:Calithera Biosciences
13. Preclinical and Discovery Stage Products
14. SPL84231: Spli Sense
15. Inactive Products
16. Cystic Fibrosis -Key Companies
17. Cystic Fibrosis -Key Products
18. Cystic Fibrosis - Unmet Needs
19. Cystic Fibrosis - Market Drivers and Barriers
20. Cystic Fibrosis - Future Perspectives and Conclusion
21. Cystic Fibrosis -Analyst Views
22. Cystic Fibrosis- Key Companies
23. Appendix

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This air travels to the alveoli, the small cavities located at the end of the bronchioles that are responsible for allowing gas exchange between air and blood.

In the case of atelectasis, these small air sacs deflate and cannot inflate properly and/or absorb enough air and oxygen.

If the disease affects a large enough area, the blood may not receive enough oxygen, which can trigger various health problems.

Generally, it is not life-threatening, but in some cases it must be treated quickly.

THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING IN RESCUE: VISIT THE SQUICCIARINI RESCUE BOOTH AND FIND OUT HOW TO BE PREPARED FOR AN EMERGENCY

Atelectasis: what it is

Atelectasis is one of the most common respiratory complications after surgery.

It is also a possible complication of other respiratory problems, including cystic fibrosis, lung tumours, chest lesions, fluid in the lungs and respiratory weakness.

Atelectasis can make breathing difficult, particularly if one already suffers from lung disease.

Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the collapse.

Pulmonary atelectasis, symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms? If atelectasis only affects a small area of the lungs, the person may not even have any symptoms.

But if it affects larger areas, the lungs cannot fill with enough air and the oxygen level in the blood may decrease.

When this happens, annoying and unpleasant symptoms may occur, including:

  • difficulty breathing (shortness of breath; rapid, shallow breathing; wheezing);
  • increased heart rate;
  • coughing;
  • chest pain;
  • bluish discolouration of the skin and lips.

If you experience these symptoms and have difficulty breathing, you should consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Keep in mind that other conditions, including asthma and emphysema, can also cause chest pain and breathing problems.

Why a lung can collapse

Atelectasis can be triggered by many factors: potentially, any condition that makes it difficult to take deep breaths or cough can lead to a collapsed lung.

Atelectasis can result from airway obstruction (called obstructive atelectasis) or from pressure from outside the lung (non-obstructive atelectasis).

The most common reason for people to develop this disease is surgery.

It must be known that anaesthesia can affect the patient’s ability to breathe normally or cough as it changes the normal breathing pattern and affects lung gas exchange.

All this can cause the air sacs (alveoli) to deflate.

In addition, the pain that is often experienced following surgery may make deep breathing painful: as a result, one may be inclined to adopt continuous shallow breathing, which may favour the development of the disease.

This explains why almost everyone who has undergone major surgery develops a more or less severe form of atelectasis.

Other possible causes of this pathology are:

  • thoracic trauma, e.g. a fall or a car accident, which prevent one from taking deep breaths (due to pain), which can cause compression of the lungs;
  • pressure at the level of the chest: pressure exerted on the lungs, which may depend on a tumour mass outside the bronchus, on a tumour inside the bronchus, which causes airway obstruction. In fact, if air cannot get past the blockage present, the affected part of the lung may collapse;
  • accumulation of mucus in the airways, which may cause a blockage in the airflow. This event commonly occurs during and after surgery because coughing is not possible in such cases. In addition, drugs administered during surgery cause people to breathe less deeply, so normal secretions collect in the airways. Suctioning the lungs during surgery helps to clear them, but sometimes it is not enough. Mucus plugs are also common in children, people with cystic fibrosis and during severe asthma attacks;
  • inhalation of small objects, such as a peanut, the cap of a biro, a small toy, which prevent air from flowing freely;
  • other lung diseases, such as pneumonia, pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Atelectasis is not to be confused with pneumothorax, another condition that commonly causes a collapsed lung.

It is the presence of air between the lung and chest wall.

STRETCHERS, LUNG VENTILATORS, EVACUATION CHAIRS: SPENCER PRODUCTS ON THE DOUBLE BOOTH AT EMERGENCY EXPO

Atelectasis, the risk factors

Factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disease include:

  • advanced age
  • any condition that makes swallowing difficult;
  • bed confinement with rare changes of position;
  • lung disease, such as asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis;
  • recent abdominal or thoracic surgery;
  • recent general anaesthesia;
  • weak respiratory muscles due to muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury or another neuromuscular condition;
  • use of drugs that may cause shallow breathing;
  • pain or injuries that may make it painful to cough or cause shallow breathing, including stomach pain or rib fracture;
  • cigarette smoking.

What is involved in atelectasis

A small area of atelectasis, especially in an adult, is usually curable.

However, one should be aware that this disease can give rise to the following complications

  • a low level of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). Atelectasis makes it more difficult for the lungs to carry oxygen to the air sacs (alveoli) and thus to the rest of the body;
  • pneumonia: the risk of pneumonia continues until the atelectasis disappears. This is because the presence of mucus in a collapsed lung can lead to infection;
  • respiratory failure: the loss of a lobe or an entire lung, particularly in an infant or in people with lung disease, can be life-threatening.

Prevention of post-surgery atelectasis

Some research suggests that performing deep breathing exercises and muscle training may reduce the risk of developing atelectasis after surgery.

In addition, many patients in hospital are given a device called an incentive spirometer that can encourage them to take deep breaths, thus preventing and treating atelectasis.

If you smoke, you can reduce your risk of developing the condition by stopping smoking before any operation.

Atelectasis in children is often caused by an airway blockage.

In such cases, to reduce the risk of atelectasis, keep small objects out of reach of children.

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What Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

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Pagine Bianche



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January 23, 2023

2 min read

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Healio Interviews


Disclosures:
Martínez-García reports receiving grants and personal fees from Chiesi, Menarini Group, Teva Pharmaceuticals and The Zambon Group. Please see the study for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.


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Some patients with COPD experience lung function decline over time, and a study recently showed that chronic bronchial infection by any pathogenic microorganism can hasten this decline.

In a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study cohort published in Annals of the American Thoracic Society, researchers analyzed 201 patients (mean age, 70.3 years; 90.5% men) with COPD every 3 to 6 months for a total of 84 months to see if chronic bronchial infection (CBI), particularly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are related to FEV1 decline.



Quote from Miguel Ángel Martínez-García



As Healio previously reported, researchers found that FEV1 decline was 33.7 mL per year overall, which significantly increased to 57.1 mL per year among patients with CBI by any pathogenic microorganism and to 48.5 mL per year among patients in whom P. aeruginosa was isolated at least once.

Researchers also observed that CBI by any pathogenic microorganism and at least one P. aeruginosa isolation were both independent factors related to rapid lung function decline in multivariable analysis.

To learn more about CBI and these findings, Healio spoke with lead study researcher Miguel Ángel Martínez-García, MD, PhD, FERS, section head of the pneumology department and coordinator of the sleep-disordered breathing unit at the University and Polytechnic La Fe Hospital in Valencia, Spain.

Healio: How prevalent is CBI among patients with COPD?

Martínez-García: The prevalence of CBI in COPD depends on several factors such as the severity of the disease, the types of pathogenic microorganism, the respiratory sample analyzed, the presence of bronchiectasis or the previous number of exacerbations.

In general terms, at least one pathogenic microorganism is isolated in their natural history among 25% to 50% of COPD patients. This percentage is higher in severe COPD (more than 50%) or with the coexistence of bronchiectasis (more than 80%). The repeated isolation of the same pathogenic microorganism (CBI) could appear (in general terms) in 20% to 25% of COPD patients and in more than 60% if there is concomitant bronchiectasis.

Healio: Were any of the study findings unexpected or surprising?

Martínez-García: No, the decline in lung function among patients with CBI and COPD has been also seen in other inflammatory airway diseases with CBI, such as bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis. However, this is the largest study demonstrating that CBI is also an independent factor associated with lung function decline among patients with COPD.

Healio: Would you briefly characterize what the impact of the findings are for the everyday clinician?

Martínez-García: The results of the present study have a clear and direct impact in clinical practice. Because CBI has a direct impact in a faster decline in lung function and, in turn, faster decline in lung function is associated with higher morbidity and mortality among patients with COPD, it is very important that clinicians monitor the microbiological situation of their patients with COPD with analysis of sputum samples every medical visit. Whether a pathogenic microorganism is isolated, these patients should be controlled more closely and treated more aggressively if needed to avoid faster lung function decline.

Healio: How will future studies be different?

Martínez-García: In the future, we need randomized controlled trials to find the best treatment for these patients with COPD and CBI. Is it anti-inflammatory treatments, antibiotic prophylactic treatments, combinations of the treatments or other options? That’s what we need to find out.

Healio: What should readers remember walking away from your study?

Martínez-García: One of the key messages of our study is that we must not forget the infection dimension of caring for patients with COPD, especially those with more severe disease or more fragile patients, because of the deleterious impact CBI has on them and the possibility of a good choice for treatment.

For more information:

Miguel Ángel Martínez-García, MD, PhD, FERS, can be reached at [email protected].

Reference:

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CAMPAIGNERS have warned over the impact of the cost of living crisis on people with lung conditions as figures reveal that nearly half of all asthma deaths in Scotland occur in winter.

Statistics obtained by the charity Asthma & Lung UK Scotland also show that more than twice as many people died as a result of asthma attacks in January compared to August between 2015 and 2021.

It comes amid fears that people with breathing difficulties will be at increased risk of health complications this winter due to soaring energy costs.

A previous survey by the charity in August found that one in three people in Scotland with lung conditions said their health was already worsening as they cut back on food and heating, with nearly half of respondents at the time saying they planned to switch off their heating completely to cope with spiralling bills.

READ MORE: Hundreds of Scots treated for hypothermia during cold snap 

Joseph Carter, Head of Asthma & Lung UK Scotland, said: “This winter is going to be hard on the people’s lungs, with higher rates of respiratory infections and many people struggling to stay well with colder homes and fewer food choices.

"It is vital that people with lung conditions take extra care particularly as the cost of living begins to bite and many people cut back on meals and warming their homes."

From the end of November to January 8, the National Records of Scotland registered 757 more deaths than usual for the time of year.

This coincided with a surge in respiratory viruses such as flu, Covid, RSV, and Strep A, as well as a spell of sub-zero temperatures and severe strain on A&E departments.

Respiratory viruses and cold air are both major triggers for life-threatening asthma attacks and can make other lung conditions - such as COPD and bronchiectasis - worse.

The data obtained from NRS by Asthma & Lung UK Scotland, covering 2015 to 2021, shows that 40% of all asthma deaths annually, 41% of COPD deaths, and 34% of bronchiectasis deaths occur in the four months from December to March.

Asthma deaths were also 120% higher in January compared to August, with similar increases of 86% and 83% respectively for COPD and bronchiectasis.

READ MORE: 'Shocking' prostate cancer data reveals a 'north-south divide' between Scotland and England, says charity 

The figures also highlight the potential impact of the conditions on the NHS at a time when several health boards including Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Ayrshire & Arran, and Borders, have already paused all non-urgent elective operations to free up beds.

Hospital admissions for COPD were 49% higher in winter than summer, with asthma admissions up by 32%.

The charity is calling for targeted financial support for people living with lung conditions.

Heather Raeburn, a former midwife from Glasgow who has severe asthma said she has been hospitalised every winter since 2011, including one four-week admission in 2015 triggered by influenza.

HeraldScotland: Heather Raeburn has been hospitalised every winter since she was diagnosed with asthma in 2011 Heather Raeburn has been hospitalised every winter since she was diagnosed with asthma in 2011 (Image: Heather Raeburn/Asthma+Lung UK Scotland)

Ms Raeburn, 50, said: “I only go to A&E when I know it’s serious and I need extra medication which I don’t have at home or can get on prescription.

"Usually when I’m in A&E they don’t let me go home until I’m stabilised which then means a few days staying in hospital. I am really hoping this year will be different as I’m on new medication.

“With the cost-of-living crisis I have been avoiding putting my heating on, but for my health, I have had to put the radiators on, which is a worry when the bills will come in.”

READ MORE: One in five over-65s at risk of malnutrition amid cost of living crisis 

Mr Carter added: “We would strongly encourage people to get the flu, covid and pneumonia vaccines, take their routine medicines as prescribed and make sure that their self-management plans are up to date with their GP and to make an urgent appointment if symptoms get worse.

“We would also stress the importance of keeping warm and eating well.

"Ideally, you would want to be heating your home to 18 degrees, keep warm by wearing layers of clothes, have lots of hot drinks and at eat at least one hot meal a day if you can."



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PATIENTS with breathing issues paid tribute to the work of staff at a pioneering medical centre, saying the team’s expertise was helping boost their confidence and enabling them to live better lives.

Specialist centre BreathingSpace hosted an open day with choir performances, taster sessions for tai-chi and talks attended by Rotherham United legends John Breckin and Ronnie Moore, who came along to the Badsley Moor Lane venue to listen and ask questions, as well as host a raffle.

The centre treats and supports people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and other respiratory conditions which make it difficult for people to empty air out of their lungs because the airways have narrowed.

Rotherham, because of its industrial past, smoking prevalence and social deprivation, has a higher burden of respiratory disease — 2.9 per cent of the borough’s population (or 7,938 people) have been diagnosed with COPD, one per cent higher than the national average in England.

Geoffrey Davis (77) is a patient with COPD and bronchiectasis who has also had part of a lung removed.

He said: “I’m a prime example of why coming to BreathingSpace and staying the course works.

“They’ve increased my lung capacity from 73 per cent to 80 per cent — now I can walk 25 minutes at a time instead of 15.”

He added: “I really think BreathingSpace are the experts and trust what they are doing for me.

“Honestly, without them, I really don’t feel like I would be here.”

Another patient Sandra Moule, who has a respiratory condition, said: “Being a part of this environment and community has helped me physically, but more than that, it’s helped me mentally, too.

“I feel a confidence I didn’t have before — I feel OK now and comfortable walking around with my oxygen and being breathless.

“I’m no longer sat waiting for the worst, I feel like I’m living with my condition rather than waiting to die from it.”

Other community stallholders at the event included representatives of Baywater Oxygen Services, Get Health Rotherham, Social Prescribing, Speech and Language Therapy, Yoga Sanctuary and Functional Fitness.

Exercise specialist Leon Wormley (top right), who runs local partner service Functional Fitness, said: “I tailor programmes so that people can do things you wouldn’t think about, like getting in and out of a car, lifting a shopping bag or gardening.

“If they can learn to do these things, it’s a sustainable change in their life and that’s the key thing here — helping them to live with their condition.”

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There is no escaping outdoor pollution. Especially for people living in a country that has been repeatedly ranked as one of the most polluted in the world in recent years. Not only during winters and the infamous smog in its metro cities, through all seasons, and in fact right through the year and in most parts of the country, people are continuously and directly exposed to some of the most harmful air pollutants present in the environment. As a result and it is no surprise that people are perpetually susceptible to a range of airway conditions including asthma, COPD, emphysema, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.

However, people don't need to continue to suffer. At a time when state-of-the-art smart technologies are turning out smart healthcare products on a regular basis, there are devices to be picked out and choices to be made.

Airway diseases affect the tubes

While each airway disease is different in nature, implications, and the treatment regimen required for it, they all have some common symptoms. However, most notably, they typically involve and affect the tubes or airways that carry oxygen and other gases into and out of the lungs. These diseases usually occur as a result of the narrowing or obstructing of the airways which in turn leads to airflow limitation, airway inflammation, and even hyperresponsiveness of the airways.

Pollution causes as well as aggravates airway diseases

There is enough research available to show that air pollution doesn't only induce the onset but also exacerbates airway diseases which may lead to an increase in respiratory morbidity and in some cases even respiratory mortality. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and ozone along with biological pathogens such as viruses and bacteria can enter the airway and through it reach the bloodstream posing a mortal threat to the life of the person. So, while air pollution has been known to induce the onset of asthma, it aggravates the conditions of COPD and bronchiectasis patients.

The enormous burden of airway diseases

According to an estimate by Lancet, India has over 9 crore people who suffer from obstructive airway diseases today. According to another survey, of the total global disability-adjusted life years or DALYs due to chronic respiratory diseases in 2016, a whopping 32 per cent had occurred in India. In another disturbing statistic, while India has 12 per cent of the global asthma burden, a shockingly disproportionate 42 per cent of asthma deaths in the world occur in the country.

Modern smart devices ward off and contain the airway diseases

Keeping in mind the inevitability of the pollution that we all have to face particularly in terms of obstructing airways and the resultant conditions, there are sophisticated devices available today that address issues directly related to the airways. For instance, there is a first-of-its-kind vitalizer device, essentially a processor that employs a patent-protected process - replicating the natural principle of photosynthesis - and transforms the low-energy and polluted ambient atmosphere into clean, high-energy breathing air. The device releases air which is highly charged with oxygen molecules in its simplest and highly reactive ionic form something which our body is able to absorb in no time. With just 20-30 minutes of a breathing session, not only does the blockage of airways get resolved instantly, the body gets replenished with a fresh and ample amount of oxygen or energy.

Furthermore, given the connection between obstruction or clearing of air passage and the strength of our respiratory muscles, there is another smart respiratory muscle training device that seeks to strengthen our respiratory muscles. Similar to how we train the regular upper and lower limb muscles in the gym, the device using resistance wheels exposes the diaphragm and other breathing muscles to adjustable but restricted airflow which effectively gives resistance training to the breathing muscles and thereby strengthens them.

Then there is a range of other devices fixing airway issues including endotracheal tube and laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) devices to High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (HFCWO) and Oral High-Frequency Oscillation (OHFO) devices to Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation (IPV) devices. Given the connection between airway disorders and cardio-pulmonary conditions, there is a device that even helps with the constant monitoring of cardiac arrhythmias, an extremely dangerous heart condition.

Therefore, if we can't avoid pollution, we can definitely alleviate its ill effects. And since most of these devices are 'smart' and networked offering personalized assistance, we could become smart users!

(Pankaj Balwani is the Founder & CEO of Xplore Lifestyle)

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Lütfiye Kiliç,1 Seda Tural Önür,2 Aslı Gorek Dilektasli,3 Gaye Ulubay,4 Arif Balcı5

1Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Pulmonologist, Department of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Associate Professor, Department of Chest Diseases, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Uludağ University, Faculty of Medicine, Associate professor, Department of Chest Diseases, Bursa, Turkey; 4Başkent University, Faculty of Medicine, Professor, Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara, Turkey; 5Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Physiotherapist, Department of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence: Lütfiye Kiliç, Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, Tel +90 532 397 7172, Email [email protected]

Purpose: We investigated the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on airway resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with severe airway obstruction and hyperinflation.
Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from severe COPD cases with those who underwent an 8-week PR program. Main inclusion criteria were having severe airflow obstruction (defined as a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 50%) and plethysmographic evaluation findings being compatible with hyperinflation supporting the diagnosis of emphysema (presence of hyperinflation defined as functional residual capacity ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC) > 120%). Primary outcomes were airway resistance (Raw) and airway conductance (Gaw) which were measured by body plethysmography, and other measurements were performed, including 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) and COPD assessment test (CAT).
Results: Twenty-six severe and very severe COPD patients (FEV1, 35.0 ± 13.1%; RV/TLC, 163.5 ± 29.4) were included in the analyses, mean age 62.6 ± 5.8 years and 88.5% males. Following rehabilitation, significant improvements in total specific airway resistance percentage (sRawtot%, p = 0.040) and total specific airway conductance percentage (sGawtot%; p = 0.010) were observed. The post-rehabilitation mMRC scores and CAT values were significantly decreased compared to baseline results (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although there were significant improvements in 6-MWT value (p < 0.001), exercise desaturation (ΔSaO2, p = 0.026), the changes in measured lung capacity and volume values were not significant.
Conclusion: We concluded that PR may have a positive effect on airway resistance and airway conductance in COPD patients with severe airflow obstruction.

Keywords: airway resistance, body plethysmography, airflow limitation, emphysema, lung mechanics

Introduction

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation caused by a combination of many factors,1 including increased airway resistance, impaired airway-parenchymal tethering due to emphysema, and lumen narrowing due to mucus occlusion and bronchoconstriction.2–5 Among the conditions referred to as COPD, patients with emphysema have highest airway resistance.6 In patients with emphysema, peripheral airway resistance may be increased by four to 40-fold.7

Although activity limitation in COPD is multifactorial (reduced cardiac function, hypoperfusion of the working muscle, limb muscle dysfunction and impaired neural regulation),8 therapies aimed at partially reversing pulmonary hyperinflation represent the first step in improving dyspnea and exercise capacity.

Various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of airflow restriction in patients with COPD.4 For instance, bronchodilators reduce expiratory airflow resistance by increasing the diameter of the airways, emptying of peripheral airways with trapped air is facilitated, thus reducing hyperinflation and improving breathing mechanics.9 Previous studies showed that inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA/LAMA combination) have been proven to be able to reduce hyperinflation and therefore to improve dyspnea and tolerance to physical activity.10 Inhaled low-dose short-acting β-agonists (SABAs) have been demonstrated to reduce lung hyperinflation despite no change in forced expiratory volume within one second (FEV1) in patients with advanced emphysema.5,11–13

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is the most effective non-pharmacological therapy that has emerged as a standard of care for patients with COPD.14 PR reduces ventilatory requirements and improves breathing efficiency, thereby reducing hyperinflation and improving exertional dyspnea.5 Although there is a limited data to draw a firm conclusion as to the mechanism by which this PR effect occurs, it may be attributable to the multifactorial effects of the rich PR content.15

To date, the benefit of PR in COPD patients has been mostly evaluated by investigating effects on exercise capacity, dyspnea and health-related quality of life.16 Due to variabilities in perceptions and interpretations, assessing benefit based solely on symptoms and clinical response may lead to incomplete or inaccurate outcomes. Moreover, the relationship of improvements in the degree of hyperinflation, which is attributed to the effect of PR on respiratory mechanics in patients with COPD,15 with intra-alveolar pressure and airway conductance has not been elucidated yet. Previous investigations have shown that body plethysmography can potentially provide additional insights into the respiratory mechanics of COPD patients.17

Body plethysmography is an integrative diagnostic procedure in respiratory medicine for comprehensive pulmonary function testing to evaluate static lung volumes and airway resistance (Raw), as well as specific airway conductance (sGaw).18–20 Raw reflects changes in alveolar pressure over changes in flow, representing true resistance of the airways. In this context, it may be a good parameter for the diagnosis of airflow obstruction.21,22 In contrast, sRaw can be interpreted as the work to be performed to establish this flow rate; Raw is calculated as the ratio of sRaw to FRC;23 sGaw is the inverse of sRaw and therefore reflects the conductance of the airways independent of lung volumes.23 In obstructive lung diseases, the Raw value is higher and the sGaw value is lower than both healthy controls and non-obstructive respiratory diseases.18 Furthermore, some authors have suggested that sGaw is more sensitive to changes in airway resistance than FEV1.24

The use of different functional markers to evaluate the effectiveness of PR in COPD may provide a better understanding of its effects on lung mechanics. Assessment of airway resistance is, therefore, important to characterize respiratory mechanisms that contribute to improved exercise capacity after PR in patients adopting different breathing strategies during exercise. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have addressed the effects of PR on airway resistance and specific airway conductance in patients with COPD. Accordingly, the primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of PR on airway resistance in patients with advanced COPD who had clinical and physiological features of emphysema, and secondarily, to assess whether airway resistance tests could be used as a physiological biomarker for PR.

Patients and Methods

Study Design and Patient Selection

This observational study involved a retrospective analysis of COPD patients admitted to the PR outpatient clinic of a tertiary-level training and research hospital, between December 2012 and June 2019. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital (Approval Number: 2020–27; September 17, 2020). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before PR. This study complied with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice guidelines.

Records of 154 COPD patients with predominant pathology to emphysema who had attended an 8-week outpatient PR program were reviewed. The criteria for inclusion into the study for all participants were 1) having completed the 8-week outpatient PR program; 2) having a post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume per second to forced vital capacity (FEV1 / FVC) less than 0.7 to qualify for the definition of COPD;25 3) having severe airflow obstruction (defined as a FEV1 less than 50% of the predicted value); 4) presence of hyperinflation defined as functional residual capacity (FRC) ≥120% and/or RV/TLC >120% of the predicted value;26 5) having undergone a body plethysmography test, including measures of lung volumes, airway resistance (Raw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw), and 6) no change in dose or use of bronchodilator treatment, prior to, and throughout the duration of the PR program. Patients were excluded in the presence of 1) patients who only participated in a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program, even if having severe or very severe COPD; 2) patients whose data is missing from their file; 3) patients who could not complete the eight-week PR program due to various reasons; 4) patients whose COPD treatment was changed for an attack and/or other reason during the PR program; 5) patients whose body plethysmography test measurement was discordant; 6) those who have another chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis, asthma, bronchiectasis, etc.) other than emphysema, and 7) significant diseases other than COPD that could contribute to dyspnea and exercise limitation (interstitial lung disease, advanced heart disease, anemia, thyroid dysfunction).

Baseline data included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and comorbid diseases. The outcome measures were body plethysmography test, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Disease classification was made according to the GOLD staging.25

Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

The comprehensive PR program consisted of 1) education (lung anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology etc.) and self-management aimed at improving disease status; 2) training for controlled breathing techniques (slow and deep breathing, pursed-lip breathing, diaphragmatic breathing, and restructuring of breath); 3) teaching effective use of inhaler medication and management of breathing difficulties, both aimed maximizing bronchodilation; 4) at least twice supervised cycle ergometer or treadmill training session (30 min) per a week, the intensity of which was set at 60–80% of maximal workload based on 6-MWT results; 5) supervised upper and lower limb strengthening exercises and inspiratory/expiratory muscle training; 6) psychiatric and social counseling/assistance, and 7) nutritional management (patient counselling and nutritional therapy). All patients underwent a supervised exercise program at the hospital two days per week, for a total of 8 weeks. A home-based program (3 days per week) was also provided, comprising various exercises during the same period. All patients completed a follow-up form for the exercise program.

Functional and Pulmonary Testing

Exercise tolerance was evaluated with the distance covered during a 6-MWT, according to guidelines put forth by the American Thoracic Society (ATS).27 Before and after the test, oxygen saturation, heart rate, dyspnea, and Borg fatigue scores were recorded, and the distance covered was documented.25,28 Oxygen desaturation was defined according to the Royal College of Physicians’ guidelines as a ≥ 4% reduction between arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry pre-test and post-test (ΔSpO2 ≥4%) and post-test SpO2 <90%.29 Patients were introduced to a 10-point Borg category scale.30 Patients were asked to describe their perception of dyspnea before exercise testing and at the end of tests.

Lung function testing was performed according to current ATS/ERS recommendations with a Sensor Medics model 2400 (Yorba Linda, CA, USA).31,32 Static, dynamic lung volumes and total specific airway resistances (sRawtot) were assessed by means of an ultrasonic flow measurement plethysmograph (Ganshorn PowerCube Body+, SCHILLER, Germany). The system automatically derived total specific conductance (sGawtot) from the breathing loops and determined total respiratory resistance (Rawtot).

Perceived levels of effort dyspnea were assessed through the modified medical research council (mMRC) dyspnea scale which performs evaluations with respect to daily activities.33 Patient-reported CAT results were obtained to identify COPD impact on health status (ie, cough, sputum and dyspnea).33

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software for Windows, version 15.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Continuous variables were expressed with minimum–maximum (median) values (for non-normally distributed variables) or with mean ± standard deviation values (for normally distributed variables), while categorical variables were depicted with number (absolute frequency) and percentage (relative frequency). When continuous variables in dependent groups met normal distribution, they were examined using the paired samples t-test; otherwise, the Wilcoxon test was utilized. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

A total of 26 emphysema patients (88.5% males) with severe airflow limitation (FEV1, mean ± SD, 35.0 ± 13.15%) and static hyperinflation (RV/TLC, mean ± SD, 163.5 ± 29.4%) were included in the study, mean age 62.6 ± 5.8 year. The number of patients with at least one comorbidity was 10 (38%), diabetes mellitus was the most common (others: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and osteoporosis). The demographic characteristics and baseline values of the patients are shown in Table 1. Following PR, there were significant improvements in total specific airway resistance percentage (sRawtot%, p = 0.040) and total specific airway conductance percentage (sGawtot%, p = 0.010) (Table 2; Figures 1 and 2). Of note, after PR, some limited improvements in plethysmographic respiratory measurement values [pre-PR vs post-PR, % of pred (IC: inspiratory capacity; 49.0 ± 24.6 vs 49.2 ± 20.7; p = 0.970), (FVC: forced vital capacity; 57.8 ± 17.0 vs 60.4 ± 15.8; p = 0.054), (FRC: functional residual capacity; 133.7 ± 37.2% vs 132.0 ± 39.9%; p = 0.788), (ERV: expiratory reserve volume; 80.8 ± 29.2% vs 88.5 ± 36.6%; p = 0.364)] were identified in our group of patients, especially in RV and RV/TLC [pre-PR vs post-PR, % of pred (169.9 ± 51.3 vs 163.8 ± 67.9) and (163.5 ± 29.4 vs 156.0 ± 42.5)], albeit statistical significance was not achieved (p > 0.05).

Table 1 Patient Characteristics

Table 2 Changes in Lung Volumes in Plethysmography Measurements After PR

Figure 1 A graph showing the parameters for which statistically significant differences were observed in patients who has participated in an eight-weeks PR program.

Abbreviations: PR, pulmonary rehabilitation; sRawtot, total specific resistance of airways; sGawtot, total specific conductance of airways; ΔSaO2, delta of haemoglobin O2 saturation; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council; CAT, COPD assessment test.

Figure 2 A Body plethysmography data samples of a 57-year-old male patient with a history of smoking 60 pk/year, who has attended sixteen sessions (8 weeks) of PR program; before attending (A) and after attending (B).

The post-rehabilitation mMRC scores and CAT values were significantly decreased compared to the baseline results (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) (Table 2 and Figure 1). We observed significant differences between baseline and post-PR measurements in terms of 6-MWT results, including walking distance (Mean ± SD; 307.7 ± 98.3 meters vs 363.7 ± 105.7 meters; p < 0.001) and delta of haemoglobin O2 saturation (ΔSpO2, difference between rest and maximal exercise values; p = 0.026) (Table 3 and Figure 1). In addition, the post-rehabilitation median change in distance (Mean ± SD, 55.9 ± 64.6 meters) observed in the 6-MWT was above the minimal clinically important difference defined for COPD and other chronic respiratory patients.28 Although an improvement in Borg scores was observed, comparisons did not show significant improvement (p = 0.314) (Table 3).

Table 3 Comparison of 6-MWT Data

Discussion

The main new finding of this study is that PR may have a positive effect on airway resistance and airway conductivity in COPD patients with severe airway resistance. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the Raw and sGaw plethysmography parameters have the potential to assess the effect of PR on COPD.

Previous studies have shown that airway resistance and specific conductance have a valuable and potentially important role in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases.18 In a study including 51 participants with emphysema, the variability and sensitivity of plethysmography and spirometry measurements were compared in order to assess bronchodilation in COPD.17 The findings of this study demonstrated the high sensitivity of plethysmography in the detection of minor physiological effects, which resulted in improved airway conductance. In COPD, both specific conductance and airway resistance are more sensitive for assessing short-acting bronchodilator effects than FEV1.24 Moreover, body plethysmography can be a favorable alternative tool in evaluating the effect of PR, especially in elderly patients with COPD who have difficulty in performing spirometry.34

The significant decrease in plethysmography-determined airway resistance, the significant increase in airway conductance, and improvements in lung volumes may be attributed to the mechanical effects of PR on respiratory function.33 We observed limited improvements in the respiratory functions of our cases, as demonstrated by RV and RV/TLC results; however, comparisons did not demonstrate statistical significance (p > 0.05) which is similar to the literature on this topic.35 The changes in Raw and sGaw were also relatively greater compared to the changes in lung volume, and therefore, these parameters are possibly better for the purpose of detecting significant reductions in airflow restriction following PR interventions.

In our cases, there was a statistically significant improvement in exercise-induced hypoxaemia levels observed in 6-MWT after PR compared to baseline (Table 3 and Figure 1). We speculate that the improvement in desaturation during exercise following PR may be achieved by both the reduction in the effort required to breath and the decrease in the oxygen demand associated with the improvement of the oxygen utilization in peripheral muscles.36 In addition, controlled pursed-lip breathing and deeper and longer breaths to decrease the frequency of hyperventilation can reduce the O2 cost caused by the unit force.37,38 It was thought that the decrease in Raw would improve hypoxemia, as it would increase air conduction and reduce the O2 cost caused by the resistant respiratory workload. The clinical equivalent of this was interpreted as an increase in effort capacity and improvement in dyspnea levels in our cases. Although the patients in this study were under optimal pharmacological treatment and there was minimal change in lung function after rehabilitation, improvements in exertional dyspnea and capacity should be mainly attributed to the effect of rehabilitation. This is important as it demonstrates that even patients with advanced emphysema may experience considerable benefit from PR.

In previous studies, the addition of inspiratory muscle training to a PR program for COPD was reported to contribute to improved outcomes.39,40 However, patients with predominant pathologies such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema were not evaluated separately in these studies, whereas, in emphysematous lungs, the radial traction exerted by the surrounding alveoli to the airway decreases, correlated with the degree of parenchymal destruction.41 Accordingly, the bronchodilation effect of deep and strong inspiration is not proportional to the severity of emphysema, and may even cause bronchoconstriction.42 Therefore, in patients with emphysema, it would be more appropriate to focus on PR interventions that affect the expiratory rather than the inspiratory phase of respiratory mechanics, altering the breathing pattern and reducing air trapping.

The impact of PR on airway resistance-related respiratory mechanics cannot be resolved through this study design, but some assumptions are worth testing. The PR interventions that may lead to improved airflow resistance in emphysema may be summarized as follows: 1) breathing training, particularly pursed-lip breathing and controlled breathing techniques, prevent early airway closing, providing enough time to expel trapped air;37,43 2) deep inspiration is established to increase the production of surfactant, which maintains alveolar and airway stability;44 3) effective inhalation techniques allow inhaled medications to reach higher concentrations in the airways, facilitating stronger bronchodilation effect; 4) effective coughing and expectoration techniques eliminate secretions that cause airway obstruction and increased resistance;45 5) exercise training of leg muscles reduces lactate production and decreases ventilator load.46 A lower ventilation load allows COPD patients to breathe more slowly during exercise, consequently reducing dynamic hyperinflation.15,47 We speculate that airway resistance may be significantly reduced by the cumulative effect of PR interventions.48,49 It is clear that breathing exercises in COPD patients yield complex changes in pulmonary physiology.39,49 Therefore, body plethysmography can be beneficial in assessing the different aspects of these physiological changes.24

Although the expansion of airway diameter achieved by bronchodilator drugs in patients with COPD is smaller than in patients with asthma, the decrease in Raw provides an above-expected resistance reduction in relation to Poiseuille’s law (a reduction correlated with the 4th power of airway diameter).50 In addition, according to our clinical experience, we recommend that severe COPD patients take their short-acting bronchodilator drugs (with a nebulizer if necessary) 15–20 minutes before exercise, thus reducing the level of exercise limitation due to shortness of breath.51,52 Similarly, it would be more appropriate to focus on reducing airway resistance before respiratory muscle exercises with an incentive spirometry device.33 Otherwise, in the patient trying to breathe against the high resistance caused by the narrowed airway, the increased respiratory workload may increase O2 cost and cause more harm than benefit.

There are several limitations to this study. The main limitation is the single-center study design and small sample size. Inclusion of only patients with emphysema was the main reason for the low number of patients, but this was necessary for accurate analysis in this particular population. Another reason that plethysmography tests were expensive and had limited indications (preoperatively or before volume reduction intervention, etc.) in our hospital. We realize that the small size of the group does not allow generalization of results beyond this select group of patients. However, our group represents a fairly homogeneous group of patients with severe COPD and hyperinflation of the lungs, which is an important strength of the study.

In conclusion, our study suggests that the PR is effective in reducing airway resistance in COPD patients with severe hyperinflation. In addition, we believe that Raw and sGaw can be used as physiological biomarkers in the evaluation of PR benefit, especially in a select group of patients with severe airflow obstruction.

Funding

There is no funding to report.

Disclosure

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this study.

References

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2. Bossé Y, Riesenfeld EP, Paré PD, Irvin CG. It’s not all smooth muscle: non-smooth-muscle elements in control of resistance to airflow. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:437–462. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021909-135851

3. American Thoracic Society. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1):321–340. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.159.1.ats898

4. Gagnon P, Guenette JA, Langer D, et al. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;15(9):187–201.

5. Cooper CB. The connection between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms and hyperinflation and its impact on exercise and function. Am J Med. 2006;119(10 Suppl 1):21–31. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.08.004

6. Homma T, Fujioka K, Uchida Y, et al. Clinical use of the measurement of airway resistance during spontaneous respiration. Respiration. 1984;45(4):360–371. doi:10.1159/000194644

7. Hogg JC, Macklem PT, Thurlbeck WM. Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med. 1968;278(25):1355–1360. doi:10.1056/NEJM196806202782501

8. Vogiatzis I, Zakynthinos G, Andrianopoulos V. Mechanisms of physical activity limitation in chronic lung diseases. Pulm Med. 2012;2012:634761. doi:10.1155/2012/634761

9. Beeh KM, Beier J. The short, the long and the “ultra-long”: why duration of bronchodilator action matters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Adv Ther. 2010;27(3):150–159. doi:10.1007/s12325-010-0017-6

10. Calzetta L, Ora J, Cavalli F, et al. Impact of LABA/LAMA combination on exercise endurance and lung hyperinflation in COPD: a pair-wise and network meta-analysis. Respir Med. 2017;129:189–198. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2017.06.020

11. O’Donnell DE, Forkert L, Webb KA. Evaluation of bronchodilator responses in patients with “irreversible” emphysema. Eur Respir J. 2001;18(6):914–920. doi:10.1183/09031936.01.00216501

12. Newton MF, O’Donnell DE, Forkert L. Response of lung volumes to inhaled salbutamol in a large population of patients with severe hyperinflation. Chest. 2002;121(4):1042–1050. doi:10.1378/chest.121.4.1042

13. Tantucci C, Duguet A, Similowski T, et al. Effect of salbutamol on dynamic hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Eur Respir J. 1998;12(4):799–804. doi:10.1183/09031936.98.12040799

14. Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agustí AG, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(4):347–365. doi:10.1164/rccm.201204-0596PP

15. Georgiadou O, Vogiatzis I, Stratakos G, et al. Effects of rehabilitation on chest wall volume regulation during exercise in COPD patients. Eur Respir J. 2007;29(2):284–291. doi:10.1183/09031936.00121006

16. McCarthy B, Casey D, Devane D, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;23(2):CD003793.

17. Gimeno F, Postma DS, van Altena R. Plethysmographic parameters in the assessment of reversibility of airways obstruction in patients with clinical emphysema. Chest. 1993;104(2):467–470. doi:10.1378/chest.104.2.467

18. Topalovic M, Derom E, Osadnik CR, et al. Airways resistance and specific conductance for the diagnosis of obstructive airways diseases. Respir Res. 2015;16(1):88. doi:10.1186/s12931-015-0252-0

19. Coates AL, Peslin R, Rodenstein D, Stocks J. Measurement of lung volumes by plethysmography. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(6):1415–1427. doi:10.1183/09031936.97.10061415

20. Urbankowski T, Przybyłowski T. Methods of airway resistance assessment. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2016;84(2):134–141. doi:10.5603/PiAP.2016.0014

21. Shiner RJ, Steier J. Lung Function Tests Made Easy. 1st ed. Elsevier Health Sciences;2012.

22. Borrill ZL, Houghton CM, Woodcock AA, et al. Measuring bronchodilation in COPD clinical trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;59(4):379–384. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2004.02261.x

23. Criée CP, Sorichter S, Smith HJ, et al. Body plethysmography--its principles and clinical use. Respir Med. 2011;105(7):959–971. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2011.02.006

24. Houghton CM, Woodcock AA, Singh D. A comparison of plethysmography, spirometry and oscillometry for assessing the pulmonary effects of inhaled ipratropium bromide in healthy subjects and patients with asthma. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;59(2):152–159. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2004.2262.x

25. Rabe KF, Hurd S, Anzueto A, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176(6):532–555. doi:10.1164/rccm.200703-456SO

26. O’Donnell DE, Webb KA, Neder JA. Lung hyperinflation in COPD: applying physiology to clinical practice. COPD Res Pract. 2015;1(1):4. doi:10.1186/s40749-015-0008-8

27. Brooks D, Solway S, Gibbons WJ. ATS statement on six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(9):1287. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.167.9.950

28. Holland AE, Spruit MA, Troosters T, et al. An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society technical standard: field walking tests in chronic respiratory disease. Eur Respir J. 2014;44(6):1428–1446. doi:10.1183/09031936.00150314

29. Wedzicha JA. Domiciliary oxygen therapy services: clinical guidelines and advice for prescribers. Summary of a report of the Royal College of Physicians. J R Coll Physic Lond. 1999;33(5):445–447.

30. Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):377–381. doi:10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

31. Wanger J, Clausen JL, Coates A, et al. Standardisation of the measurement of lung volumes. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(3):511–522. doi:10.1183/09031936.05.00035005

32. Miller MR, Crapo R, Hankinson J, et al. General considerations for lung function testing. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(1):153–161. doi:10.1183/09031936.05.00034505

33. Casaburi R, Porszasz J. Reduction of hyperinflation by pharmacologic and other interventions. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006;3(2):185–189. doi:10.1513/pats.200508-095DO

34. Burns GP, Gibson GJ. A novel hypothesis to explain the bronchconstrictor effect of deep inspiration in asthma. Thorax. 2002;57(2):116–119. doi:10.1136/thorax.57.2.116

35. Yoshimi K, Ueki J, Seyama K, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation program including respiratory conditioning for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): improved hyperinflation and expiratory flow during tidal breathing. J Thorac Dis. 2012;4(3):259–264. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.03.17

36. Kim HC, Mofarrahi M, Hussain SN. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2008;3(4):637–658. doi:10.2147/COPD.S4480

37. Ubolnuar N, Tantisuwat A, Thaveeratitham P. Effects of pursed-lip breathing and forward trunk lean postures on total and compartmental lung volumes and ventilation in patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. Medicine. 2020;99(51):e23646. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000023646

38. McGregor M, Becklake MR. The relationship of oxygen cost of breathing to respiratory mechanical work and respiratory force. J Clin Invest. 1961;40(6):971–980. doi:10.1172/JCI104336

39. Ramírez-Sarmiento A, Orozco-Levi M, Güell R, et al. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(11):1491–1497. doi:10.1164/rccm.200202-075OC

40. Lötters F, Van Tol B, Kwakkel G, Gosselink R. Effects of controlled inspiratory muscle training in patients with COPD: a meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(3):570–576. doi:10.1183/09031936.02.00237402

41. Verbeken EK, Cauberghs M, Woestijne KPVD. Membranous bronchioles and connective tissue network of normal and emphysematous lungs. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81(6):2468–2480. doi:10.1152/jappl.1996.81.6.2468

42. Scichilone N, Marchese R, Catalano F, Vignola AM, Togias A, Bellia V. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is absent in subjects with mild COPD. Chest. 2004;125(6):2029–2035. doi:10.1378/chest.125.6.2029

43. Mayer AF, Karloh M, Dos Santos K, de Araujo CLP, Gulart AA. Effects of acute use of pursed-lips breathing during exercise in patients with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiotherapy. 2018;104(1):9–17. doi:10.1016/j.physio.2017.08.007

44. Nicholas TE, Power JH, Barr HA. The pulmonary consequences of a deep breath. Respir Physiol. 1982;49(3):315–324. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(82)90119-0

45. Macklem PT. Therapeutic implications of the pathophysiology of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2010;35(3):676–680. doi:10.1183/09031936.00120609

46. Maltais F, LeBlanc P, Simard C, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptation to endurance training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(2 Pt 1):442–447. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.154.2.8756820

47. Casaburi R, Patessio A, Ioli F, Zanaboni S, Donner CF, Wasserman K. Reductions in exercise lactic acidosis and ventilation as a result of exercise training in patients with obstructive lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143(1):9–18. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/143.1.9

48. Weiner P, Magadle R, Berar-Yanay N, Davidovich A, Weiner M. The Cumulative Effect of Long-Acting Bronchodilators, Exercise, and Inspiratory Muscle Training on the Perception of Dyspnea in Patients With Advanced COPD. Chest. 2000;118(3):672–678. doi:10.1378/chest.118.3.672

49. Petrovic M, Reiter M, Zipko H, Pohl W, Wanke T. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on dynamic hyperinflation in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2012;7:797–805. doi:10.2147/COPD.S23784

50. Campbell M, Sapra A. Physiology, airflow resistance. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022.

51. Belman MJ, Botnick WC, Shin JW. Inhaled bronchodilators reduce dynamic hyperinflation during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153(3):967–975. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.153.3.8630581

52. O’Donnell DE, Lam M, Webb KA. Measurement of symptoms, lung hyperinflation, and endurance during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158(5 Pt 1):1557–1565. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.158.5.9804004

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AirPhysio is an advanced product that is used for the expansion of the lungs and the clearance of mucus. The device is built in a way that it uses the natural process of Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure (OPEP). This process helps in reaching the goal of AirPhysio, which is to clear out the mucus for a better breathing experience.

The purpose of the device is to help in the process of clearing the lungs of mucus. The device ensures the optimal clearing of the lungs and restores the capacity of the lungs for better breathing.

AirPhysio can be primarily used by people suffering from conditions like COPD, Bronchiectasis, Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, etc. All these conditions are related to the respiratory system. People suffering from these conditions can obstruct the body from clearing the thick mucus. In a person who has asthma, the lung capacity is reduced to 5-25 ml/year, while in smokers, the capacity is reduced to 33 ml/year. This results in breathlessness even after light jogging or during and after exercise. AirPhysio aids in dealing with such conditions by clearing the mucus for an improved breathing.

How the AirPhysio Helps

AirPhysio was designed in Australia; the OPEP device is recommended by doctors and approved by pulmonologists. AirPhysio works without the need for drugs to expand airways and clear the thick mucus in the airway to help people breathe easier.

It is straightforward to use an AirPhysio and works by holding the device to the mouth. Then a person should breathe in and out of the device like they usually do. The only trick is to push or inhale air through the device. While breathing through AirPhysio, it creates positive pressure in the lungs and airway. The positive pressure is then responsible for dislodging the mucus, allowing you to expel it from within the lungs.

AirPhysio helps clear thick mucus and is beneficial for conditioning and strengthening the lungs. The devices work to clear the mucus and expand and strengthen the lungs, which helps in better breathing experiences. The device helps improve breathing conditions in multiple ways, such as the AirPhysio can be used with inhaled medications to improve the distribution of the medicine.

Further, AirPhysio does not require weeks of use to provide relief, with positive results felt after the device’s first use. Many people have claimed that they have experienced an improvement in their breathing after the single use of AirPhysio. Regular use of the OPEP device makes it possible to make the lungs healthier and stronger by reducing breathing difficulty.

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Features and Benefits

Using AirPhysio is full of advantages. The device provides excellent benefits that help a person live a better, breathing life. The benefits that AirPhysio provides are listed below:

Natural process: AirPhysio uses the natural process of building up positive pressure. When a person breathes in the device, it creates a positive pressure, dislodging the mucus from the airway. The device does not use any chemical or additional process to work effectively. The only things required for the process are the AirPhysio device and a person’s natural breathing. With these two, the results from the device are possible.

Instant effect: the results of using AirPhysio are felt instantly. An improvement can be noticed even after the first use of the device. A person does not have to wait for days or weeks for positive results; instead, they will enjoy healthy breathing with only single use of the device. However, frequent use of devices helps improve breathing conditions to a great extent.

Natural, effective, safe, and drug-free: people suffering from breathing conditions are either recommended to take some medicines or to undergo surgery. But AirPhysio helps in eliminating both processes. Using AirPhysio does not require the intake of any drug. The device helps improve breathing conditions in a drug-free environment and is safe because of the involvement of natural processes. Also, the results of AirPhysio are adequate as they are visible within a single use.

Easy-to-use and portable: the device is portable. The size of device is small enough to carry in a pocket. The device can be carried anywhere, like an office, home, or outdoor space. Also, AirPhysio is very easy to use. All a person has to do is to take it, put it from the pocket, breathe in the device for a few moments, and then keep it back. The device can be used anytime and in any condition without effort.

Medical grade material: AirPhysio is made using high-quality materials. Also, the materials are 100% medical grade. This means that it can be bought without any prescription. The medical-grade AirPhysio needs no doctor’s prescription.

Treats respiratory conditions: AirPhysio is used for treating respiratory infections. Many doctors recommend the device to patients suffering from many respiratory conditions. This is because AirPhysio helps with respiratory conditions and is very effective in not treating, then assisting in the treating process. AirPhysio helps treat many respiratory diseases like emphysema, asthma, COPD, atelectasis, chronic bronchitis, and bronchiectasis.

Along with these conditions, the device can help smokers or older adults, as both can face issues with breathing correctly. AirPhysio helps them in improving their breathing.

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How to Use the AirPhysio

To use the handheld OPEP device, take in as much air as possible, fill the lungs up, and hold for a few seconds. To begin, place and hold the mouthpiece end of the AirPhysio into the mouth and quickly exhale. It is reported that some people, while using the OPEP, will have difficulty exhaling quickly due to the congestion and phlegm in the airways, and some find it easy to raise the ball bearing somewhat off the cone and see it oscillating.

Use and turn the device, so the cap is facing upwards towards the ceiling and tilt it until maximum vibrations are felt within your chest; it’s also suggested to try to keep your cheeks stiff to help intensify the effects in the chest. After following the instructions above, users should feel phlegm and mucus rise to the back of the throat, which can be further expelled by coughing. Repeating the steps above two and up to five times consecutively is recommended for even better results. The company also cautions some people may experience feeling lightheaded after the treatments.

AirPhysio Specs

AirPhysio is a patented device. The device is verified to have a unique design than the other OPEP devices used today. Because of the unique design that AirPhysio has, the device consists of core parts, including:

  • Circular cone
  • Protective cover that is childproof
  • Steel ball
  • Mouthpiece

The protective cover is removed from AirPhysio when you are ready to use the device. Then the device is brought near the mouth, and the air is breathed in through the mouthpiece.

The device encounters the circular cone and steel ball as air enters the device. In this encounter, the device creates air resistance, creating positive pressure in the airways and lungs. This pressure removes the mucus from the airway and lungs, resulting in better breathing conditions without the need for surgery or the involvement of drugs.

Side effects and risk

As AirPhysio involves natural ways of clearing breathing passages, there are no side effects of using the device. The only thing that might occur is some may experience lightheadedness, but it is not something to be worried about. It happens because of the cleaning of the breathing passages and is normal.

Purchase the AirPhysio

AirPhysio can be purchased from the official website Get AirPhysio.io. Consumers can purchase the OPEP device in select steel ball sizes for treatment according to age and the user’s tolerance to airway resistance. A small-sized steel ball offers less resistance and can be used by children, those with low lung capacity, and severe respiratory conditions. A larger steel ball is more appropriate for active, healthy adults with moderate respiratory conditions. Prices for the AirPhysio are as follows:

  • One AirPhysio $59.99 + Shipping Fee
  • Buy Two AirPhysios, Get One Free $119.98 + Free Shipping
  • Buy Three AirPhysios, Get Two Free $179.97 + Free Shipping

The AirPhysio makers offer a 30-day money-back guarantee on the quality of the device. Customers have one month to contact AirPhysio and to ship the product back for a full refund by sending an email or a phone call to:

Conclusion

All in all, AirPhysio is a device that helps in having a better experience breathing. It includes OPEP processes according to which the device creates a positive pressure when the air breathes into it, which as a result, helps in removing the mucus from the lungs and airway. The mucus is expelled through a natural process, expanding the capacity of the lungs, which aids in better breathing processes. AirPhysio treats respiratory conditions like asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, etc. There are many benefits of using AirPhysio. The device involves a natural process that helps avoid any drug intake. The results of using the device are evident from its first use. Also, AirPhysio is very effective and safe as it is made from medical-grade material and does not require a prescription.

Pulmonologists recommend AirPhysio as it helps clear phlegm and thick mucus from the lungs for easier breathing, and it’s portable and easy to use, which makes the device invaluable. When more than one unit is ordered, visit the official website to order an AirPhysio today.

Affiliate Disclosure:

The links contained in this product review may result in a small commission if you opt to purchase the product recommended at no additional cost to you. This goes towards supporting our research and editorial team. Please know we only recommend high-quality products.

Disclaimer:

Please understand that any advice or guidelines revealed here are not even remotely substitutes for sound medical or financial advice from a licensed healthcare provider or certified financial advisor. Make sure to consult with a professional physician or financial consultant before making any purchasing decision if you use medications or have concerns following the review details shared above. Individual results may vary and are not guaranteed as the statements regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration or Health Canada. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA, or Health Canada approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease and do not provide any kind of get-rich money scheme. Reviewer is not responsible for pricing inaccuracies. Check product sales page for final prices.



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Medical technology firm ABM Respiratory Care has received 510(k) clearance for its BiWaze Clear System from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The new airway clearance system provides Oscillating Lung Expansion (OLE) therapy using a unique Dual Lumen Breathing Circuit.

Dual Lumen Breathing Circuit prevents escaping of the exhaled aerosol from the handset or breathing tube till it is filtered by a coaxial bacterial/viral filter.

Using the OLE therapy, the new system helps patients clear their airways and prevent or treat atelectasis.

It can also be utilised for the treatment of both acute and chronic respiratory conditions in the hospital, home, and long-term care environments.

BiWaze Clear System provides three therapies, including lung expansion, high frequency oscillation and nebulisation along with Aerogen Solo.

ABM Respiratory Care CEO Vinay Joshi said: “We are continuing to expand our portfolio of respiratory care products to help more people with our technologies.

“The BiWaze Clear System has been designed to help prevent the spread of bacterial and viral infections like Covid-19. We are proud to introduce this innovative OLE therapy system.”

The company stated that the OLE therapy is used for clearing the secretions from the airways in respiratory condition patients such as bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and neuromuscular conditions.

Hospitals have been using this therapy over a decade and it has also been proven to be an effective therapy to clear airways.

OLE therapy was found to decrease 31% of postoperative pulmonary complications and reduce the mean length of hospital stay by 1.6 days in a recent study that involved post-surgical patients.



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However, people don't need to continue to suffer. At a time when state-of-the-art smart technologies are turning out smart healthcare products on a regular basis, there are devices to be picked out and choices to be made.

Airway diseases affect the tubes

While each airway disease is different in nature, implications, and the treatment regimen required for it, they all have some common symptoms. However, most notably, they typically involve and affect the tubes or airways that carry oxygen and other gases into and out of the lungs.(1) These diseases usually occur as a result of the narrowing or obstructing of the airways which in turn leads to airflow limitation, airway inflammation, and even hyperresponsiveness of the airways.(2)

Pollution causes as well as aggravates airway diseases

There is enough research available to show that air pollution doesn't only induce the onset but also exacerbates airway diseases which may lead to an increase in respiratory morbidity and in some cases even respiratory mortality. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and ozone along with biological pathogens such as viruses and bacteria can enter the airway and through it reach the bloodstream posing a mortal threat to the life of the person. So, while air pollution has been known to induce the onset of asthma, it aggravates the conditions of COPD and bronchiectasis patients.(3)

The enormous burden of airway diseases

According to an estimate by Lancet, India has over 9 crore people who suffer from obstructive airway diseases today.(4) According to another survey, of the total global disability-adjusted life years or DALYs due to chronic respiratory diseases in 2016, a whopping 32% had occurred in India.(5) In another disturbing statistic, while India has 12% of the global asthma burden, a shockingly disproportionate 42% of asthma deaths in the world occur in the country.(6)

Modern smart devices ward off and contain the airway diseases

Keeping in mind the inevitability of the pollution that we all have to face particularly in terms of obstructing airways and the resultant conditions, there are sophisticated devices available today that address issues directly related to the airways. For instance, there is a first-of-its-kind vitalizer device, essentially a processor that employs a patent-protected process – replicating the natural principle of photosynthesis – and transforms the low-energy and polluted ambient atmosphere into clean, high-energy breathing air. The device releases air which is highly charged with oxygen molecules in its simplest and highly reactive ionic form something which our body is able to absorb in no time. With just 20-30 minutes of a breathing session, not only does the blockage of airways gets resolved instantly, the body gets replenished with a fresh and ample amount of oxygen or energy.

Furthermore, given the connection between obstruction or clearing of air passage and the strength of our respiratory muscles, there is another smart respiratory muscle training device that seeks to strengthen our respiratory muscles. Similar to how we train the regular upper and lower limb muscles in the gym, the device using resistance wheels exposes the diaphragm and other breathing muscles to adjustable but restricted airflow which effectively gives resistance training to the breathing muscles and thereby strengthens them.

Then there is a range of other devices fixing airway issues including endotracheal tube and laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) devices to High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (HFCWO) and Oral High-Frequency Oscillation (OHFO) devices to Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation (IPV) devices. Given the connection between airway disorders and cardio-pulmonary conditions, there is a device that even helps with the constant monitoring of cardiac arrhythmias, an extremely dangerous heart condition.

Therefore, if we can't avoid pollution, we can definitely alleviate its ill effects. And since most of these devices are 'smart' and networked offering personalized assistance, we could become smart users!

(1) medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000066.htm

(2) erj.ersjournals.com/content/28/2/264

(30 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4740163/; erj.ersjournals.com/content/52/1/1702557

(4) health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/spreading-awareness-is-essential-to-curb-the-increasing-incidence-of-obstructive-airway-disease-oad-in-india-experts/87916438

(5) www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(18)30409-1/fulltext

(6) health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/spreading-awareness-is-essential-to-curb-the-increasing-incidence-of-obstructive-airway-disease-oad-in-india-experts/87916438

(Pankaj Balwani is the Founder & CEO of Xplore Lifestyle)

Disclaimer: This story is auto-aggregated by a computer program and has not been created or edited by FreshersLIVE.Publisher : IANS-Media

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EAGAN, Minn., Dec. 29, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- ABM Respiratory Care, a medical technology company focused on developing and globally commercializing novel integrated airway clearance and ventilation solutions, announced today the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 510(k) clearance of the BiWaze® Clear System. This new airway clearance system helps patients clear their airways as well as prevent or treat atelectasis by using Oscillating Lung Expansion (OLE) therapy. BiWaze® Clear can be used to treat both acute and chronic respiratory conditions in the hospital, long-term care and home environments.

OLE therapy is a treatment used to help clear secretions from the airways in people with respiratory conditions such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and neuromuscular conditions. It has been utilized in the hospitals for over a decade and has been proven to be an effective airway clearance therapy. A recent study involving post-surgical patients demonstrated that OLE therapy decreased postoperative pulmonary complications by 31% and shortened the mean length of stay in the hospital by 1.6 days 1.

The innovative BiWaze® Clear system is portable and can be used anywhere, thanks to its lightweight and battery-powered design. It delivers OLE therapy using a unique Dual Lumen Breathing Circuit™, which prevents exhaled aerosol from escaping the handset or breathing tube until it is filtered by a coaxial bacterial/viral filter. BiWaze® Clear delivers three therapies: lung expansion, high frequency oscillation and nebulization with the Aerogen® Solo.

"We are continuing to expand our portfolio of respiratory care products to help more people with our technologies" said the CEO of ABM Respiratory Care, Vinay Joshi. "The BiWaze Clear System has been designed to help prevent the spread of bacterial and viral infections like COVID-19. We are proud to introduce this innovative OLE therapy system."

About ABM Respiratory Care

Founded in 2017, ABM Respiratory Care is dedicated to advancing patient care by developing intelligent, clinically differentiated and innovative respiratory care solutions to help people breathe better inside and outside the hospital. Our connected platform is designed to improve respiratory therapy by providing deeper breathing, improved oxygen exchange, reduce aerosol emission exposure, and communication for better disease management for people with compromised respiratory systems, in any care setting around the world. For more information visit, www.abmrc.com.

1. Huynh TT, Liesching TN, Cereda M, Lei Y, Frazer MJ, Nahouraii MR, Diette GB, Efficacy of Oscillation and Lung Expansion in Reducing Postoperative Pulmonary Complication, Journal of the American College of Surgeons (2019)

Investor and Media Contact:

Leah Noaeill

VP of Marketing and Clinical Affairs, ABM Respiratory Care

[email protected]

1.877.226.7201

Cision View original content to download multimedia:www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/abm-respiratory-care-announces-the-fda-clearance-of-the-biwaze-clear-system-301711155.html

SOURCE ABM Respiratory Care

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It’s bushfire season. So you might be wondering about the best way to protect yourself from the health impacts of smoke.

Guidelines suggest wearing respirators, avoiding outdoor air and avoiding vigorous activity outdoors. Many people use the cheaper option of a surgical mask during bushfires. But there has never been a clinical trial to measure how well these interventions work. That’s why our group is looking into it.

In the meantime, here’s what you can do to reduce your exposure to bushfire smoke.




Read more:
It's summer, so bushfires and COVID collide. 3 ways one affects the other


Who’s at risk?

Australia’s 2019/2020 summer bushfires resulted in more than 400 estimated deaths and thousands of hospitalisations from smoke exposure.

You don’t have to have a lung condition to suffer the ill-effects of bushfire smoke. Breathing difficulties, eye irritation and heart attacks are among the well-documented short-term impacts.

But people with asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and other lung conditions are particularly susceptible to smoke exposure, triggering asthma attacks and breathing difficulties.

This was the typical pattern we saw during our own research, conducted during the same bushfire season. We showed smoke exposure caused ill health in people with and without existing lung disease.

However, we found people under 65 had a higher risk of ill health after smoke exposure than older people. This may be because younger people tend to go outdoors more during bushfires.




Read more:
How does bushfire smoke affect our health? 6 things you need to know


1. Be prepared

If you live in an area potentially affected by bushfire smoke, the first thing to do is to get an early alert about fires and smoke using one or more apps. Examples include, the Fires Near Me app or the AirRater app for air quality.

You can also use a visual method to assess air quality. This involves identifying a landmark on the horizon about 5 kilometres away and noting if it becomes hazy. This would be the trigger for using a respirator or avoiding outdoor air.

2. Stay inside if it’s safe

Try to avoid exposure to smoke, avoiding outside air and staying indoors if it is practical and safe to do so. Vigorous exercise outdoors can be dangerous as it results in greater smoke inhalation and risks to the heart and lungs.

Close all doors and windows, set air-conditioning to recirculate, and seal gaps under or around doors, windows and wall vents with towels, blankets or plastic.

Unfortunately, these instructions are the opposite of what to do if there is COVID at home, when you would want fresh air in the house. If that is the case, wear a mask indoors in common areas and social distance from the person with COVID.




Read more:
Our buildings aren't made to keep out bushfire smoke. Here's what you can do


3. Wear a respirator (not just a surgical mask)

Most people who need to go outside during a bushfire can use some type of disposable respirator to filter the smokey air.

You will have seen people wearing these P2, P3 or N95 respirators to protect themselves and others from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID.

These and other types of disposable respirators filter very fine particles and fit closely around the face. Choose one with a full band around the back of the head (rather than ear loops) as these provide a better fit.

Some disposable respirators have valves, which means they filter inhaled air but allow you to exhale more comfortably. This option may help people with asthma or lung disease to breathe more comfortably. If you have COVID, though, wearing a respirator with a valve does not reduce the risk of you infecting others, because the air you breathe out through the valve is unfiltered and contaminated.

Respirators will filter particles larger than 0.3 microns (micrometres). However, they may not filter smaller particles contained in smoke, which is why avoiding outside air is still important.

People who live in bushfire-prone areas may want to consider a type of respirator they can clean and re-use when needed, known as an elastomeric respirator. Their filters need to be changed at specified intervals.

Elastomeric face mask

An elastomeric mask, such as this one, can be re-used.
Shutterstock

If you have trouble getting one of the mentioned respirators, you can use a disposable KN95 respirator. However, these have ear loops and do not fit well around the face, so air can leak through.

Surgical masks are not likely to protect you because they are so loose. But medical-grade ones provide good filtering. For this to be effective, wear one with a mask brace or clip to provide a better fit and to help prevent air leaking in from the sides.

In a nutshell

Be prepared by downloading an app to monitor bushfires and air quality near you, and stocking up on good quality respirators ahead of time if you can. You can re-use these if they are not visibly soiled or damaged.

Staying out of the smoke is also important, particularly if you have asthma, emphysema and other lung disease. Young people may be less aware of the health effects of smoke exposure, and even people without lung disease can experience ill health due to smoke.


Do you have asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis or bronchiectasis? Do you live in an area in Australia affected by bushfires or bushfire smoke (including metropolitan areas)? You may be eligible to be part of our study into the best way to protect yourself from bushfire smoke.

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In many cases bad breath is related to what you eat and drink. It is also often an indicator of issues within the mouth, such as gum disease. However, it can also be caused by a range of other medical problems elsewhere in the body.

According to WebMD, one such health problem is a chronic lung condition. These can include conditions such as asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia.

The site says: “Bad breath can result from a dry mouth or the foods and drinks you consume.

“But gum disease and gingivitis can also contribute to the annoying recurrence of bad breath.

“Beyond your teeth and gums, bad breath that persists can result from certain underlying health problems that require immediate medical attention.”

READ MORE: Hyposmia is now a 'top' Covid symptom - other signs to spot as ‘rates are going up’

And a study, published in the Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science in 2019, linked bad breath with lung conditions.

“Among the diseases causing halitosis nasopharyngeal abscess and lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchiectasis, carcinoma of the larynx, lung abscess, chronic bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases and pneumonia should be mentioned,” it said.

This was backed by UNC Health, which lists both pneumonia and bronchitis as causes of bad breath.

It claims between five and 10 percent of cases of bad breath are due to issues outside of the mouth or nose.

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Pneumonia

“Pneumonia is a bacterial or viral infection in your lungs,” it says.

“When the lungs become infected, the air sacs become inflamed and fill up with phlegm or pus.

“This causes serious fits of coughing, and when the odorous phlegm or pus is coughed up, it will cause halitosis.”

Bronchitis

It explains: “Bronchitis occurs when your bronchial tubes, the tubes responsible for carrying air to your lungs, get infected and swollen.

READ MORE: Man, 54, endured left shoulder pain that 'worsened with movement' before cancer diagnosis

“This causes a severe cough that is accompanied by foul-smelling mucus and bad breath.”

Asthma

The Jackson Dental Clinic explains that asthma patients often suffer with dry mouth, which can lead to bad breath.

“People with asthma tend to have a hard time breathing and feel as if they can’t get enough oxygen with each breath,” it says.

“Because of this, many asthma patients will breathe out of their mouths instead of their noses, since they can get more air into the lungs this way.

“Dry mouth is an oral health condition that may seem like only a minor, uncomfortable nuisance, but the truth is dry mouth can increase the risk of decay, cavities, bad breath, and gum disease.”

Symptoms of a lung condition

Symptoms of asthma include:

  • Wheezing, coughing and chest tightness becoming severe and constant.
  • Being too breathless to eat, speak or sleep.
  • Breathing faster.
  • A fast heartbeat.
  • Drowsiness, confusion, exhaustion or dizziness.
  • blue lips or fingers.
  • Fainting.

Whereas the “main” symptom of acute bronchitis is a cough, which may bring up clear, yellow-grey or greenish phlegm.

Other bronchitis symptoms may include:

  • A sore throat
  • A headache
  • A runny or blocked nose
  • Aches and pains
  • Tiredness.



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The COPD Therapeutics Market was valued at US$ 11,668.8 million in 2022 and is anticipated to reach US$ 20,127.7 million by 2032, growing at a CAGR of 5.1% during the projected period.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a broad term used for defining progressive lung diseases like emphysema, refractory asthma, chronic bronchitis and some other forms of bronchiectasis. The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are so common that sometimes people fail to understand that they are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and consider it as normal cold, cough and symptoms of aging. Symptoms are sometimes not even visible in the early stages of disease and the disease remains undiagnosed for a long time.

The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease include wheezing, tightness in the chest, frequent coughing and increased breathlessness. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease can be treated using different types of drugs and therapies including oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In case of extreme severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease surgery is recommended which includes lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplant and bullectomy.

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According to the data of British Lung Foundation approximately 1.2 billion people were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the U.K. alone in 2011. Also according to the COPD Foundation approximately 30million Americans were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2013.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. This data demonstrates the ever increasing demand of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment worldwide and hence also shows the potential that the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market holds.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Overview

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is a growing market and is expected to see an even higher growth in the forecast period. Factors such as increase in the population suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease worldwide and increasing awareness about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are responsible for fueling the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

Betterment of the healthcare infrastructure in Asia Pacific and Middle East and Africa is also responsible for the revenue growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market in the forecast period.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Drivers and Restraints

The most important factors that are expected to drive the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market includes the ever increasing number of cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease globally. Also the change in the lifestyle is responsible for increasing the habits like smoking and increase in the number of genetic disorders which in turn are responsible for raising the number of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients.

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Other factors that can boost the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market are rising expenditures on healthcare that is leading to the adoption of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatments in the emerging economies. Increase in the level of awareness has also lead to the early diagnosis of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease so that people can go for the treatment of the disease.

Factors that can limit the growth of the therapeutic enzymes in the forecast period include the fact that not all the patients who are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are aware of the fact that they are suffering from the disease and therefore do not go for the treatment of the disease.

Also sometimes people get to know about their disease when the disease can’t be cured by only medication and therapies and surgery becomes mandatory. This factor can also lead to a slow growth in the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

Ask an Analyst @ www.futuremarketinsights.com/ask-question/rep-gb-4337

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Region-wise Outlook

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is in its growth phase and hence this market is expected to see very high growth in the emerging economies like Latin America and Asia Pacific due to high population growth in these regions. North America Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is the most developed market in terms of revenue, followed by Europe. Middle East and Africa are also expected to see higher growth due to growing advancement in the healthcare infrastructure.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Key Market Participants

Some of the key participants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market include: Pfizer Inc, Adamis Laboratories Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc.

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market can be segmented on the basis of components and end user.

On the basis of component

  • Drug Class
  • Bronchodilators
  • Steroids
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors
  • Theophylline
  • Antibiotics
  • Delivery Systems
  • Oral
  • Inhalation

On the basis of end user

  • Hospitals
  • Private clinics
  • Out-patients

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Future Market Insights (ESOMAR certified market research organization and a member of Greater New York Chamber of Commerce) provides in-depth insights into governing factors elevating the demand in the market. It discloses opportunities that will favor  the market growth in various segments on the basis of Source, Application, Sales Channel and End Use over the next 10-years.

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The Pulmonary Rehabilitation team at Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust’s (WWL) is aiming to gain accreditation from the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Services Accreditation Scheme (PRSAS) in March of next year with its programme of exercise and education designed to help people with lung disease manage their symptoms, especially breathlessness.

Read More

Wigan care worker wins prestigious award

People suffering from other long-term lung conditions like bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis can also benefit from the service.

WWL Pulmonary Rehabilitation team. From left to right: Leanne Atherton, Gill Priestly, Gabrielle Dowd, Nicola Butters and Angela Duckworth

Silas Nicholls, chief executive at WWL, said: “We are incredibly proud to be recognised as one of the first 100 Trusts to register for PRSAS accreditation for our PR service at WWL.

“The team deserve all the recognition and this demonstrates WWL’s commitment to providing the best quality care for our patients.

“I’d like to thank all the staff who work tirelessly as part of WWL’s Pulmonary Rehabilitation service for their work and dedication to WWL and our patients.”

A course of pulmonary rehabilitation usually lasts six to eight weeks and provides tailored exercise and education programmes including aerobic exercise and lifestyle support.

Once the service gains full PRSAS accreditation it will mean that the care being delivered has been of an exceptional quality to meet the standards for accreditation. In turn, this will mean that patients using the service will receive a high quality of care and that the standards set by PRSAS are being met.

The accreditation scheme is strongly supported by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) and shows that WWL’s Pulmonary Rehabilitation service is meeting the national standard for quality of care.

Sanjay Arya, medical director at WWL spoke on the service and said: “It is a remarkable achievement for WWL’s Pulmonary Rehabilitation service to be in the first half of Trust’s across the country to register for PRSAS accreditation.

“This is a shining example of the continuous improvements we are making for all our patients as we look to provide the best possible care for our community.”

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A 30-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis (CF) and poor lung function gave birth to a healthy child while being treated with Trikafta, reportedly the first such successful CF pregnancy in Switzerland.

The mother’s percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (ppFEV1) — meaning her expected ability to quickly empty her lungs after a deep breath —  was lower than 50%, its scientists noted, a value associated with a “risk for preterm delivery and … infants with lower birth weight for the gestational age.”

The report, “Successful pregnancy in a cystic fibrosis patient with a severe impairment of lung function receiving Elexacaftor-Tezacaftor-Ivacaftor,” was published in the journal Respiratory Medicine Case Reports.

Recommended Reading

An illustration showing various medications.

Unplanned pregnancy in CF patient four months after starting Trikafta

Mutations in the CFTR gene, which codes for a protein of the same name, causes CF. Problems with this protein are associated with reduced fertility. In women, they result in thicker cervical mucus and a pH imbalance that impacts sperm mobility and fertilization.

Moderate-to-severe lung function impairment in women with CF, defined as a ppFEV1 less than 50%, also associate with a higher risk for preterm and cesarean delivery, and newborns at risk because of their low birth weight.

Trikafta (elexacaftor, tezacaftor, and ivacaftor), a highly effective combination CFTR modulator, is known to improve patients’ lung function and nutritional status, and is linked with fewer pulmonary exacerbations — a sudden worsening of lung symptoms — and a better quality of life. CFTR modulators are also known to aid fertility, with unplanned pregnancies reported in women on these therapies.

A team headed by researchers at Lausanne University Hospital helped to treat a pregnant 30-year-old with an F508del mutation in one CFTR gene copy and a Y1092X mutation in the other. The woman had bronchiectasis, characterized by long-term widening of the lungs’ airways and excessive mucus buildup, that was associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and she had pancreatic insufficiency.

After an infectious exacerbation in 2017, her pulmonary function fell sharply — a ppFEV1 of 23% — and she had severe malnutrition. She also showed signs of pulmonary hypertension and a patent foramen ovale, or small hole between the upper heart chambers that exists in a fetus but usually closes after birth. She refused a lung transplant being considered by her medical team.

In the following years, the woman’s ppFEV1 remained stable at 30%, but her overall health status was poor, particularly during infectious exacerbations. Her ppFEV1 fell to its lowest value, 21%, in February 2019.

She started treatment with Trikafta in August 2020 through a compassionate access program before its February 2021 approval in Switzerland, the researchers noted. Her overall health improved, her respiratory symptoms eased, and her ppFEV1 rose to 40% one month later. She also showed better nutritional status and had no further exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics.

An unplanned pregnancy, this patient’s first, occured four months after treatment initiation. After a genetic evaluation of the couple and a discussion of risks for the mother and child, the woman decided to continue the pregnancy.

“Despite the current scarcity of reproductive safety data, we pursued ETI [Trikafta] considering the risk for maternal deterioration upon treatment cessation,” the investigators wrote.

Normal fetal development was seen over the course of the pregnancy, and the mother’s ppFEV1 values held stable at 35% to 40%, similar to pre-pregnancy values, over 31 weeks of gestation (around seven months).

Vaginal delivery of baby at 36 weeks of gestation

Around that time, however, she began having symptoms of preterm labor. The woman was hospitalized and given medications to aid fetal lung development. Low oxygen levels during sleep (nocturnal hypoxemia) prompted the use of supplemental oxygen, and she contracted a rhinovirus infection that was treated with respiratory physiotherapy and medicine. She was discharged after about one week, but returned at 33 weeks of gestation due to excessive amniotic fluid. Doctors removed 2,700 mL of the fluid.

Her baby was born healthy at 36 weeks — considered the start of the ninth month — of pregnancy by vaginal delivery, weighing 2.7 kg (about 6 lbs).  The child was developing normally over a first year of life, the scientists reported.

The woman’s nocturnal hypoxemia corrected rapidly after giving birth and she stopped oxygen therapy.  An ppFEV1 of 40% was again recorded four months after childbirth, and her functional status also returned to pre-pregnancy levels.

“Our case highlights the new challenges and opportunities clinicians and individuals with CF may face in the era of highly effective CFTR modulators regarding fertility and pregnancy,” the scientists wrote.

Considering that most women starting or using this CF therapy are of childbearing age, family planning and contraception discussions should be considered to prevent unplanned pregnancies and for “informed decision making” in a planned pregnancy, they added.

“Improvements in quality of life, pulmonary function and the lower risk of exacerbations during treatment with highly effective CFTR modulators” may also “allow childbearing to be (re)considered by more CF women with decreased pulmonary function,” the researchers concluded.



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Chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema can be the origin of this pathology.

COPD today represents both in Italy and in the rest of the world the most frequent cause of disability and death among all respiratory diseases.

Causes of COPD

Cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for COPD.

The age of onset and the daily number of cigarettes smoked condition the evolution of the disease.

Quitting smoking, on the other hand, slows down its evolution.

The role played by domestic, environmental and work pollution in the development of the disease is less known than that of cigarette smoke, but reports of an existing relationship between these agents and the onset of COPD are increasingly numerous.

However, regardless of the risk factor, there is individual variability in the development of the disease.

The evidence that genetic factors are important in the determinism of COPD derives from the observation of subjects with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency who present a high risk of developing COPD, especially if they are habitual smokers.

COPD symptoms

COPD is a chronic disease capable of significantly affecting the quality of life of patients.

The clinical symptomatology is also decisive for the purposes of defining the severity of the disease.

Typical symptoms are chronic productive cough (or recurring for a minimum of 3 months/year for at least 2 consecutive years), shortness of breath, dyspnoea associated with a lower tolerance to effort.

These disorders evolve in a progressive and irreversible manner, even if quitting smoking can delay functional decline and reduce respiratory symptoms.

The spectrum of severity is extremely broad and can vary from the slight and transient increase in symptoms that can be managed independently by the patient, up to extremely serious conditions for which hospitalization in intensive care is necessary or the activation of an oxygen therapy plan or of mechanical ventilation.

Worsening of symptoms leads to an exacerbation of the disease.

Exacerbations have a significant impact on the evolution of the disease and are frequently caused by respiratory infections especially in the winter months.

The diagnosis of COPD in the general population is currently underreported

Spirometry, an indispensable method for correctly diagnosing COPD and evaluating its progression, is underused.

On the other hand, an exact diagnosis and a correct functional evaluation allow for the early implementation of measures capable of reducing symptoms, improving the quality of life, slowing down the progression of the disease.

A correct objective examination is the first element useful for the diagnosis due to the possibility of detecting wheezing, hyperexpansion of the chest, cyanosis.

However, the spirometry test remains the fundamental test for assessing respiratory function and defining the severity of the disease.

Radiographic examinations (chest X-ray and CT) show structural alterations of the airways but must be reserved for cases of absolute necessity.

Finally, blood gas analysis (determination of gases in arterial blood) shows the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Treatment of COPD

Cigarette smoking cessation is the only treatment capable of slowing down the evolution of the disease.

Today we have a series of drugs capable of improving symptoms, reducing the number of exacerbations, improving the patient’s quality of life, but not capable of slowing down the progressive deterioration of respiratory function.

COPD therapy makes use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids, mainly and preferably used by inhalation.

Theophylline should be used under strict medical supervision due to possible side effects.

Antibiotics are useful only during an exacerbation caused by respiratory tract infections.

In the most serious cases, but above all in chronic respiratory insufficiency, it is necessary to use long-term oxygen therapy and in some cases mechanical ventilation is used.

Pulmonary rehabilitation is an integral part of the treatment of COPD: rehabilitation programs can in fact positively influence the function of the respiratory and peripheral muscles and the nutritional status of the patient.

Unfortunately we know that patient adherence to therapy is generally poor, therefore patient education is a fundamental intervention for optimizing the therapeutic-rehabilitation programme.

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Prehospital Intravenous Access And Fluid Resuscitation In Severe Sepsis: An Observational Cohort Study

What Is Intravenous Cannulation (IV)? The 15 Steps Of The Procedure

Nasal Cannula For Oxygen Therapy: What It Is, How It Is Made, When To Use It

Pulmonary Emphysema: What It Is And How To Treat It. The Role Of Smoking And The Importance Of Quitting

Pulmonary Emphysema: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Tests, Treatment

Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Occupational, Stable Bronchial Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A Guide To Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD

Bronchiectasis: What Are They And What Are The Symptoms

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