Global Airway Clearance Devices System Size is anticipated to be valued at US$ 589.3 Million in 2022, forecast to grow at a CAGR of 6.2% to be valued at US$ 1,137.8 Million from 2022 to 2032. Airway clearance devices systems are used to remove excess mucus from lungs. The excess production of mucus is a common feature in the COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and it leads to accumulation of mucus in the air way. It results in the coughing, wheezing, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and shortness of breath.

There are few types of airway clearance devices system, namely: positive expiratory pressure devices, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, oral high-frequency oscillation, high-frequency chest wall oscillation, flutter devices, and incentive spirometry. Positive expiratory pressure devices is an alternative to conventional physiotherapy, and it consists of the one-way valve to which expiratory resistance is applied.

Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation devices combine internal thoracic percussion and aerosol inhalations. Oral high-frequency oscillation is worked on the principle of high frequency and low volume of oscillations, and it is developed from the technique of jet ventilation with high frequency.

High-frequency chest wall oscillation devices is a mechanical device which works on the principle of positive pressure air pulse on the lungs by means of air pulse generator and inflatable chest. Flutter devices is a combination of high-frequency oscillations with positives expiratory pressure therapy. Incentive spirometry is used to measure inspiratory effort by using air volume and air flow.

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Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Drivers and Restraints

Conventional methods like chest physiotherapy used for bronchial drainage in different types of respiratory dysfunction. However traditional chest physiotherapy is time-consuming and labour intensive both for non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients. On the counterpart, airway clearance devices systems increasing the compliance with patients and is the less time-consuming process.

Reduced cost and independent application are other reason for changing the preference of patient population from conventional chest physiotherapy to airway clearances devices system market. All these factors influencing the burgeoning growth of the airway clearances devices system.

Others factors like decreased respiratory complications and demand for devices over conventional methods drives the growth of the airway clearance devices system market. Limited availability of evidence based data for effectiveness of devices act as a restraint on the growth of the airway clearance devices system market

Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Market Overview

Global Airway Clearance Devices System market has witnessed a robust growth due to increasing demand due to improving respiratory drainage and reduced infections. Airway Clearance Devices System market has a presence of many regional players which have a huge market share in emerging countries operating at regional or country level.

The future of Airway Clearance Devices System market anticipated with double CAGR during forecasting period.

Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Region-Wise Overview

Global Airway Clearance Devices System market segmented into following regions North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan and the Middle East and Africa. North America is dominant in the Global Airway Clearance Devices System market mainly due to increased acceptances by patient population.

In North America, particularly the USA is dominating due to the high penetration. Economic conditions in the APAC region are set to drive the Airway Clearance Devices System market to new heights. European and APAC are fastest growing region due to rising awareness of Airway Clearance Devices System Market.

Growth in the Middle East and African region is considerably less when compared to the other regions. However, North America would maintain its position in the Airway Clearance Devices System market, though, we are anticipating emerging economies such India, China, Brazil, to have the highest growth rate in Airway Clearance Devices System market.

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Airway Clearance Devices System Market: Key Participants

The key participants in the Airway Clearance Devices System market mainly include Monaghan Medical Corporation, Koninklijke Philips N.V., Vortran Medical Technology and others. Companies are mainly focused on R&D to strengthen core competencies of the company’s product portfolio.

The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also includes projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to market segments such as geographies, application, and industry.

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Every year, World Lung Day is celebrated on September 25 to advocate lung health and spread awareness. Lung disease is any problem that arises in the lungs and prevents it from working properly. Lung disease is divided into three main types - airway diseases, lung tissue diseases and lung circulation diseases.

The lungs, just like any other part of your body, age with time and that's why they need extra attention and care. People don't understand the importance of healthy lungs until they experience a breathing problem. After the Covid-19 pandemic took over the world, millions across the globe showed signs of weak lungs and reported breathing issues.

In 2022, it's crucial that we look after the health of our lungs and take precaution against harmful diseases that can make our breathing difficult. After all, the lungs are a crucial part of the respiratory system as they carry oxygen from the air and pump it through the body's airways and air sacs. The oxygen is then absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the heart via the blood vessels.

Understanding the three main types of lung disease:

Airway Diseases

These harmful diseases impact the tubes that carry oxygen, making it difficult for people to breathe.

Lung Tissue Diseases
These diseases affect the structure of the lung tissue, which then makes it difficult for the lungs to function properly and diffuse oxygen from the airways into the bloodstream.

Lung Circulation Diseases

This type of disease impacts the blood vessels in the lungs. These diseases affect the way blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body.

Most Common Lung Diseases:

Most common lung diseases emerge from one or more of these three main types. Here are the most common lung diseases:

Asthma

Millions of people across the country suffer from asthma and have difficult breathing. Though there's no cure for this disease, the person can lead a healthy and normal life with the help of right treatment and managing the asthma.

The disease can be managed by working with a healthcare provider to develop a plan to keep your asthma under control by understanding your trigger and learning of simple ways to limit your exposure, understanding your medication, learning self-management skills and more.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
This disease includes Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema and is a long-term lung disease that makes it hard to breathe but is often preventable and treatable.

Bronchitis

Most commonly referred to as bronchitis, acute bronchitis is a lower respiratory infection that impacts the air tubes of the lungs and usually comes on suddenly and can last for a week to 10 days.

Tips To Prevent Lung Diseases:

Stop smoking as it increases your risk of lung cancer. According to several reports, smokers are 12 to 13 times more likely to die from COPD than nonsmokers.

Exercise. Getting a regular workout will really help your health. It will not only make you fitter but also improve your overall health. When you workout, your heart beats faster and your lungs work harder.

Get some fresh air. It's no secret that we are exposed to pollutants on a daily basis. So give your lungs the much needed break and reduce the exposure to harmful air by making your home smoke-free zone, dusting your furniture, improving the indoor air ventilation by opening a window, avoid synthetic air fresheners, candles, and wear a good mask when you go outside.

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According to DelveInsight, the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market in 7MM is expected to witness a major change in the study period 2019-2032

“The increase in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market size is a direct consequence of an increase in R& D activity, increasing prevalent population, expected commercial success of upcoming therapies in the 7MM

 

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2022 to 2032. The growing cases of tumors will directly impact the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market

 

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market report provides current treatment practices, emerging drugs, and market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted 7MM Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market size from 2019 to 2032. The Report also covers current Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment practice, market drivers, market barriers, SWOT analysis, reimbursement, market access, and unmet medical needs to curate the best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the market.

 

Key takeaways from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Research Report

  • The expected launch of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease emerging therapies and the research and development activities of pharmaceutical companies will also fuel the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market growth during the forecast period.
  • The estimates suggest a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease higher diagnosed prevalence in the United States with 17,455,605 diagnosed cases in 2020, which might increase in 2030.
  • The total Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease diagnosed prevalent population in seven major markets was found to be 31,730,590 in 2020 and is anticipated to increase in 2030.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Companies included Afimmune, AstraZeneca, Amgen, Circassia Pharmaceuticals Inc., Biomarck Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, and several others
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Therapies included Anoro Ellipta, Incruse Ellipta/Encruse Ellipta, and several others

 

Interested to know more about the ongoing developments in the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Outlook? Visit here- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and treatable disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases. The most common respiratory symptoms include dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production; these symptoms may be under-reported by patients. The main risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but other environmental exposures such as biomass fuel exposure and air pollution may contribute.

Besides exposures, host factors predispose individuals to develop COPD. These include genetic abnormalities, abnormal lung development, and accelerated aging. COPD may be punctuated by periods of acute worsening of respiratory symptoms, called exacerbations. In most patients, COPD is associated with significant concomitant chronic diseases, which increase its morbidity and mortality. COPD is a long-lasting lung disease where the small airways in the lungs are damaged, making it harder for air to get in and out.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemiology Insights

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology segmented by Total Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Gender-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Age-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of COPD Based on Severity of Airflow Limitation, and Diagnosed Prevalent Cases of COPD Based on Symptoms and Exacerbation History scenario in the 7MM covering the United States, EU5 countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) and Japan from 2019 to 2032.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemiology Segmentation in the 7MM 

  • Total Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Gender-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Age-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Cases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Diagnosed Prevalent Cases Based on Severity of Airflow Limitation

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment Market

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment include drugs, for example, nicotine replacement therapy, beta-2 agonists and anticholinergic agents (bronchodilators), combined drugs using steroids and long-acting bronchodilators, mucolytic agents, oxygen therapy, and surgical procedures such as bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery, and lung transplantation. The goals of COPD treatment are to reduce hospitalizations, reduce and prevent exacerbations, decrease dyspnea, improve quality of life, slow disease progression, and reduce mortality. The mainstays of treatment are smoking cessation, when applicable, and pharmacotherapy with inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Additional therapies include oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, vaccinations, pulmonary rehabilitation, and long-term oxygen therapy in hypoxic patients. Bronchodilators are used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The medicines come in many forms, with some forms requiring special instructions. There are several short-acting bronchodilators for COPD.

 

Discover more relevant information on the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Research Report here- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Marketed Drugs

Anoro Ellipta: GlaxoSmithKline/Theravance/Innoviva

Anoro Ellipta is a combination of umeclidinium, an anticholinergic, and vilanterol, a long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (LABA), indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FDA, 2013). Anoro Ellipta is a once-daily product approved in the US that combines two long-acting bronchodilators in a single inhaler for the maintenance treatment of COPD.

Incruse Ellipta/Encruse Ellipta: GlaxoSmithKline

Incruse Ellipta is an anticholinergic approved for the long-term once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. GSK’s once-daily anticholinergic, a type of bronchodilator also known as a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), is contained in the Ellipta inhaler. The FDA-approved strength is 62.5 mcg.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Emerging Drugs

Itepekimab (SAR440340/REGN3500/Anti-IL-33 mAb): Sanofi/Regeneron Pharmaceuticals

REGN3500 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-33 (IL-33), a protein that is believed to play a key role in type 1 and type 2 inflammation. The drug is administered subcutaneously. Preclinical research showed REGN3500 blocked several markers of both types of inflammation. Regeneron and Sanofi are currently studying REGN3500 in respiratory and dermatological diseases where inflammation plays an underlying role.

Dupixent (Dupilumab): Regeneron Pharmaceuticals/Sanofi

Dupixent (dupilumab) is a monoclonal antibody targeting α chain of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor. It inhibits the biological effects of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, which are key drivers in the TH2 response (Sastre, 2018). Dupilumab is approved in the US to treat patients aged ≥12 with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that is not well controlled with prescription therapies used on the skin (topical), or who cannot use topical therapies.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Outlook

Many people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease have mild forms of the disease for which little therapy is needed other than smoking cessation. Even for more advanced stages of the disease, effective therapy is available that can control symptoms, slow progression, reduce the risk of complications and exacerbations, and improve the ability to lead an active life. The goal in treating Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is to help the person breathe easier and get back to regular activities; many treatments and lifestyle approaches can help. The patient may also try some natural and alternative treatment options. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment focuses on relieving symptoms, such as coughing, breathing problems, and avoiding respiratory infections. The treatments are often based on the stages of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Size

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Size has been categorized into three groups based on the type of therapies that are used and that might get launched, i.e., Monotherapies, Double combination therapies, and Triple combination therapies. The monotherapies are further categorized into Long-Acting Bronchodilators (LABDs), Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICS), Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Inhibitors, and other monotherapies. In LABA, drugs like Striverdi Respimat, Arcapta/Onbrez, Serevent, and Brovana are there, and in LAMA class, molecules such as Spiriva (Spiriva HandiHaler and Spiriva Respimat), Tudorza Pressair, Incruse Ellipta, Yupelri, Seebri Neohaler, Lonhala Magnair, etc. are included.

 

Read more about the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Companies and Therapies in the report- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market

 

Scope of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Forecast Report

  • Coverage- 7MM
  • Study Period-2019-2032
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Forecast Period- 2022-2032
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Companies included Afimmune, AstraZeneca, Amgen, Circassia Pharmaceuticals Inc., Biomarck Pharmaceuticals, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, and several others
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Therapies included Anoro Ellipta, Incruse Ellipta/Encruse Ellipta, and several others
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Drivers and Barriers
  • KOL Views
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Access and Reimbursement

 

Table of Content

1. Key Insights

2. Report Introduction

3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Market Overview at a Glance

4. Executive Summary of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

5. Key Events

6. Disease Background and Overview

7. Epidemiology and Patient Population

8. Patient Journey

9. Organizations contributing toward Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Marketed Therapies

11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Emerging Drugs

12. Potential of Emerging and Current therapies

13. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Seven Major Market Analysis

14. KOL Views

15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Drivers

16. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Barriers

17. SWOT Analysis

18. Unmet Needs

19. Reimbursement and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Access

20. Appendix

21. DelveInsight Capabilities

22. Disclaimer

23. About DelveInsight

 

Got queries? Reach out for more details on the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market Forecast Report- www.delveinsight.com/sample-request/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-market

 

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DelveInsight is a Business Consulting and Market research company, providing expert business solutions for the healthcare domain and offering quintessential advisory services in the areas of R&D, Strategy Formulation, Operations, Competitive Intelligence, Competitive Landscaping, and Mergers & Acquisitions.

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Conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections account for the majority of deaths each year around the world. With that said, there are many steps you can take to prevent these deadly diseases.

When people think of the deadliest diseases in the world, their minds probably jump to the fast-acting, incurable ones that grab headlines from time to time. However, many of these types of diseases don’t rank in the top 10 causes of worldwide deaths.

An estimated 55.4 million people passed away worldwide in 2019, and 74% of these deaths were because of noncommunicable diseases, or chronic conditions that progress slowly.

Perhaps even more surprising is that several of the deadliest diseases are partially preventable. Non-preventable factors include where a person lives, access to preventive care, and quality of healthcare, all of which factor into risk.

But there are several steps that everyone can take to lower their risk.

Read on to see 10 of the deadliest diseases worldwide.

The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD).

Also called ischemic heart disease, CAD occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart become narrowed. Untreated CAD can lead to chest pain, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Impact of CAD across the world

Although it’s still the leading cause of death, mortality rates have declined in many European countries and in the United States.

This may be because of better public health education, access to healthcare, and other forms of prevention. However, in many developing nations, mortality rates for CAD are on the rise.

An increasing life span, socioeconomic changes, and lifestyle risk factors play a role in this rise.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for CAD include:

Talk with a doctor or healthcare professional if you have one or more of these risk factors.

You can prevent CAD with medications and by taking steps to improve heart health. Some of the ways you can decrease your risk include:

  • exercising regularly
  • reaching or maintaining a moderate weight
  • eating a balanced diet that’s low in sodium and high in fruits and vegetables
  • avoiding smoking, if applicable
  • drinking only in moderation

A stroke occurs when an artery in your brain is blocked or leaks. This causes the oxygen-deprived brain cells to begin dying within minutes.

During a stroke, you feel sudden numbness and confusion or have trouble walking and seeing. If left untreated, a stroke can cause long-term disability.

In fact, strokes are the leading cause of long-term disabilities. People who receive treatment within 3 hours of having a stroke are less likely to have disabilities.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that one survey found that 93% of people knew sudden numbness on one side was a symptom of stroke. However, only 38% knew all the symptoms that would prompt them to look for emergency care.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for stroke include:

  • high blood pressure
  • family history of stroke
  • smoking, especially when combined with oral contraceptives
  • being African American
  • being female

Some risk factors of strokes can be lowered with preventive care, medications, and lifestyle changes. In general, good health habits can lower your risk.

Stroke prevention methods may include controlling high blood pressure with medications. You should also maintain a healthy lifestyle, complete with regular exercise and a balanced diet that’s low in sodium.

If you smoke, consider quitting and drink only in moderation, as these activities increase your risk of stroke.

A lower respiratory infection is an infection in your airways and lungs. It can be due to:

Though viruses usually cause lower respiratory infections, they can also be caused by bacteria.

Coughing is the main symptom of a lower respiratory infection. It may produce blood sputum. You may also have a fever, sweating, or chills or experience breathlessness, wheezing, and a tight feeling in your chest.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for lower respiratory infection include:

  • the flu
  • poor air quality or frequent exposure to lung irritants
  • smoking
  • a weak immune system
  • crowded child care settings, which mainly affect infants
  • asthma
  • HIV

One of the best preventive measures you can take against lower respiratory infections is to get the flu shot every year. People at high risk of pneumonia can also get a vaccine.

Be sure to wash your hands regularly with soap and water to avoid transmitted bacteria, especially before touching your face or eating.

If you have a respiratory infection, stay at home and rest until you feel better, as rest improves healing.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a long-term, progressive lung disease that makes breathing difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are types of COPD.

In 2018, about 16.4 million people in the United States reported a diagnosis of any type of COPD.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for COPD include:

  • smoking or secondhand smoke
  • lung irritants such as chemical fumes
  • family history, with the alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency gene being linked to COPD
  • history of respiratory infections as a child

There’s no cure for COPD, but its progression can be slowed with medication.

The best ways to prevent COPD are to stop smoking, if applicable, and avoid secondhand smoke and other lung irritants. If you experience any COPD symptoms, getting treatment as soon as possible improves your outlook.

Respiratory cancers include cancers of the trachea, larynx, bronchus, and lungs.

The main causes are smoking, secondhand smoke, and environmental toxins. However, household pollutions, such as fuels and mold, also contribute.

Impact of respiratory cancers around the world

A 2015 study reports that there are around 18 million new cases of lung cancer annually. In developing countries, researchers project an 81% to 100% increase in respiratory cancers because of pollution and smoking.

Many Asian countries, especially India, still use coal for cooking. Solid fuel emissions account for 17% of lung cancer deaths in males and 22% in females.

Risk factors and prevention

Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers can affect anyone, but they’re most likely to affect those who have a history of smoking or tobacco use.

Other risk factors for these cancers include family history and exposure to environmental factors such as diesel fumes.

Aside from avoiding fumes and tobacco products, it isn’t known if there’s anything else that can be done to prevent lung cancers. However, routine lung scans and early detection can result in more effective treatment and an improved outlook.

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect the production or use of insulin.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. This type of diabetes is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or insulin can’t be used effectively. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a number of factors, including poor diet and physical inactivity.

Impact of diabetes around the world

Over time, uncontrolled diabetes can cause damage to the nerves and blood vessels. This can lead to complications such as impaired wound healing, kidney failure, and blindness.

People in low- and middle-income countries are more likely to die of complications from diabetes because of limited access to medications and technologies needed to manage blood sugar levels.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for diabetes include:

  • having overweight or obesity
  • high blood pressure
  • older age
  • not exercising regularly
  • an unhealthy diet

While diabetes isn’t always preventable, you can control the severity of symptoms by exercising regularly and following a well-rounded, nutritious diet. Adding more fiber to your diet can also help with controlling blood sugar levels.

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory, interferes with decision making, and interrupts normal cognitive functions. These include thinking, reasoning, and other everyday behaviors.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia and accounts for about 60 to 70% of cases.

The disease starts off by causing mild memory problems, difficulty recalling information, and slips in recollection. Over time, however, the disease progresses, and you may not have memory of large periods of time.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include:

There’s not currently a way to prevent Alzheimer’s disease, and researchers aren’t sure why some people develop it and others don’t. As they work to understand this, they’re also working to find preventive techniques.

One thing that may be helpful in lowering your risk of the disease is following a healthy diet. In fact, some research suggests that eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, heart-healthy fats, and legumes could support brain function and prevent cognitive decline.

Diarrhea is when you pass three or more loose stools in a day. If your diarrhea lasts more than a few days, your body loses too much water and salt. This causes dehydration, which can be fatal in severe cases.

Diarrhea is usually caused by an intestinal virus or bacteria transmitted through contaminated water or food. It’s particularly widespread in areas with poor sanitary conditions.

Impact of diarrheal diseases around the world

Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years old. About 525,000 children die from diarrheal diseases each year.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for diarrheal diseases include:

  • living in an area with poor sanitary conditions
  • not having access to clean water
  • age, with children being the most likely to experience severe symptoms of diarrheal diseases
  • malnourishment
  • a weakened immune system

The best method of prevention is practicing good hygiene. Handwashing, improved sanitization and water quality, and access to early medical treatment can also help prevent diarrheal diseases.

TB is a lung condition caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It’s a treatable airborne bacterium, although some strains are resistant to conventional treatments.

TB is one of the top causes of death in people who have HIV. Furthermore, people who have HIV are 18 times more likely to develop active TB.

Impact of TB around the world

The cases of TB have fallen 2% each year between 2015 and 2020.

One of the targets of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals is to end the TB epidemic by 2030.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for TB include:

  • diabetes
  • HIV infection
  • a lower body weight
  • proximity to others with TB
  • regular use of certain medications such as corticosteroids or drugs that suppress the immune system

The best prevention against TB is to get the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, which is commonly given to infants and children in areas where TB is common.

If you think you’ve been exposed to TB bacteria, a doctor can prescribe preventive medications (chemoprophylaxis) to lower the likelihood of developing an active infection.

Cirrhosis is the result of chronic or long-term scarring and damage to the liver. The damage may be the result of a kidney disease, or it can be caused by conditions such as hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

A healthy liver filters harmful substances from your blood and sends healthy blood into your body. As substances damage the liver, scar tissue forms. As more scar tissue forms, the liver has to work harder to function properly and may eventually stop working.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors for cirrhosis include:

  • chronic alcohol use
  • fat accumulation around the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
  • chronic viral hepatitis

Moderating alcohol intake can help prevent liver damage and cirrhosis.

Likewise, you can prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by enjoying a nutritious diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in sugar and fat.

Lastly, you can lower the likelihood of contracting viral hepatitis by using barrier methods each time you engage in sexual activity and by avoiding sharing anything that could have traces of blood such as needles, razors, or toothbrushes.

How many rare diseases are there?

A rare disease is usually defined as a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States.

According to most scientists and clinicians, there are around 7,000 different rare diseases. However, this estimate can vary from 5,000 to 8,000 rare diseases, depending on the source.

It’s believed that around 1 in 10 people in the United States, or around 30 million people in total, has a rare disease.

Some rare diseases are hereditary and can be passed from parent to child. Some may be visible from birth, while others might show up later in life.

Which disease has no cure?

There’s no known cure for many conditions, including several on the list of the deadliest diseases.

This also includes conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy.

In many cases, certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking cessation and modifying your diet or exercise routine, may lower the risk of developing some of these conditions.

In other cases, a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and other treatment methods might help manage or reduce symptoms of a condition, though it may not necessarily cure it.

What’s the deadliest disease?

Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death around the globe. Other conditions, such as stroke, COPD, lower respiratory infections, and respiratory cancers, also account for a significant portion of deaths each year.

While deaths from certain diseases have increased, those from more serious conditions have also decreased.

Several factors, such as an increasing life span, naturally increase the prevalence of age-related diseases such as CAD, stroke, and heart disease.

However, many of the diseases on this list are preventable and treatable, and as medicine continues to advance and prevention education grows, we may see improved outcomes for many of these diseases.

A good approach to lowering your risk of any of these conditions is to follow a balanced diet, live a healthy lifestyle, and stay active.

Moderating your alcohol intake and quitting smoking, if applicable, can also help.

For bacterial or viral infections, proper handwashing can help prevent or lower your risk.

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Mucus in the lungs is common in certain health conditions and needs treatment. For example, if you have bronchiectasis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), clearing mucus from your lungs is an important part of managing your lung disease.

Having too much mucus in your lungs or phlegm build-up can block narrowed air passages and make it hard for you to breathe. Increased mucus in the lungs can also lead to infections, such as pneumonia.

There are ways to treat mucus in the lungs, including controlled coughing, medications, and chest physiotherapy.

This article will go over some causes of mucus in the lungs as well as ways that your provider might want you to clear mucus from your lungs as part of your treatment.

Verywell / Emily Roberts

Home Remedies and Lifestyle Changes for Mucus in Lungs

You can use at-home exercises to help prevent and decrease mucus buildup in your lungs. If you have lung disease these techniques should be used regularly to loosen and remove the excess mucus from your lungs.

Controlled Coughing for Mucus in Lungs

Controlled coughing engages the chest and stomach muscles to clear mucus in the lungs. Unlike a hacking cough that uses the chest muscles more than the diaphragm, controlled coughing focuses on stabilizing the core muscles to engage the diaphragm more effectively.

There are two common methods of controlled coughing: deep and huff.

How to use deep coughing to clear mucus in the lungs:

  1. Sit comfortably in a chair with your feet on the ground.
  2. Wrap your arms around your stomach, and take a deep breath in.
  3. Keeping your lips pursed, cough forcefully while pressing your arms firmly against your stomach muscles.

How to use huff coughing to clear mucus in the lungs:

  1. Take a deep, slow breath to fully expand your lungs.
  2. Tense your stomach muscles
  3. Exhale three times very quickly and make a "ha" sound with each breath.
  4. Repeat this step, keeping your core firm, until you feel the mucus in your lungs breaking up.
  5. Cough deeply to clear your lungs.

Deep Breathing for Mucus in Lungs

When you do deep breathing exercises, you slowly breathe in (inhale) and breathe out (exhale) to help your lungs expand. These breathing exercises are examples of pulmonary hygiene—treatments that use physical manipulation techniques to help you cough up sticky mucus and clear your lungs.

Your respiratory therapist can teach you deep breathing techniques that you can do at home on a regular schedule to help keep your lungs clear.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Treatment for Lung Mucus

Several OTC medications can help clear excess mucus from your lungs, for example, Robitussin and Mucinex.

These medications are expectorants. They have an ingredient called guaifenesin in them that thins and loosens mucus in the lungs to make it easier to cough up. They can also block the production of the main protein in mucus (mucins).

Most expectorants can be bought at a pharmacy or grocery store, but some combination drugs that have expectorants and other ingredients in them require a healthcare provider's prescription.

Prescription Medications for Lung Mucus

Mucolytics, including N-acetylcysteine and carbocysteine, are only available by prescription.

These medications work differently than expectorants. Mucolytics break the chemical bonds in mucus to help make it easier to cough up.

Chest Physiotherapy for Mucus in Lungs

Chest physiotherapy (CPT) techniques can be done manually or with a mechanical device. A CPT routine can take anywhere from 20 minutes to an hour.

You can do some CPT techniques by yourself, but others require help from a partner, such as a therapist or a family member at home.

  • Manual CPT combines chest percussion and vibration to loosen the mucus in the lungs and make you cough. To do chest percussion, a therapist or loved one will clap on your chest or back to help loosen the thick mucus in your lungs so you can cough it up. Vibration is done by placing their flat hands on your chest wall and making a shaking motion.
  • Airway clearance devices are hand-held machines that use high-frequency vibration, low-frequency sound waves, and other technology to break up mucus in the lungs. They are easy to use by yourself. Some of the devices are worn like a vest, while others require you to breathe into them (like a flute).

While you are having chest physiotherapy, make sure you breathe in and out slowly and fully until the mucus in your lungs is loose enough to cough up. Your therapist will show you how to get into a position that uses gravity to help the mucus in your lungs drain.

Alternative Medicine for Lung Mucus

There are some natural remedies that may help reduce the mucus in your lungs. Keep in mind that even though they are "natural," complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies can have side effects.

CAM therapies that may help clear mucus in the lungs include:

  • Warm fluids: Drinking warm (not hot) liquids can help loosen thickened mucus. Try tea, warm broth, or hot water with lemon.
  • Steam: You can use a device such as a cool-mist humidifier or steam vaporizer to breathe in warm air. You can also take a hot shower or breathe in vapors from a pot of simmering water. These methods introduce moist air into your air passages, which helps loosen the mucus in your lungs. However, do not inhale oils because they can cause an inflammatory or allergic lung reaction.
  • HoneyHoney may reduce inflammation and coughing. However, it is not clear whether honey specifically helps in coughing up mucus.
  • Chinese medicine: Chinese herbs and treatments have traditionally been used to reduce mucus in the lungs. While there are anecdotal reports that they are helpful, the scientific data is not clear about the benefits.
  • A few herbs—including mao huang (Herba ephedrae), tao ren (Semen persicae), and Huang qin (Radix scutellariae)—may ease the symptoms of respiratory disease.
  • Qigong, a practice of breathing exercises and movements, may also help.

Ask Your Provider About CAM for Lung Mucus

CAM therapies are not safe for everyone. If you take certain medications or have certain health conditions, you may not be able to use them.

If you want to try an herb, supplement, or natural remedy to help clear mucus in your lungs, talk to your provider. They will make sure that it would be safe for you to try these treatments.

Summary

Mucus in the lungs can be part of having certain health conditions and something that you'll need to learn how to manage.

Regularly clearing mucus from your lungs is part of living with bronchiectasis and COPD. Controlled coughing, deep breathing, over-the-counter and prescription medications, chest physiotherapy, and alternative therapies help by reducing, loosening, and coughing up the mucus to prevent lung infections.

It's important that you use mucus-reducing strategies on a regular basis, not just when your symptoms act up. If you have been diagnosed with pulmonary disease, talk to your healthcare provider or respiratory therapist about the best approaches for managing mucus in your lungs.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How do you know if your lungs are filled with mucus?

    If you have mucus in your lungs, you might have a "wet" cough or be able to hear the fluid in your chest when you breathe. You may wheeze or find it harder to breathe if there is mucus build-up in your lungs.

  • How do I naturally get rid of mucus in the lungs?

    One way to get rid of mucus or phlegm naturally is by doing controlled huff coughing to clear your lungs.

    1. Sit up straight, slightly tilt your chin toward the ceiling, and open your mouth.
    2. Slowly take a deep breath in, filling your lungs about three-quarters full.
    3. Hold your breath for three seconds.
    4. Forcefully exhale in a slow, continuous manner.
    5. Repeat steps one to four at least two or three more times. Then, perform a single strong cough. This should remove mucus concentrated in the larger airways.

  • Is chest congestion common in COVID-19?

    About one-third of people with COVID-19 have chest congestion or pressure as a symptom. COVID often causes a dry (non-productive) cough but some people have a productive cough and cough up thick mucus.

  • What causes phlegm?

    The body makes phlegm and mucus to line the tissues and protect and moisturize them, as well as trap potential irritants and germs.

  • What medicine can be used to clear phlegm from the throat?

    Mucus thinners (mucolytics) are over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that help thin mucus or phlegm in the airways, making it easier to cough up. Two types of mucus thinners are Pulmozyme (dornase alfa) and hypertonic saline.

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. Poole P, Sathananthan K, Fortescue R. Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Airways Group, ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 May 20;5(5):CD001287. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001287.pub6

  2. Aaron SD. Mucolytics for COPD: negotiating a slippery slope towards proof of efficacy. Eur Respir J. 2017;50(4). doi:10.1183/13993003.01465-2017

  3. Warnock L, Gates A. Chest physiotherapy compared to no chest physiotherapy for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD001401. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001401.pub3

  4. Cohen HA, Hoshen M, Gur S, Bahir A, Laks Y, Blau H. Efficacy and tolerability of a polysaccharide-resin-honey based cough syrup as compared to carbocysteine syrup for children with colds: a randomized, single-blinded, multicenter studyWorld J Pediatr. 2017;13(1):27-33. doi:10.1007/s12519-016-0048-4

  5. Tong H, Liu Y, Zhu Y, Zhang B, Hu J. The therapeutic effects of qigong in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the stable stage: a meta-analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019;19(1):239. doi:10.1186/s12906-019-2639-9

  6. American Lung Association. Understanding Mucus in Your Lungs.

  7. Centers for Respiratory Health. Clearing lung mucus in five easy steps with huff coughing.

  8. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Mucus thinners.

By Deborah Leader, RN

 Deborah Leader RN, PHN, is a registered nurse and medical writer who focuses on COPD.

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Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a viral illness that affects the upper respiratory tract. Several viruses can cause common cold symptoms, including hMPV. 

With hMPV, symptoms such as runny and stuffy nose are common. People may experience more serious effects in some cases, but most don't develop serious symptoms.

This article will take a closer look at the symptoms of human metapneumovirus, including frequent and rare symptoms and potential complications. It will also discuss when it might be time to seek medical help. 

Geber86 / Getty Images


Frequent Symptoms 

Most people who contract human metapneumovirus experience mild cold symptoms such as:

  • Runny nose
  • Congestion
  • Sore throat
  • Cough
  • Headache
  • Fever

Infants with human metapneumovirus may also experience weight loss.

Most people with mild symptoms will feel better within a few days and won’t require medical treatment. This virus most often circulates in winter and spring.

Rare Symptoms 

Some people with human metapneumovirus may develop shortness of breath. This is more likely in people with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma (a chronic lung disease with constricted and inflamed airways). People with asthma may also experience flare-ups of their symptoms if they contract hMPV.

Other uncommon symptoms may include:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Wheezing (a high-pitched whistling sound when breathing)
  • Hoarse voice
  • Vomiting

Complications and Sub-Group Indications 

People are more likely to develop complications from a cold caused by human metapneumovirus if they are immunocompromised (have reduced immune system function).

However, hMPV is less likely to cause serious complications compared to other respiratory infections.

In some people, hMPV can develop into:

  • Pneumonia: Lung infection or inflammation of the airways and air sacs (alveoli)
  • Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi, which are the larger air tubes in the lungs
  • Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the smallest air tubes in the lungs (bronchioles)

What Is Bronchiolitis?

Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the smallest air passages in the lungs, the bronchioles. It is often caused by viral lung infections that primarily affect young children.

Symptoms may include:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Coughing
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Intercostal retractions
  • Widening of nostrils while breathing
  • Fast breathing
  • Bluish tinge to the skin, which signals the need for emergency treatment

Children and Infants

According to the American Lung Association, between 5% to 16% of children who contract human metapneumovirus develop pneumonia, a serious lower respiratory tract complication. Infants are particularly susceptible to this kind of complication.

Infants under 1 year who develop serious complications may have a decreased appetite and display poor feeding. Additionally, children and infants with lung disease or who are born prematurely have a higher risk of developing complications.

One study found lower respiratory tract infection by hMPV was more common in infants and children whose birthing parent had asthma.

Symptoms of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a potentially serious complication of hMPV that can cause:

  • Mucus-producing cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever 
  • Sweating
  • Fast, shallow breathing
  • Chills
  • Pain in the chest coughing or breathing deeply
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Appetite loss 
  • Fatigue

Older Adults

People over age 75 are at greater risk of developing severe pneumonia from hMPV. Large outbreaks have been reported in nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities.

Symptoms of Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis (also called a chest cold) can cause symptoms such as:

  • Coughing, with mucus or without
  • Excessive fatigue
  • Body aches
  • Sore throat
  • Sore chest 
  • Headache 

Acute bronchitis develops because of an upper respiratory infection. Symptoms don't usually last longer than a few weeks.

Chronic bronchitis is characterized by long-term lung inflammation and is more serious. People with chronic bronchitis are at higher risk of developing complications due to respiratory infections like human metapneumovirus.

When to See a Healthcare Provider

Trouble breathing or shortness of breath are good indicators of when to seek medical attention. This may be a sign that the illness has developed into pneumonia or another lower respiratory tract infection.

Summary 

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a virus that causes the symptoms of the common cold. It’s one of many viruses that causes similar upper respiratory symptoms. Common symptoms are coughing, runny nose, and congestion. Some people may also experience shortness of breath. 

People with weakened immune systems, such as older adults and infants, are more likely to develop complications from hMPV. But most people's symptoms go away in a few days without treatment.

A Word From Verywell 

For most people, a cold is self-limiting and doesn’t cause serious symptoms. If you have a stuffy nose, cough, and a mild fever, chances are some rest and fluids will help you cope with discomfort and eventually lead you on the road to recovery.

It’s important to remember, though, that symptoms of COVID-19 can resemble those of the common cold. If you have plans to attend a large gathering or interact with people who may have weakened immune systems, it’s a good idea to take a COVID-19 test to check for a positive result.

Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.
  1. American College of Chest Physicians CHEST Foundation. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV).

  2. American Lung Association. Learn About human metapneumovirus (hMPV).

  3. Peña SA, Davis SS, Lu X, et al. Severe respiratory illness associated with human metapneumovirus in nursing home, New Mexico, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(2):383-384.  doi:10.3201/eid2502.181298

  4. Illinois Department of Public Health. Human metapneumovirus.

  5. Mount Sinai. Bronchiolitis.

  6. Libster R, Esteban I, Bianchi A, et al. Role for maternal asthma in severe human metapneumovirus lung disease susceptibility in children. J Infect Dis. 2021;223(12):2072-2079. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa019

  7. American Lung Association. Pneumonia symptoms and diagnosis

  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chest cold (Acute bronchitis)

  9. American Lung Association. Chronic bronchitis.

  10. American Lung Association. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) symptoms and diagnosis


By Steph Coelho

Steph Coelho is a freelance health writer, web producer, and editor based in Montreal. She specializes in covering general wellness and chronic illness.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a broad term used for defining progressive lung diseases like emphysema, refractory asthma, chronic bronchitis and some other forms of bronchiectasis. The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are so common that sometimes people fail to understand that they are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and consider it as normal cold, cough and symptoms of aging. Symptoms are sometimes not even visible in the early stages of disease and the disease remains undiagnosed for a long time.

The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease include wheezing, tightness in the chest, frequent coughing and increased breathlessness. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease can be treated using different types of drugs and therapies including oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In case of extreme severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease surgery is recommended which includes lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplant and bullectomy.

According to the data of British Lung Foundation approximately 1.2 billion people were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the U.K. alone in 2011. Also according to the COPD Foundation approximately 30million Americans were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2013. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. This data demonstrates the ever increasing demand of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment worldwide and hence also shows the potential that the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market holds.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Drivers and Restraints

The most important factors that are expected to drive the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market includes the ever increasing number of cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease globally. Also the change in the lifestyle is responsible for increasing the habits like smoking and increase in the number of genetic disorders which in turn are responsible for raising the number of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients.

Other factors that can boost the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market are rising expenditures on healthcare that is leading to the adoption of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatments in the emerging economies. Increase in the level of awareness has also lead to the early diagnosis of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease so that people can go for the treatment of the disease.

Factors that can limit the growth of the therapeutic enzymes in the forecast period include the fact that not all the patients who are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are aware of the fact that they are suffering from the disease and therefore do not go for the treatment of the disease. Also sometimes people get to know about their disease when the disease can’t be cured by only medication and therapies and surgery becomes mandatory. This factor can also lead to a slow growth in the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Overview

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is a growing market and is expected to see an even higher growth in the forecast period. Factors such as increase in the population suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease worldwide and increasing awareness about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are responsible for fueling the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

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Betterment of the healthcare infrastructure in Asia Pacific and Middle East and Africa is also responsible for the revenue growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market in the forecast period.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Region-wise Outlook

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is in its growth phase and hence this market is expected to see very high growth in the emerging economies like Latin America and Asia Pacific due to high population growth in these regions. North America Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is the most developed market in terms of revenue, followed by Europe. Middle East and Africa are also expected to see higher growth due to growing advancement in the healthcare infrastructure.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Key Market Participants

Some of the key participants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market include Pfizer Inc, Adamis Laboratories Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc.

The report covers exhaustive analysis on

  • Market Segments
  • Market Dynamics
  • Historical Actual Market Size, 2012 – 2014
  • Market Size & Forecast 2017 to 2027
  • Supply & Demand Value Chain
  • Market Current Trends/Issues/Challenges
  • Competition & Companies involved
  • Technology
  • Value Chain
  • Aircraft Refurbishing Market Drivers and Restraints

Regional analysis includes

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Europe
  • Asia Pacific
  • Middle East & Africa

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The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market can be segmented on the basis of components and end user.

On the basis of component

  • Drug Class
  • Bronchodilators
  • Steroids
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors
  • Theophylline
  • Antibiotics
  • Delivery Systems
  • Oral
  • Inhalation

On the basis of end user

  • Hospitals
  • Private clinics
  • Out-patients

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Future Market Insights (ESOMAR certified market research organization and a member of Greater New York Chamber of Commerce) provides in-depth insights into governing factors elevating the demand in the market. It discloses opportunities that will favor the market growth in various segments on the basis of Source, Application, Sales Channel and End Use over the next 10-years.

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CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – Sulphur Springs Business News

Sulphur Springs, Texas, August 8, 2022 CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – Sulphur Springs has ONE mission: To Extend the Healing Ministry of Jesus Christ. 

Back to School

Are you going through the checklist of things to take care of before returning your students to school?  Perhaps they need their annual vaccines or sports physical?  We want to help!

Call us at 903.885.3181 to schedule an appointment with a Pediatrician or Family Medicine provider today! 

Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Do you need help managing your lung condition? Pulmonary rehabilitation can help. Pulmonary rehab is a program that can help you learn how to breathe easier and improve your quality of life. You can benefit from pulmonary rehab if you have:

  • Emphesema
  • Ashthma
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • A Neuromuscular disease (such as Multiple Sclerosis or Parkinson’s Disease)
  • Lung Cancer
  • History of smoking
  • Post lung surgery
  • Post COVID shortness of breath 

Pulmonary rehab cam make a difference. It is a safe, smart way to help you: decrease symptoms like being short of breath, coughing and wheezing. It can help you breathe better, get stronger, decrease stress, and reduce the risks of future lung problems and related hospital admissions. Pulmonary rehabilitation is designed to help increase strength, endurance, and overall health through exercise, education, diet, and support while decreasing patients’ shortness of breath. Ask your physician for a referral to CHRISTUS Mother Frances – Sulphur Springs’ Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program 903.439.4141

Sports Medicine

FREE Saturday Athletic Injury Clinic for student athletes of all ages is back this month! Starting August 20th, Saturday sports injury clinic will be held every Saturday from 9am to 11am, on August 20 through November 12. Student athletes in Hopkins County from 7th grade to college age will be able to get a free exam and x-ray to determine a plan of care to treat their injury. The clinic will be held at our CHRISTUS Trinity Clinic Orthopedics, Medical Building 5, at 103B Medical Circle in Sulphur Springs. For more information about our Sports Medicine program, or Orthopedic services, please call 903.885.6688.

COVID Vaccine Clinic Dates:

Net Health continues to offer Adult and Pediatric vaccines and boosters every three weeks at the clinic on 100 Medical Circle in Sulphur Springs. The clinic will be held on the following dates: August 22 – 26, September 19 – 23, and October 17 – 21. You may walk in from 10am to 3pm daily. No appointment is necessary.  

# # #

CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Health System includes CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospitals – Tyler, South Tyler, Jacksonville, Winnsboro and Sulphur Springs, the CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Louis and Peaches Owen Heart Hospital – Tyler, CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Rehabilitation Hospital a partner of Encompass Health, Tyler Continue CARE Hospital at CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital, a long-term acute care facility, and CHRISTUS Trinity Clinic. CHRISTUS Trinity Clinic is the area’s preferred multi-specialty medical group, with more than 400 Physicians and Advanced Practice Providers representing 36 specialties in 34 locations serving Northeast Texas across 41 counties. For more information on services available through CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Health System, visit christustmf.org

Bed count – 402 – CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – Tyler

Bed count – 8 – CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – South Tyler

Bed count – 25 – CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – Jacksonville

Bed Count – 96 – CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – Sulphur Springs

Bed count – 25 – CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital – Winnsboro

Bed count – 94 – CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Rehabilitation Hospital

Bed count – 96 – CHRISTUS Trinity Mother Frances Louis and Peaches Owen Heart – Tyler

Bed count – 51 – Tyler Continue CARE Hospital at CHRISTUS Mother Frances Hospital

 

Contributed by Jennifer Heitman

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Hyperventilation is a condition when you breathe deeper and more rapid than normal. It is more common in women than men and in people between 15 to 55 years of age. It is also most commonly associated with panic attacks.

We breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. During hyperventilation, we tend to breathe excessively, that is, we over-breathe and this leaves us breathless. This increases the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood, so the carbon dioxide pressure inside the blood decreases causing a condition called respiratory alkalosis where the blood becomes more alkaline. Alkalosis further causes the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain to constrict.

Causes

Scientists believe hyperventilation is more of a consequence rather than a cause of certain diseases or conditions. In most cases, hyperventilation is caused by –

  • Stress, anxiety, depression, anger
  • Bleeding
  • Severe pain
  • Drug overdose, for example, aspirin overdose
  • Pregnancy

Risk Factors

There are few clinical conditions that increase your risk of suffering from hyperventilation. These include -

Anxiety or panic disorder: Anxiety and panic disorder which is a severe form of anxiety, is probably the most common cause of hyperventilation. This type of hyperventilation is called acute or sudden hyperventilation. The two almost form a vicious cycle, in the sense, anxiety can lead to hyperventilation, and this rapid breathing can make you panic. Anxiety is also accompanied by faster heart rate, sweating, trembling and dizziness.

Heart failure and heart attack: Heart failure, a chronic condition in which your heart is no longer able to pump out oxygen-rich blood, can cause you to hyperventilate. But this type of hyperventilation is called chronic hyperventilation. You can have heart failure if your high blood pressure is not well controlled or if you have coronary artery disease wherein the blood vessels supplying blood to the heart become narrow.

Lung diseaseLung disease such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary embolism are some of the common lung diseases that cause chronic hyperventilation.

  • Asthma – This disease is caused by inflammation in the airways in which the airways of the lungs swell and narrow. Symptoms include cough, wheezing, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, anxiety, and sweating.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – This is a disease where you have long-term cough with mucus (chronic bronchitis) mostly in combination with emphysema which gradually destroys your lungs. Smoking, second hand smoke and pollution are the leading cause of COPD.
  • Pulmonary embolus – Any embolus is a blockage of artery because of blood clot, tumor cells or fat. When the blockage is in the artery leading to the lungs it is called pulmonary embolus.

PneumoniaPneumonia is an infection of the lung by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. COPD, smoking, brain disorders, immune system problems, or sometimes even a surgery can increase the chances of being infected by pneumonia.

KetoacidosisKetoacidosis is a condition in which your body cannot use sugar as fuel (energy source) because of insufficient or no insulin. During such cases, the body fat break down to supply the required fuel. This results in build-up of waste products called ketones. Ketoacidosis normally occurs in diabetics and is considered to be a life threatening condition.

Here's what you should know about RRate – an app to measure breathing rate within 10 seconds.

Symptoms

The symptoms are usually caused due to reduced blood supply to the brain. These include -

  • Lightheadedness and dizziness
  • Numbness and tingling in the fingertips, arms and around the mouth
  • Chest pain
  • Confusion, palpitation and shortness of breath
  • Shortness of breath
  • Bloating and belching
  • Weakness

However, severe hyperventilation can even cause loss of consciousness.

Treatment

The treatment options depend on what’s causing your hyperventilation. Let’s take a look at some of them.

Anxiety or panic disorder: 

  • Psychotherapy
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy where you are guided to identify and challenge the negative thinking patterns causing anxiousness and panic.
  • Exposure therapy where you confront your fears in a controlled environment.
  • Medication such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants combined with self help therapies and behavioural therapies.

Heart failure and heart attack:

  • Medicines that treat the symptoms and prevent the heart failure from getting worse, for example, drugs to reduce cholesterol, keep your blood from clotting, reduce arrhythmias, open up clogged blood vessels, and other symptoms. Caution – Ibuprofen and naproxen may worsen heart failure.
  • Devices such as pacemaker and defibrillator.
  • Coronary bypass surgery or angioplasty with or without stenting. Heart valve surgery may also be suggested by surgeons.
  • Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are two treatments in case of end stage heart failure when no other treatment work and you are waiting for a heart transplant.

Asthma:

  • Inhalers with steroids or long acting beta-agonists as maintenance or controller medicines.
  • Quick relief medicines such as short-acting inhaled bronchodilators or oral corticosteroids.
  • Hospital stay in case of severe asthma where you will be given breathing assistance and intravenous medications.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD):

  • Bronchodilators to open the airways.
  • Steroids administered orally, intravenously, or through inhalers.
  • Antibiotics in case of respiratory infections.

Pulmonary embolus: Pulmonary embolus is an emergency situation that needs hospitalization. You will be given clot dissolving medication and then blood thinners to prevent formation of new clots.

Pneumonia:

  • Fluids
  • Antibiotics
  • Oxygen therapy

Ketoacidosis: The treatment requires hospitalization where the doctor will correct the high blood sugar level and/ or treat the infection causing ketoacidosis.

Read how to beat respiratory disorders with yoga.

Alternative Remedies

If you are over-breathing due to stress, panic, anger or depression, (and this is the most common cause) try the following breathing techniques to control hyperventilation.

  • Try breathing once every 5 seconds or slow enough till gradually your over-breathing stops.
  • Purse your lips as if you are whistling and breathe.
  • Pinch one nostril and breathe through your nose.
  • Place one hand on your belly and the other on your chest. Take a deep breath as if you are filling your belly and let your belly push your hand out. Exhale slowly pushing the air out of your belly with your hands. Repeat these steps 5 to 10 times.

The purpose of these breathing techniques is to get more carbon dioxide circulating in your blood. If hyperventilation continues for 30 minutes, get medical help. Also get medical attention if you are hyperventilating for the first time, or if you have fever, bleeding or pain.









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Jul. 30—GENEVA — University Hospitals Geneva Medical Center recently opened a new pulmonary rehabilitation center, and is now seeing patients.

People who suffer with lung diseases can live and breathe easier by working with a team of specialists in a variety of supervised medical programs.

"Chronic lung disease is an ongoing problem and can take a toll on a person's quality of life by making everyday activities they're used to participating in much more difficult," said Kimberly Smith, RRT, Respiratory Therapy Supervisor at UH Conneaut, Geneva and Geauga Medical Centers. "We are happy to be able to expand our available respiratory services to our local community in the Geneva area."

The medically supervised programs help those with chronic pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and COPD.

Programs are also available for those with restrictive lung disease such as pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis, and lung conditions such as lung cancer, primary pulmonary hypertension and obesity-related respiratory disease.

The center also sees patients who have neuromuscular disorders, and those who are working through long-haul COVID-19 symptoms.

At the UH Geneva Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, patients can:

—Learn more about their condition, symptoms, medications and oxygen.

—Participate in supervised exercise classes and instruction.

—Learn breathing techniques.

—Take part in nutritional counseling.

—Join the Pulmonary Support Group, in conjunction with the American Lung Association Better Breathers Club.

—Take smoking cessation classes or one-on-one smoking cessation sessions.

"Patients receive a number of positive benefits from participating in the pulmonary rehabilitation program at UH Geneva," said Smith. "Managing and relieving shortness of breath and fatigue; reducing anxiety; increasing exercise capacity and daily stamina; and enhancing quality of life, just to name a few. Our patients also have access to a number of specialists in one location, including registered respiratory therapists, nurses, exercise physiologists, registered dietitians, pharmacists, pulmonologists and other experts as they may need them."

To learn more about respiratory therapy services offered at UH, please visit: UHhospitals.org. To make an appointment at the UH Geneva Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, call 440-415-0297.

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Smoking tobacco is the number one preventable cause of death in the world. If no one in the United States smoked, one out of three cancer deaths would not happen. Nicotine is the second-leading cause of death globally. The best component of treatment is education about the benefits of smoking cessation and the cessation process.

Most patients – over 90% – attempt to stop smoking by stopping cold turkey. However, there are a myriad of other cessation methods including counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, antidepressant medications, behavioral training, group therapy, hypnosis, and others.

What damage does smoking do?

Smoking is associated with acute and long-term structural changes in the airways and pulmonary parenchyma, including upper airway mucosal gland hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In other words, smoking damages the lungs no matter how you look at it.

Smoking irritates the lining in the lung tissue, particularly the tiny hair cells or cilia that are responsible for clearing mucus. Those cilia stop working, causing mucus production to increase, which causes inflammation. The cycle continues and the person becomes short of breath and develops a chronic cough.

Smoking causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It also causes the majority of lung cancer. It can trigger asthma attacks in those who are susceptible. It also leads to cardiovascular and kidney disease.

Smokers are 12 to 13 times more likely to cause death from COPD than non-smokers.

Smoking can also cause cancer in other places in the body:

  • Bladder.
  • Blood (acute myeloid leukemia).
  • Cervix.
  • Colon and rectum (colorectal).
  • Esophagus.
  • Kidney and ureter.
  • Larynx.
  • Liver.
  • Oropharynx (includes parts of the throat, tongue, soft palate, and the tonsils).
  • Pancreas.
  • Stomach.
  • Trachea, bronchus, and lung.

Can a doctor tell if I smoke?

In my own clinical practice, I saw plenty of patients with cancer from smoking. The distinction was that even in those patients who did not have cancer, their airways, particularly their lungs always had changes.

I could easily tell if a person smoked based on not just their cough. It was their voice. Smoking causes a constant irritation to the lining of the upper airways. Many patients who smoke have a distinctive raspy voice which means there is swelling in the vocal cords just like when a person has an upper respiratory infection.

Those who had stopped smoking usually had regained most of their lung function, but not always. We were taught in medical school that after ten years of total abstinence from smoking, the lungs would return back to their own normal state, meaning functioning as if the person had never smoked. I am not completely convinced that is completely true.

Your lungs start to heal immediately after you stop smoking. That is why quitting today is so important. However, the time for healing in the airways and lungs varies dramatically, depending on the person.

Signs of lung damage from smoking

Smoking causes minor and major swelling and scarring in the airways. The minor scarring in the lungs may not cause too much damage right away.

Long-term smoking does cause major scarring in the lungs, particularly damaging the alveoli, the small sacs in the lungs that are responsible for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Our lungs only have so many alveoli (about five hundred million in most people). Once the alveoli are destroyed by smoking, they are gone for good. Once there are too many alveoli missing, we develop pulmonary emphysema, even if the person stops smoking.

Pulmonary emphysema is incurable. It leads to chronic cough, excess sputum production, poor oxygen exchange, fatigue, exhaustion, anxiety, trouble sleeping, weight loss, and even heart problems. Emphysema is one type of chronic lung disorders, which includes COPD.

COPD means there is a slow, progressive obstruction of the airflow in or out of the lungs. It is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to the inhaled noxious gases in smokers.

The diagnosis of COPD and emphysema can be made by your doctor based on your breathing history, exposure to irritants and smoking, and breathing tests such as PFTs or pulmonary function tests (spirometry). The stage of lung disease is determined by what is called the forced expiratory volume (FEV) level.

What are the stages of lung disease?

FEV refers to the volume of air that you can exhale during a forced breath. The ‘1’ subscript means the forced expiratory volume in one second.

The ratio of different results on these pulmonary function tests determines if you have obstructive or restrictive lung disease from smoking.

What can I do besides stopping smoking?

Prevention means lowering your risks. This includes stopping smoking, but also taking care to protect the lungs from infections. This means taking vaccines for illnesses such as the flu, COVID, or the pneumococcal vaccine.

Depending on the stage of chronic obstructive lung disease from smoking, your doctor may recommend further evaluation by specialists such as pulmonologists, lung surgeons, and those respiratory professionals who offer pulmonary rehabilitation.

A final word

Some doctors advocate using home remedies. These include vitamins, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids.

Surgery is usually the last resort for those who have lung damage from smoking. Options include partial removal of the lungs or in the worst cases, a lung transplant.

The average life expectancy for a person who has COPD and undergoes a lung transplant is about five years.

Again, the best treatment is always to stop smoking as soon as possible. And, as I tell my patients, do not start again.

References

Johns Hopkins. Smoking and Respiratory Diseases.

MD Anderson Cancer Center. What Happens to Your Lungs From Smoking: 3 Things to Know.

University of Rochester. Smoking and Respiratory Diseases.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health

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Lungs, the main organ in the respiratory system, expand and contract about a thousand times a day providing an efficient gas exchange [1]. Diseases or pathologies in the lungs and airways that develop slowly and worsen over time are called chronic respiratory diseases [1]. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and occupational lung diseases are among the most common and major chronic respiratory diseases [2]. According to the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, chronic respiratory diseases are one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world, with the highest prevalence in high-income regions [3]. Nearly 545 million individuals (7.4% of the world’s population) live with chronic respiratory problems [3]. The economic burden associated with asthma, COPD, and other chronic respiratory disorders is among the highest compared to other chronic diseases [4].

According to the Global Initiative for Asthma, 2019, asthma is characterized as chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness with variable expiratory airflow limitation [3]. It is the most common non-communicable disease in children, and 40% of children and 50% of adults diagnosed with asthma have uncontrolled disease, representing an unmet medical need [3,4]. Despite differences in etiology, symptoms, and prognosis, asthma and COPD share the common pathogenesis of airway inflammation [5]. Medications that selectively target the disease pathology will increase the chances of therapeutic success [5].

Phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases and degenerative diseases in humans [6]. PDE acts by hydrolyzing the intracellular nucleotide cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine-5-monophosphate (cGMP) to its inactive compounds, adenosine-5-monophosphate (5-AMP) and guanosine-5-monophosphate (5-GMP), respectively [6]. PDE inhibitors are a major class of drugs currently being investigated as a treatment strategy for COPD, asthma, depression, cognitive and affective disorders, atopic dermatitis, and fragile X syndrome [7].

The selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) enzyme, which is encoded by four genes, is a member of the PDE superfamily of 11 subtypes [8]. As it is specifically found in inflammatory cells and airway smooth muscle cells, PDE4 inhibitors are considered a therapeutic target for inflammatory respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma [8,9]. However, roflumilast is the only PDE4 inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of respiratory disorders and is used as a second-line medication for severe COPD with chronic bronchitis [6]. Other PDE4 inhibitors that have been approved include apremilast for psoriatic arthritis and plaque psoriasis and crisaborole for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis [6].

Clinical data provide promising results for the potential use of PDE4 inhibitors in asthmatic patients [4]. Its effectiveness has also been tested for various other inflammatory respiratory diseases, including allergic rhinitis, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, and chronic cough [6,10]. However, PDE4 inhibitors are not approved as a treatment strategy for any other respiratory diseases except COPD [7]. This systematic review summarizes the recent evidence on PDE4 inhibitors concerning their therapeutic potential, limitations for approval as treatment options for respiratory disorders other than COPD, and the recent advances to overcome the limitations.

Methodology

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines 2020 were followed in this systematic review, and the population, intervention, and outcome with or without a control (PICO) format was included in this study pattern [11].

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

All studies related to the topic, published in the English language, across the globe within the last five years (2017-2022) where the free full-text article is available or can be received from the author were included. The study population considered was humans without limitation of age or sex who were affected by respiratory disorders other than COPD. The overall effect of the selective PDE4 inhibitor therapy (intervention) on the disease outcome compared to the conventional treatment or placebo (control) or without any comparison group was assessed. All types of study designs were included without any restrictions. All other articles published before 2017, non-English-language studies, animal studies, non-full-text articles, book articles, and gray literature were excluded from the study.

Information Sources and Search Strategy

A detailed search was done on four databases, namely, PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect, using the relevant keywords. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) search blocks with Boolean operators were used in the PubMed database search, and appropriate filters were used according to the availability in the selected databases. The data were searched from all databases lastly on April 16, 2022. The search strategy including the relevant keywords and MeSH terms used is listed in Table 1.

Database Search strategy Filters Search result
PubMed Asthma OR Bronchiectasis OR chronic cough OR (((“Asthma/drug effects” [Majr] OR “Asthma/drug therapy” [Majr] OR “Asthma/prevention and control” [Majr] OR “Asthma/therapy” [Majr] )) OR (“Bronchiectasis/drug therapy” [Majr] OR “Bronchiectasis/prevention and control” [Majr] OR “Bronchiectasis/therapy” [Majr] )) AND Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors OR PDE inhibitors OR Roflumilast OR (“Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/administration and dosage” [Mesh] OR “Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/adverse effects” [Mesh] OR “Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use” [Mesh] OR “Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/toxicity” [Mesh]) Humans, English language, 2017–2022, free full text 268
PMC Asthma OR Bronchiectasis OR Chronic cough AND PDE 4 inhibitors Five years 355
Google Scholar Asthma OR Bronchiectasis OR Chronic cough AND PDE 4 inhibitors 2017–2022, review articles 2,290 (First 500 records were identified)
ScienceDirect PDE4 inhibitor therapy in Non-COPD respiratory diseases 2017–2022, review and research articles 107

Data Collection and Study Selection

Study selection was done by two researchers independently according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full articles were analyzed extensively, and any discrepancies were reevaluated and reassessed by both researchers to reach common ground. Studies that were focused on our topic, fit our inclusion and exclusion criteria, and were of good quality were chosen for this study.

Results

Among the identified 1,230 studies, 177 duplicates were removed using the EndNote X9 version and manually. The remaining 1,053 articles were initially screened based on the title and abstract. Among them, 994 studies were excluded as they were irrelevant to the study, and the remaining 59 studies were sought for retrieval for further screening. Only 35 studies remained for the assessment because 24 studies were not retrieved. Full articles of 35 studies were assessed extensively based on the eligibility criteria and quality. Finally, a total of 11 studies were included in this systematic review. Figure 1 depicts the search process used for this review in the form of a PRISMA flow diagram [11].

Quality Appraisal

The risk of bias in individual studies was reduced by assessing the quality by two independent researchers with the use of relevant quality assessment tools. Studies that had a quality above 70% or get an overall “Low Risk” in risk of bias were included while the studies that did not fit the criteria or that we found biased were excluded. The summary of the quality appraisal process of selected studies is included in Table 2.

Quality assessment tool Type of study Total score Accepted score (>70%) Accepted studies
Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2) [12] Systematic review and Meta-analysis 16 12 Luo et al. (2018) [9]
Scale for the quality Assessment of Narrative Review Articles (SANRA 2) [13] Narrative review 12 9 Chinn et al. (2020) [4] Facchinetti et al. (2021) [5] Kawamatawong et al. (2021) [6] Phillips et al. (2020) [8] Syfridiana et al. (2021) [14] Zuo et al. (2019) [15] Li et al. (2018) [16] Matera et al. (2021) [17]
Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (RoB 2) [18] RCTs 7 5 (Low Risk) Bjermer et al. (2019) [19] Juthong et al. (2022) [20]

Data Analysis

This systematic review describes the study results based on their outcomes, applicability, and limitations as a narrative synthesis because inter-variability was noted between the studies such as heterogeneity of study designs, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. All articles included in the study were reviewed and analyzed extensively and tabulated into (1) randomized controlled trials (RCT), (2) systematic review and meta-analyses, and (3) review articles. Table 3 summarizes the relevant results extracted from the selected studies.

Study source Study name Study type Study objective Related conclusion
Chinn et al. (2020) [4] Cyclic AMP in dendritic cells: A novel potential target for disease‐modifying agents in asthma and other allergic disorders Literature review Review the role of dendritic cells and cAMP as potential disease-modifying therapies in asthma and other allergic disorders Propose to design drugs that selectively raise cAMP in dendritic cells as a novel disease-modifying therapy for allergic asthma
Facchinetti et al. (2021) [5] Tanimilast, a novel inhaled PDE4 inhibitor for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Literature review Review main preclinical and clinical studies conducted during the development of Tanimilast and identify subgroups of patients with possible therapeutic success Tanimilast demonstrates good anti-inflammatory properties in both COPD and asthma. Phase IIa clinical studies used in asthma demonstrated significant LAR to inhaled allergens and numerical reduction in sputum eosinophilia
Kawamatawong et al. (2021) [6] Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors for non-COPD respiratory diseases Literature review Review the evidence on the effectiveness of Roflumilast and other PDE4 inhibitors in chronic inflammatory respiratory diseases beyond COPD including certain COPD phenotypes with comorbidities Roflumilast and selective PDE4 inhibitors have demonstrated a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory effects on chronic respiratory diseases including asthma, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, and COPD with comorbidities. Further well-designed clinical studies will be helpful
Phillips et al. (2020) [8] Inhaled phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors for inflammatory respiratory diseases Literature review Summarize the clinical structure, pharmacological, and clinical details of inhaled PDE4 inhibitors CHF 6001 as the only inhaled PDE4 inhibitor currently advancing through clinical development has promising results with minimal systemic adverse effects in phase II clinical trials in asthma
Luo et al. (2018) [9] Efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors in patients with asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic review and meta-analysis Evaluation of the effects of PDE4 inhibitors on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma Oral PDE4 inhibitors improve lung function, asthma control, and asthma exacerbations with the expense of increased adverse events. Oral PDE4 inhibitors including roflumilast 500 µg may be an alternative treatment to regular bronchodilators and inhaled controllers in patients with mild asthma
Syfridiana et al. (2021) [14] Roflumilast: review of phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor as asthma therapy Literature review Determine the efficacy and safety of using roflumilast as a therapeutic option in asthmatic patients Numerous clinical studies conducted on the effectiveness of roflumilast therapy in asthma (phase I-III) demonstrated significant improvement in FEV1. Statistically, a significant difference was not noted between the doses of 250 and 500 µg of roflumilast. Combination therapy with montelukast demonstrated comparative improvement in lung functions and respiratory symptoms
Zuo et al. (2019) [15] Phosphodiesterases as therapeutic targets for respiratory diseases Literature review Discuss PDE subtypes and the role of selective PDE inhibitors in the therapeutic application for COPD and asthma PDEs are an attractive pharmaceutical target for COPD and asthma treatment. Dual PDE4/3 inhibitor (RPL554) demonstrated anti-inflammatory and airway-modulatory effects in phase I clinical trials. Further clinical studies to explore the real pharmaceutical target of RPL554 were recommended
Li et al. (2018) [16] Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory diseases Literature review Summarize the chemical skeleton and pharmacological and clinical details of the licensed PDE4 inhibitors in the process Various adverse effects associated with PDE4 inhibitors are the primary bottleneck in new drug development. Three possible strategies to avoid this problem were described
Matera et al. (2021) [17] New avenues for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in asthma Literature review Discuss the progress made in recent years regarding PDE4 inhibitors in the treatment of asthma No PDE inhibitor has yet reached the market as a therapeutic option for asthma. The current focus is on the development of PDE inhibitors that interact simultaneously with different PDE types. CHF6001 and RPL554 are the PDE4 inhibitors under development for asthma to date
Bjermer et al. (2019) [19] Efficacy and safety of a first-in-class inhaled PDE3/4 inhibitor (Ensifentrine) vs Salbutamol in asthma RCT Investigate the dose-response and the pharmacology of a single dose of ensifentrine nebulizer suspension Single-dose ensifentrine demonstrated dose-dependent bronchodilation which is effective as a therapeutic dose of nebulized salbutamol and did not show the systemic safety issues of β2 agonists
Juthong et al. (2022) [20] Efficacy of roflumilast in bronchiectasis patients with frequent exacerbations RCT Assess the efficacy of roflumilast on the exacerbation of bronchiectasis Roflumilast did not significantly affect the rate of exacerbation or the quality of life. Improvement in FEV1 was noted in the roflumilast group compared to the placebo group

Discussion

This section describes the PDE enzyme, therapeutic benefits of PDE inhibitors, recent advances in the development of selective PDE4 inhibitors, and current evidence and future targets of their use in various respiratory diseases beyond COPD.

Phosphodiesterase and cAMP

PDE enzyme in mammals is classified into 11 subfamilies based on kinetics, substrate selectivity, and their distribution in cells and tissues [21]. It modulates intracellular signal transduction by catalyzing the hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP into their inactive metabolites 5-AMP and 5-GMP, respectively [5,6]. Identification of this enzyme about 60 years ago opened the gates to an important area of clinical research as inhibition of this enzyme provides an enormous potential for therapeutic benefit in many pathological conditions [22]. Current evidence supports that different PDE subtypes have their own characteristics such as PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE10, and PDE11 degrade both cAMP and cGMP; PDE5, PDE6, and PDE9 only degrade cGMP; and PDE4, PDE7, and PDE8 degrade only cAMP [22]. PDE4 and PDE5 are the most important isoforms related to respiratory disease [21].

cAMP is an intracellular second messenger that is produced by the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC) after activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) [21,22]. cAMP plays a key role in cellular function and its signaling which is compartmentalized within cells explains the vast area of action sometimes even opposing effects [21]. PDE inhibitors that prevent hydrolysis of this unstable compound provide therapeutic benefits by increasing cellular cAMP levels [21].

PDE4 Inhibitors and Roflumilast

Genetic encoding and tissue distribution classify the PDE4 enzyme into four subtypes, namely, PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4C, and PDE4D [6]. The genes encoding these subtypes also encode several different isoforms (three-eleven) within the subfamily [15,22]. Even though PDE4 are mostly abundant in inflammatory cells, airway cells, and lung tissues, they are also present throughout the body, including, but not limited to, the brain, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, skin, testis, and liver [6,15]. Evidence support that PDE4 isoform expression in lung tissue varies depending on their clinical status such as in patients with COPD and asthma compared to healthy individuals [15]. Regulation of fundamental functions is the key role of selective PDE4 inhibitors, which comprises stabilization of endothelial and epithelial barriers, modulation of the inflammatory response, and cognitive and/or mood function [22].

Roflumilast is the most extensively studied second-generation PDE4 inhibitor for respiratory diseases and is the only approved PDE4 inhibitor for respiratory pathology, i.e., COPD [6,8]. Compared to the non-selective PDE inhibitor theophylline, both roflumilast and its metabolite roflumilast-N-oxide are potent selective PDE4 inhibitors that act on inflammatory cells and the structural cells of the respiratory system involved in the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory diseases [6]. The pathophysiological basis of preventing inflammation by roflumilast has been studied extensively. Roflumilast acts on the lung macrophages inhibiting inflammatory cytokine release, eosinophils inhibiting reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and neutrophils suppressing the release of their inflammatory mediators [6]. They also act on the airway smooth muscle cells and produce an inhibitory effect on contractile activity promoting bronchodilation [6]. A synergistic effect of dexamethasone on airway smooth muscle cells, when given in combination with formoterol, a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA), was also noted [6,23]. Some other effects of roflumilast on respiratory pathologies include (1) inhibition of profibrotic growth factor (TGF-β), (2) attenuation of fibroblast chemotaxis that promotes airway and lung fibrosis, (3) activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells, (4) inhibition of release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by bronchial epithelial cells, and (5) decrease in the expression of MUC5AC (predominant mucin gene expressed in healthy airways and overexpressed in asthmatic and COPD patients) in human airway epithelial cells [6]. It also exerts favorable effects on the cigarette smoke-injured human bronchial epithelium by improving ciliary motility and increasing airway surface liquid (ASL) hydration, facilitating mucus dehydration and mucus clearance in COPD with chronic bronchitis and other suppurative airway diseases [6]. Figure 2 describes the mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors.

Despite its high potential to provide therapeutic benefit in many disease pathologies, only three PDE4 inhibitor drugs (roflumilast, crisaborole, apremilast) are currently being approved [8]. The main reasons identified for this delay in therapeutic success are the narrow therapeutic index and the intolerable adverse effect profile [8]. The most commonly observed adverse effects are nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, headache, and sleep disturbances [10]. Also, studies on the efficacy of roflumilast revealed that the maximum tolerated dose is near the bottom of the efficacy dose-response curve [8]. These have prompted current research to consider developing novel PDE4 inhibitors which enhance treatment efficacy and avoid adverse effects [7].

PDE4 Inhibitors in Asthma

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and LABA are the mainstay of maintenance therapy in asthma. Despite their therapeutic efficacy, a considerable proportion of asthmatic patients still experience recurrent symptoms [24]. The epidemiological data on uncontrolled asthma and the economic burden per each asthma patient per year, which has been calculated as USD 1,000, highlight the necessity of novel therapeutic options in asthma management [22]. Even though researchers and clinicians repeatedly expressed the possibility of using PDE inhibitors in asthma therapy due to their effective bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties, none of the PDE4 inhibitors has entered the market as asthma therapy in the past three decades [17].

Studies on roflumilast demonstrated a reduction in late asthmatic response (LAR) and prevention of subsequent increase in bronchial reactivity following an allergen challenge. But a considerable effect on the acute-phase response (bronchoconstriction) was not demonstrated [25,26]. Further studies demonstrated improvement in lung functions of asthmatic patients when combined with ICS or montelukast [27,28]. Because ICS has a flat dose-response in airway caliber to high doses, adding on drugs such as LABA or montelukast is preferred over increasing the ICS dose and add-on LABA is shown to be more effective than add-on montelukast [6]. A short-term study done by adding roflumilast 500 µg and montelukast 10 mg to ICS/LABA compared to adding only montelukast 10 mg to ICS/LABA in patients with poorly controlled asthma showed comparative improvement in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in the roflumilast group [14,27]. This potential benefit of improving lung function on FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) by adding roflumilast can be explained as attenuation of airway inflammation for ICS and/or synergistic bronchodilator effect with LABA [6]. The mechanism of PDE4 inhibitors and LABA improving the clinical efficacy of glucocorticoids in inflammatory lung diseases has been explained as an interplay between the glucocorticoid receptor and the cAMP receptor pathway [29]. However, a paucity of further clinical studies on roflumilast in asthma therapy was noted due to its comparable efficacy to ICS with the expense of numerous adverse effects [6]. Further studies done in this field have identified three main strategies as effective to overcome these barriers. They are designing potent isoform-specific inhibitors or allosteric modulators, changing the route of administration by designing inhalational preparations and combining therapy with other medications [16]. Table 4 summarizes the details of other important PDE4 inhibitors studied in asthma.

Author and year Patient characteristics Intervention Duration Out come Comment
Singh et al. (2010) [30] Atopic asthma-ICS naive Inhaled isoform-specific PDE4B (GSK 256066) 87.5 µg versus placebo Seven days Demonstrated significant protective effects on both EAR and LAR to allergen challenge. No longer in the development process due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties.
Singh et al. (2016) [31] Atopic asthma-ICS naive Inhaled CHF6001 400 µg/1,200 µg vs placebo OD via DPI Nine days Demonstrated significant attenuation of LAR to allergen challenge- Non-significant reduction in sputum eosinophil count was noted Promising results warrant further research
Leaker et al. (2014) [32] Atopic asthma-ICS naive Oral MEM1414 600 mg BID vs placebo Two weeks Demonstrated significant reduction of LAR to allergen challenge. No effect was noted on EAR Associated side effects abandoned further research
Bjermer et al. (2019) [19] Asthma Nebulized ensifentrine 0.4, 1.5, 6, and 24mg vs salbutamol 2.5 and 7.5 µg vs placebo   Demonstrated significant dose-dependent bronchodilation compared to placebo. Efficacy was comparable to the therapeutic dose of nebulized salbutamol with good tolerability. Did not show β2 agonist-associated systemic adverse effects Promising results warrant further research

GSK256066, an inhalational isoform-specific PDE4B inhibitor, has demonstrated protective effects on both early asthmatic response (EAR) and LAR to inhaled allergens [8,30]. However, further studies on this drug were prevented due to its poor chemical properties which makes it difficult to exert a good pharmacological effect [8,30]. Tanimilast (CHF6001), an inhaled selective PDE4 inhibitor that is about seven times more potent compared to roflumilast, has demonstrated significant inhibition of allergen-induced LAR in atopic asthmatics with minimal adverse effects in phase II clinical trials [5,31]. This has reached phase III clinical development in COPD patients with good tolerability, safety profile, and no evidence of class-related adverse effects [5]. Another study on Tanimilast describes that it has a greater effect on Th1 cytokines compared to corticosteroids. This suggests its potential role in the management of severe asthma [33].

Dual PDE inhibitors were developed to achieve optimal anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator action at a concentration that does not cause unwanted adverse effects [17]. Ensifentrine (RPL554) dual PDE 3/4 inhibitor has effective bronchodilator properties compared to a therapeutic dose of nebulized salbutamol and good tolerability without any β2 agonist systemic safety issues associated with salbutamol [15,19]. Promising results shown in this first RCT deemed the necessity of further research to confirm the effect of this new medication.

Novel Therapeutic Targets of PDE4 Inhibitors in Asthma

Selectively raising cAMP in the dendritic cells is a proposed novel therapeutic approach for allergic asthma. This follows the concept of focusing treatment on a specific endotype of disease (a distinct molecular mechanism) rather than the phenotype (disease characteristics independent of the mechanism) [4]. Asthma endotypes can be classified according to the predominantly involved cellular inflammatory mediators (eosinophils, neutrophils, mixed granulocytic) or type 2 helper T cell (Th2) high (allergic asthma) or non-type 2 (Th2 low) asthma [4]. Dendritic cells, which play an important role in inducing Th2 differentiation, play a key role in allergic asthma. Therefore, selectively inhibiting the PDE4 enzyme in dendritic cells will provide endotype-specific therapy for allergic asthma [4].

The importance of exploring the PDEs that were not fully investigated in the past for their ability to induce bronchodilation is another new suggestion in the research world [17,34]. Evidence supports the ability of PDE8 and PDE9 to induce bronchial smooth muscle relaxation in animals [34]. Potentially druggable targets in inhibiting these PDEs, which simultaneously interact with other PDEs, create new opportunities for future researchers and will be a more fruitful approach for improving the care of asthmatic patients [17,34].

Multiple therapy fixed-dose combination inhalers that contain dual PDE inhibitors and hybrid molecules with other bronchodilators are considered an effective therapeutic option for asthma as they can provide three to four complimentary effects together [17]. Scientists have also considered the development of hybrid molecules specifically designed to have multi-functional ligands containing two or more pharmacophores [17]. Future research focusing on these advanced methods will bring new hope for physicians caring for asthmatic patients.

PDE4 Inhibitors in Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal epithelium which occurs due to allergen exposure. About 15-38% of patients with allergic rhinitis are diagnosed with asthma, and 6-85% of patients with asthma get nasal symptoms [10]. Even though the combination of oral/intranasal antihistamines and intranasal glucocorticoids is considered the mainstay of therapy, the recently described non-Th2-mediated inflammatory pathway of AR does not respond well to the current treatment [35]. The efficacy of roflumilast in the treatment of AR was studied once and revealed that oral roflumilast was effective as an anti-allergy therapy but was associated with significant adverse effects [10]. Further research on developing topical PDE4 inhibitors acting directly on the nasal mucosa is considered an effective future approach to minimize the associated adverse effects [10,35].

PDE4 Inhibitors in Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis is a chronic suppurative respiratory disease characterized by abnormal bronchial dilatation, chronic productive cough, and recurrent infective exacerbations [21]. Chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation is a key component of pathogenesis leading to persistent bronchial dilation and lung damage [20]. Some studies have attempted to identify the potential role of PDE4 inhibitors in the management of bronchiectasis because of their possibility to modulate neutrophil function, improve mucus and ciliary function, and the bronchodilator effect [6,20]. A phase II clinical trial using roflumilast in symptomatic bronchiectasis patients demonstrated improvement in health-related quality of life measured by the COPD assessment test score and the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) but the findings were not statistically significant [20]. The first RCT done to identify the efficacy of roflumilast in bronchiectasis concluded that roflumilast did not significantly affect the rate of exacerbations or quality of life. However, there was an improvement in lung function (FEV1) compared to the placebo group [20]. Therefore, further research including long-term prospective clinical studies using more bronchiectasis patients will be helpful to fill the clinical gap identified in this group of patients.

PDE4 Inhibitors in Chronic Cough

Chronic cough, as a troublesome complaint of a significant proportion of the population, may occur due to many clinical pathologies [21]. Even though many anti-tussive medications are on the market, the limitation of effective therapeutic strategies may have contributed to its high burden [21]. The lack of mechanistic research to elucidate the cough mechanism was identified as a key issue in this field [21]. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are associated with a chronic cough in several diseases [36]. TRP ion channels modulate inflammation, smooth muscle tone, and sensory afferent activation in the airways, and they get activated by chemical stimuli, temperature changes, mechanical stress, and osmotic stress [36]. PDE inhibitors, which have anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties, also cause suppression of TRP channels [37]. Therefore, the use of PDE inhibitors in the management of chronic cough was proposed to be effective, and among them, selective PDE3, PDE4, and PDE5 inhibitors have demonstrated the most significant cough-suppressive effects [37]. Further clinical studies in this field will hopefully lead to new effective therapies for chronic cough.

PDE4 Inhibitors in Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive lethal genetic disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene [38]. CFTR anion channel regulates ion and water transport across multiple epithelia, and impairment of its function in respiratory epithelia disrupts airway innate defense mechanisms resulting in bacterial colonization, excessive inflammation, and tissue damage in the respiratory system [38,39]. In research data, roflumilast has been shown to activate CFTR ion channels in the respiratory epithelium of normal human cells [6]. The previous conclusion that PDE inhibitors are ineffective in restoring CFTR-dependent ion transport in cystic fibrosis mutated cells was challenged by a recent study that demonstrated selective PDE4 inhibitor-associated amplification in the CFTR correctors and/or CFTR potentiators [38]. The first evidence that PDE4 inhibition causes NETosis in cystic fibrosis was provided by recent in vivo and in vitro studies in CF-relevant models [40]. The pathogenic role of neutrophil-derived free DNA, which is released in the form of extracellular traps (NETs), causing impaired lung function in CF, was the target mechanism in this study, and PDE4 inhibitors demonstrated significant control of NETosis of neutrophils migrated into the lungs [40]. These recent clinical advances provide a platform for future researchers to design further studies on the effectiveness of PDE4 inhibitors in CF, which has been a troublesome clinical entity cared for by pediatricians.

Limitations

The search strategy for this systematic review was limited to four databases where only papers published in the English language in the last five years (2017-2022) were included. This study merely analyzed free full-text studies and thus may have precluded the inclusion of important studies. Therefore, a data gap within the study area is a possibility. While the number and quality of included studies were adequate, the majority of them were narrative reviews. A paucity of prospective studies that could be useful in determining the genuine relationship of PDE4 inhibitor therapy in other respiratory diseases such as CF, chronic cough, bronchiectasis, and allergic rhinitis was noted.



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AirPhysio is a breath training system designed to improve your breathing naturally.

The patented, doctor-approved device expands your airway through oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP), helping you naturally improve your breathing over time. Many pulmonologists recommend the device to people with breathing difficulties.

Does AirPhysio live up to the hype? Should you buy AirPhysio? Keep reading to discover everything you need to know about AirPhysio and how it works.

About AirPhysio

AirPhysio is a breath training device sold online through GetAirPhysio.io.

Designed and patented in Australia, the device is a doctor-recommended, pulmonologist-approved way to improve your breathing. It’s an OPEP device that expands your airway, cleansing mucus and other contaminants from your airway and making it easier to breathe.

To use AirPhysio, just hold the device to your mouth, then breathe in and out as you normally would, pushing air through the system. As you breathe, AirPhysio creates positive pressure within your airway and lungs. This positive pressure dislodges mucus, allowing you to expel it from your body.

Many people develop breathing issues due to mucus buildup. Some people have medical conditions that lead to a greater buildup of mucus. AirPhysio claims to target and support these conditions in various ways, making it easier to breathe.

AirPhysio doesn’t just dislodge mucus from your airway and lungs; the device can also improve your lung strength and conditioning. Many people feel they can take deeper, stronger breaths after using AirPhysio. By clearing mucus from your airway, expanding your lungs, and strengthening your lungs, AirPhysio can improve your breathing in multiple ways.

You can buy AirPhysio through GetAirPhysio.io, where each device is priced at around $60.

How AirPhysio Works

AirPhysio is a patented device recommended by doctors to naturally improve your breathing. We’ll get more into the science of AirPhysio below. However, here are some of the crucial ways in which the device works:

Pulmonologist Recommended: AirPhysio is recommended by pulmonologists and other doctors as a way to naturally improve your breathing. Many pulmonologists specifically recommend AirPhysio as a way to improve your breathing by dislodging mucus from your airway.

Naturally Clear Mucus from Airways: The primary goal of AirPhysio is to use pressure to clear mucus from your airways. The device creates pressure that dislodges excess mucus build-up in your lungs, opening up blocked or semi-closed airways. After the mucus is dislodged, you can naturally expel the mucus from your body. AirPhysio helps you maintain optimal hygiene in your lungs while maintaining and restoring maximum lung capacity.

Feel It Working Instantly: AirPhysio doesn’t take days or weeks of use to work. Instead, you can feel the device working instantly. Most users feel a significant difference the first time they use AirPhysio. You can notice substantial changes overnight. Your lungs become noticeably clearer, making it easier to breathe. The more you use AirPhysio, the stronger and healthier your lungs will be.

Works for Respiratory Conditions: AirPhysio is a genuine medical device – not a home remedy or tool. It’s recommended by doctors for respiratory conditions. Hundreds of pulmonologists and other medical professionals recommend using AirPhysio to help with symptoms like asthma, atelectasis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic bronchitis, and other respiratory issues.

Drug-Free, Natural, Safe, and Effective: Some doctors prescribe drugs to improve breathing. Other doctors recommend surgery or other treatments. AirPhysio works differently. It’s a natural, safe, effective, and 100% drug-free way to improve your breathing. You’re clearing your airways of mucus, allowing you to naturally improve your normal breathing habits.

Portable and Easy to Use: You can bring AirPhysio with you anywhere you go. The device is easy to use on-the-go, while traveling, or at work. Just remove AirPhysio from your pocket, blow into the device for a few seconds, then put it away. It’s that easy. It’s as discreet – if not more discreet – than asthma puffers and other treatments.

Medical-Grade Without a Prescription: AirPhysio is made from high-quality, medical-grade materials. It’s also 100% drug-free. You can buy one or more AirPhysio units online without a prescription.

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The Science Behind AirPhysio

AirPhysio dislodges mucus from your airway using oscillating positive expiratory pressure, or OPEP. You can find other OPEP machines that do a similar job. However, AirPhysio has a patented design and is recommended by pulmonologists specifically to improve breathing.

You start by holding the AirPhysio mouthpiece to your mouth. Then, breathe out. As you exhale, AirPhysio creates positive pressure in your lungs. This positive pressure forces mucus to come away from the walls of your airway, allowing you to remove the mucus from your body naturally (by swallowing or coughing). That means less mucus coating your airways and lungs – and easier breathing for you.

Breathing issues aren’t always linked to mucus in your airways. However, many breathing problems force more mucus to coat your airway. It’s a symptom of a condition. AirPhysio could help you target this symptom, clearing your airway to allow for easier breathing.

When mucus lines your airway, it makes it difficult to breathe. AirPhysio dislodges this mucus naturally: it creates pressure that forces mucus away from your airway, allowing your body to expel the mucus naturally. You get all of the benefits of a decongestant or similar drug – but without taking any medication.

As mentioned above, you can feel AirPhysio working instantly. After a few seconds of blowing through AirPhysio, you should start to notice the effects of pressure. After a few breaths in and out through the device, mucus has been dislodged from your airway.

Pulmonologists and other doctors recommend AirPhysio for various respiratory conditions. According to the official website, hundreds of doctors and pulmonologists around the world recommend AirPhysio for COPD, atelectasis, asthma, bronchiectasis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and related conditions.

4

AirPhysio’s Patented Design

AirPhysio is a patented device with a straightforward design. The device uses simple physics to create positive pressure in your lungs and airway. Because it’s patented, AirPhysio has been verified to have a unique design compared to other OPEP systems available today.

The three core components of AirPhysio include:

  1. Protective cover
  2. Steel ball
  3. Circular cone

You remove AirPhysio from the protective cover, then breathe through the mouthpiece. As you breathe, your air encounters the steel ball and circular cone. The ball and cone create air resistance, leading to positive pressure in your lungs and airway. This pressure removes mucus from your lungs and airway, helping you manage breathing conditions without drugs or surgery.

6

How OPEP Devices Work

AirPhysio is part of a family of devices known as OPEP devices. They’re also known as lung training systems or breathing trainers, among other names.

OPEP devices all work in a similar way. By definition, OPEP devices use oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) to improve your breathing. This pressure dislodges mucus and other contaminants from your airway, making it easier to breathe.

As you use AirPhysio and other OPEP devices, you may feel vibrations or pulses loosen mucus along the walls. These vibrations are the ‘oscillating’ part of the oscillating positive expiratory pressure. The oscillations force the mucus away from the walls. Normal air doesn’t oscillate as it travels through your airway. By oscillating this air, OPEP devices dislodge mucus and other contaminants.

Most OPEP devices create oscillation using a valve or similar system. Valves switch between high and low resistance, creating positive pressure within your lungs and airway.

This positive pressure works similar to a balloon. It holds your airways and lungs open – just like it would when blowing up a balloon. As your lungs and airways expand and vibrate, it dislodges mucus

Some OPEP devices let you adjust the resistance based on your comfort. As your lungs become stronger and clearer, you can increase the resistance for added effectiveness. When starting out, you may want to keep it on the lowest setting.

OPEP devices are priced between $30 and $200. You can buy them online or at any pharmacy. High-end devices use complex valves to create oscillation. Cheaper devices use physical systems – like the cone and ball within AirPhysio – to create those same oscillations.

Overall, AirPhysio claims to give you the effectiveness of a higher-end system without the high price tag. You get all of the benefits of an OPEP device without spending a fortune.

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What to Expect After Using AirPhysio: Scientific Evidence for AirPhysio

AirPhysio is a patented, award-winning device approved by doctors and pulmonologists to improve breathing. Some doctors recommend AirPhysio for specific breathing conditions. Others recommend it to anyone who wants to improve lung capacity or boost their ability to get a full breath.

The makers of AirPhysio claim that mucus clearance problems can lead to a loss of 11mL (1 shot glass) of lung function every year. For every year you go without clearing mucus from your lungs, you lose a small portion of your lung capacity. When left untreated over time, this can create serious breathing difficulties.

Mucus buildup can be a symptom of a condition. Or, it could occur naturally due to lifestyle factors or dietary reasons. As mucus builds up, it can make it harder to breathe.

Science tells us that AirPhysio and other OPEP devices can be effective for the following conditions:

  • Asthma
  • Atelectasis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • COPD
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic bronchitis

AirPhysio is also marketed to smokers and the elderly. Smokers and the elderly may have breathing issues related to mucus in their lungs.

Others have shortness of breath for other reasons. You might struggle to fill your lungs with every breath. AirPhysio could improve your lung capacity in various ways.

To understand how AirPhysio works, it helps to understand the conditions it’s designed to help. Atelectasis is a complete or partial collapse of the entire lung or a lobe of the lung. Tiny air sacs within your lung deflate and fill with alveolar fluid, leading to atelectasis. Some people develop atelectasis after surgery. Others experience atelectasis after a chest injury or a lung tumor. Atelectasis is also linked to breathing in foreign objects and cystic fibrosis, among other factors. Your doctor can diagnose atelectasis via a CT scan, thorax ultrasound, bronchoscopy, or oximetry.

Breathing issues can lead to hypoxemia. If your body isn’t getting enough oxygen, then you develop hypoxemia, which is a fancy way to say you have low blood oxygen levels. When you blood is low on oxygen, it’s difficult for your lungs to get oxygen to the air sacs, disrupting your normal breathing process. Hypoxemia can be difficult to detect, but it could create more serious symptoms. Hypoxemia is linked with cognitive issues, fatigue, general feelings of unwellness, and other symptoms.

Doctors recommend different treatments for atelectasis based on the severity of your condition. Generally, deep breathing exercises are part of any atelectasis treatment plan. Also known as incentive spirometry, deep breathing exercises can train your body to suck in more oxygen from each breath. Some doctors also recommend breath training devices – like AirPhysio and similar machines.

More severe cases of atelectasis may require surgery. Doctors may recommend a bronchoscopy, where they siphon mucus out of the airway using a flexible tube.

With AirPhysio, you could manage symptoms of atelectasis and other breathing issues by improving your body’s natural breathing. The device is recommended by doctors and hospitals worldwide for atelectasis and other breathing problems.

AirPhysio Customer Reviews

The makers of AirPhysio have sold over $1.2 million of product since launch. Most customers agree that AirPhysio works as advertised to dislodge mucus from the lungs. Some of the best endorsements of AirPhysio come from doctors and pulmonologists.

Here are some of the reviews for AirPhysio as shared on the official website:

One woman was skeptical about the benefits of AirPhysio because she had suffered from asthma serious enough to require steroids. Although steroids helped her asthma, she found AirPhysio really helped to clear her airways – all without the use of drugs.

Another woman described AirPhysio as a “miracle device” because of its effects on mucus in her lungs and airways. She claims that after using AirPhysio just once, she was coughing up junk in her lungs. She had suffered from breathing issues since a three-week bout with pneumonia, and she found that AirPhysio helped.

One registered nurse (RN) cited on the AirPhysio sales page recommends using AirPhysio for pneumonia and pleurisy following brain surgery. That RN also recommends AirPhysio to athletes who want to improve lung capacity. She has witnessed the effects of AirPhysio firsthand, and she believes it can help people improve breathing for different reasons and in different situations.

Other users report feeling short-term and long-term benefits associated with AirPhysio. Most users report feeling immediate changes after using AirPhysio for the first time. Most users also experience greater benefits after weeks of use.

Some users stop taking drugs or following treatment programs after using AirPhysio successfully. One user claims she no longer takes albuterol, uses a nebulizer, or takes any steroids to manage her breathing conditions (she has COPD and chronic bronchitis). Instead, she only uses AirPhysio.

Overall, AirPhysio has strong reviews from nurses, doctors, pulmonologists, and ordinary people. Some people use AirPhysio for specific breathing conditions, while others use AirPhysio simply to improve their lung capacity.

AirPhysio Pricing

AirPhysio is priced at $60 per unit when purchased through GetAirPhysio.io, with discounts available when ordering 3 or 5 units.

Here’s how pricing breaks down at GetAirPhysio.io:

  • 1 Unit: $59.99 + $5.99 Shipping
  • 3 Units: $119.98 + Free US Shipping
  • 5 Units: $179.97 + Free US Shipping

You can use each AirPhysio unit an unlimited number of times. It doesn’t require batteries or electronics to run. It uses physical systems to create resistance. Each AirPhysio is designed for one person to use.

3

AirPhysio Refunds

GetAirPhysio.io offers refunds on purchases within 30 days. To be eligible for a return, your item must be returned in its original packaging. You also need to provide proof of purchase (like your order number).

You can request a refund within 30 days of your original purchase date. You will receive a refund minus original shipping costs.

To initiate the refund process, email [email protected]

AirPhysio Warranty

AirPhysio is backed by a one year warranty. All purchases are protected for one year from your original purchase date against manufacturer’s defects.

Who Made AirPhysio

AirPhysio was developed by an Australian team of inventors. The product is made in Australia and created by an Australia-owned company. It’s also patented and ward winning. The team won Australia’s Start-Up Business of the Year award in 2017.

To sell AirPhysio online, the inventors partnered with a third-party ecommerce company named GiddyUp. GiddyUp operates GetAirPhysio.io. When you buy AirPhysio through GetAirPhysio.io, you’re buying directly from the original inventors and supporting the original inventors.

All customer service queries can be directed to the original inventors of AirPhysio via the following:

  • Email: [email protected]
  • Phone: 1300 723 110
  • Mailing Address: Shop 3, 47 Tweed Heads Road, Cabarita Beach, NSW 2488

Conclusion

AirPhysio is an OPEP breath training device available through GetAirPhysio.io. Priced at $60 per unit, AirPhysio dislodges mucus from your airways while strengthening your lungs, helping to naturally improve your breathing.

AirPhysio is recommended by hundreds of pulmonologists and doctors around the world as a treatment for breathing problems. The device is marketed as a way to treat and prevent respiratory complications.

AirPhysio is available for purchase today through GetAirPhysio.io.

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Vital Sign Monitors Market is Growing at a CAGR of 7.94%, Delveinsight

The Global Vital sign monitors market was valued at USD 8.19 billion in 2021, growing at a CAGR of 7.94% during the forecast period from 2022 to 2027, to reach USD 12.96 billion by 2027. The rise in demand for vital sign monitors is primarily attributed to the growing burden of the old age population across the globe, increase in the prevalence of a variety of lifestyle-associated disorders such as respiratory disorders, cardiology disorders, among others. Moreover, constant efforts of the key manufacturers for developing technologically advanced vital sign monitoring devices, and the rise in approval of the products portfolio, among others are the factors responsible for the growth of vital sign monitoring devices.

 

Vital Sign Monitors: An Overview

Vital signs monitor are the devices that measure the basic medical indicators of health such as temperature, pulse, breathing, and blood pressure. Most of these monitors can store and record thousands of pieces of information.

 

Regions Covered in the Report

 

Request for sample and discover more about the report offerings- Vital Sign Monitors Market Size

 

Recent Developmental Activities in the Vital Sign Monitors Market:

  • In November 2020, Masimo received CE marking for its Radius VSM™, a wearable, tetherless vital signs monitor, and is released in limited European markets.
  • In October 2020, Nihon Kohden launched NK-HealthProtect™ during COVID-19 in the US. NK-HealthProtect™ Patient Triage Solution is a complete kit that includes SVM-7200 Vital Signs Monitor to help evaluate patients potentially suffering from COVID-19.
  • In July 2020, Philips and BioIntelliSense entered into a strategic collaboration to enhance remote patient monitoring for at-risk patients from the hospital into the home.

 

Key Takeaway from the Vital Sign Monitors Market Report Study

  • Market size analysis for current market size (2021), and market forecast for 5 years (2022-2027)
  • The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on this market is significant. To capture and analyze suitable indicators, our experts are closely watching the Vital Sign Monitors market.
  • Top key product/services/technology developments, merger, acquisition, partnership, joint venture happened for last 3 years
  • Key companies dominating the Global Vital Sign Monitors Market.
  • Various opportunities are available for the other competitor in the Vital Sign Monitors Market space.
  • What are the top-performing segments in 2021? How these segments will perform in 2027.
  • Which are the top-performing regions and countries in the current market scenario?
  • Which are the regions and countries where companies should have concentrated on opportunities for Vital Sign Monitors market growth in the coming future?

 

Global Vital Sign Monitors Market Driver

The major factors driving the demand for vital sign monitors are the rising worldwide prevalence of various lifestyle-associated chronic disorders, the sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the increasing old age population, and recent product approvals, among others.

 

Region has the Highest Share in the Vital Sign Monitors Market

North America is expected to dominate the overall vital sign monitors market during the forecast period, 2022 to 2027. This domination is due to the growing demand for advanced technologies in remote patient monitoring devices or vital sign monitors, the increasing chronic disease in the region, and others that are driving the regional growth. Moreover, the rising prevalence of respiratory diseases, increased R&D funding, favourable reimbursement for these devices, and the presence of an advanced healthcare system are also the fuelling factors for the vital sign monitors market in the region.

 

Vital Sign Monitors Market Dynamics

Vital sign monitors are gaining momentum in recent years owing to the rising burden of the geriatric population worldwide. This is because old age people are at a higher risk of developing various chronic disorders which makes it necessary to continuously measure the performance of the vital organs. For instance, according to the statistics published in the United Nation’s World Population Ageing in the year 2020, there were approximately 727 million persons in the world who were aged 65 years or over in the same year. Also, the same highlights estimated that by the year 2050, the overall old age population worldwide will double, reaching over 1.5 billion.

 

COVID-19 Impact on Vital Sign Monitors Market

Additionally, the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic had a positive impact on the vital sign monitoring devices market. This is because of the recent expansion in the use of vital sign monitors by the FDA to enable remote patient care during COVID-19 emergencies to reduce hospital visits in order to minimize the risk of coronavirus exposure. Moreover, the pandemic also allowed the local manufacturers to launch new products for remotely measuring the patient’s body temperature, respiratory rate, and others.  For instance, in June 2020, DetelPro, an Indian-based company launched an infrared thermometer at a very nominal price.

Also, the sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised the demand for pulse oximeters. This is because a person with COVID-19 infection has to ensure that the SpO2 reading stays consistently at or above 90 to 92% which requires continuous monitoring. Moreover, to curb the spread of infection, the demand for non-contact infrared thermometers has increased considerably which ultimately leads to the segmental growth of the vital sign monitors market.

 

Vital Sign Monitors Market Segment Analysis

Vital Sign Monitors Market By Product Type (Standalone Monitoring Devices [Blood Pressure Monitoring Devices {Mercury Blood Pressure Monitors, Aneroid Blood Pressure Monitors, Automated Blood Pressure Monitors, and Others}, Pulse Oximeters {Fingertip Pulse Oximeters, Handheld Pulse Oximeters, Bench_Top Pulse Oximeters, and Wearable Pulse Oximeters}, Temperature Monitoring Devices {Digital Thermometers, Infrared Thermometers, and Others}, Others] and Combined Monitoring Devices), By End-User (Hospitals, Clinics, Homecare Settings, and Others), and By Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World).

 

Vital Sign Monitors Market is expected to dominate the North America

North America is expected to dominate the overall vital sign monitors market during the forecast period. This domination is due to the growing demand for advanced technologies in remote patient monitoring devices or vital sign monitors, the increasing chronic disease in the region, and others that are driving the regional growth. Moreover, the rising prevalence of respiratory diseases, increased R&D funding, favourable reimbursement for these devices, and the presence of an advanced healthcare system are also the fuelling factors for the vital sign monitors market in the region.

For instance, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2021 data, approximately 4.6 % of the total American population have been diagnosed with COPD, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. Also, as per the data revealed in the year 2021 by the CDC, nearly half of adults in the United States (47%, or 116 million) have hypertension.

 

Vital Sign Monitors Market Companies

Some of the key market players operating in the Vital Sign Monitors market include Masimo, Koninklijke Philips N.V., NIHON KOHDEN CORPORATION., Nonin Medical, Omron, ACCOSON, Advin Health Care, Lepu Medical Technology, TytoCare Ltd., VYAIRE, SCHILLER, SunTech Medical, Inc., Welch Allyn Inc., Medtronic, GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Contec Medical Systems Limited, Biobeat, Honsun, Rudolf Riester GmbH, Promed Technology, Infinium Medical,  and others.

 

Find more related information of the report Vital Sign Monitors Market Share

 

Table of Content

1. Vital Sign Monitors Market Report Introduction

2. Vital Sign Monitors Market Executive summary

3. Regulatory and Patent Analysis

4. Vital Sign Monitors Market Key factors analysis

5. Vital Sign Monitors Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

6. COVID-19 Impact Analysis on Vital Sign Monitors Market

7. Vital Sign Monitors Market layout

8. Vital Sign Monitors Global Company Share Analysis – Key 3-5 Companies

9. Vital Sign Monitors Company and Product Profiles

10. KOL Views

11. Project Approach

12. About DelveInsight

13. Disclaimer & Contact Us

 

About Us

DelveInsight is a Business Consulting and Market research company, providing expert business solutions for the healthcare domain and offering quintessential advisory services in the areas of R&D, Strategy Formulation, Operations, Competitive Intelligence, Competitive Landscaping, and Mergers & Acquisitions.

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Company Name: DelveInsight Business Research LLP
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Country: United States
Website: www.delveinsight.com/

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Tyler Ryan and Hima Dalal discuss lung health

LEXINGTON SC (WOLO) – If you have a lung condition, a multidisciplinary approach to pulmonary rehabilitation will be very effective for one’s wellbeing. According to CORA Health’s Hima Dalal, a pulmonary team consists of a physical therapist, occupational therapist,
dietician, caretaker, and a family member. The O.T. and P.T. will provide a customized plan to improve overall strength, endurance, breathing, muscle strength, posture, nutrition, and home life. There are also techniques that one can practice helping one’s homelife like having modified home aid devices, an E.C.P., proper ergonomics, yoga, and meditation.

A few chronic respiratory diseases are COPD, lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and chronic allergies.  Post-Covid lung damage can also affect your wellness and independent activities of daily living which
also affects your ability to do self-care, homemaking, functional mobility, and the ability to take part in a meaningful occupation for one’s lifestyle.

OT’s will not only improve a person’s ability to use their breathing muscles more effectively but improve the O2 level for something like their functional activity. But people can also be taught energy conservation, task simplification techniques, relaxation, mindfulness meditation techniques to consume less O2 and save it for meaningful activity. An O.T.’s intervention will help patients stay independent in their A.D.L. and homemaking needs and help them to live life meaningfully to work, play, and do self-care.

For any further questions please contact Hima Dalal at [email protected] or visit and like Hima Dalal Integrative Health on Facebook to experience the benefits of guided meditation.



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Bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two chronic conditions that involve damage to the lungs.

The causes and treatments for each differ. In some instances, COPD may cause bronchiectasis.

Read on to learn about the differences and similarities between bronchiectasis and COPD and how each condition is treated.

Bronchiectasis is a progressive lung condition caused by damage to bronchi (large air passages) in the lungs. With bronchiectasis, the walls of the bronchi become thickened from ongoing inflammation or infection.

People with this condition cough up large amounts of mucus, especially during flareups. Flareups of bronchiectasis are referred to as exacerbations. During an exacerbation, you will also find it harder to breathe.

Bronchi are designed to enable free breathing by letting air enter the lungs. Bronchiectasis occurs when the bronchi in the lungs become chronically inflamed and thickened. Over time, the thickening of the bronchial walls and subsequent scarring make it hard to move mucus out of the lungs. Recurring infections also become more likely.

Bronchiectasis occurs most often in people ages 75 and over. However, you can get this condition at any age. Having cystic fibrosis is a risk factor.

The underlying causes of bronchiectasis are not always known. However, this condition is often caused by other health conditions and infections that damage the lungs. These include:

People with bronchiectasis can live their usual lives, but exacerbation periods may be challenging. Diagnosis and treatment are essential for the best outcomes.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of progressive lung diseases that include chronic bronchitis and emphysema. People with COPD may have both of these conditions simultaneously.

COPD is a serious, chronic disease that progressively worsens over time. People over age 40 are at the highest risk, especially if they smoke. The use of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, is the most common cause of this condition.

COPD causes inflammation and thickening of bronchi in the lungs. It can also cause damage to lung tissue and the air sacs in the lungs. This results in difficulty breathing in oxygen, plus difficulty breathing out carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of cells that are produced during respiration.

According to the American Lung Association, COPD can cause long-term disability and early death, especially if untreated.

People with COPD may have trouble breathing every day or almost every day. Flareups with more intense symptoms can also occur. COPD symptoms worsen over time and may eventually include:

  • wheezing
  • shortness of breath after mild exertion
  • tightness in the chest
  • chronic cough that may or may not produce mucus
  • swollen legs and feet
  • extreme fatigue

Bronchiectasis and COPD are not the same condition. However, they’re both progressive lung diseases. Both conditions can make it hard to intake oxygen and release air from the lungs. Other shared symptoms include breathlessness, wheezing, and coughing.

Emphysema, a type of COPD, is different from bronchiectasis. For people with emphysema, damage occurs to the walls between air sacs in the lungs, making the walls less stretchy and less able to fill up with air. Bronchiectasis doesn’t cause damage to air sacs.

Chronic bronchitis, another type of COPD, is also different from bronchiectasis. But, because it causes inflammation and narrowing of the bronchia, COPD is sometimes confused with bronchiectasis. Symptom overlap also causes people to confuse the two.

Bronchiectasis and COPD can occur together. This is referred to as bronchiectasis-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (BCOS). Some studies indicate that people with BCOS have poorer outcomes than people with only one condition.

One study found that people with BCOS had more incidents of acute respiratory distress than people who had COPD without bronchiectasis.

Since they’re both chronic lung conditions, bronchiectasis and COPD have many symptoms in common. These include:

  • chronic cough that produces mucus
  • wheezing
  • fatigue
  • shortness of breath
  • respiratory infections

While COPD and bronchiectasis are both chronic lung diseases that can make it difficult to breathe, they’re different. Here are the main ways the two conditions are different:

Causes

The leading cause of COPD is smoking cigarettes. Exposure to secondhand or thirdhand cigarette smoke as well as exposure to pollution and poor air quality can also cause COPD.

Bronchiectasis is usually caused by other health conditions a person has.

Symptoms

There are a few different symptoms between the two.

Bronchiectasis can cause:

  • clubbing (thickened skin under toenails or fingernails)
  • hemoptysis (coughing up blood or a mucus-blood mixture)

COPD can cause:

Diagnosis

Another difference between COPD and bronchiectasis is how they’re diagnosed.

COPD is a physiologic diagnosis.

  • COPD is diagnosed based on an assessment of how your lungs actually function. COPD is diagnosed through a test called spirometry, which tests how well your lungs function by measuring airflow in and out of your lungs.

Bronchiectasis is a structural diagnosis.

  • Bronchiectasis is diagnosed based on how your airway, specifically the tubes that lead into your lungs called bronchi, appears on images from a CT scan. In people who have bronchiectasis, the bronchi are dilated and thickened, which narrows the airway.

Treatment for bronchiectasis is designed to prevent lung infections and reduce or prevent exacerbations (flareups). These treatment options include:

  • Antibiotics. Antibiotics are a common, first-line treatment. Usually, antibiotics are taken orally. If your symptoms are severe, your doctor may recommend intravenous antibiotics. These are given via injection.
  • Mucus-thinning medications. Mucus-thinning medications may help reduce and remove mucus. You usually inhale these medications through a nebulizer. For some people, a decongestant may also help prevent or reduce congestion.
  • Handheld airway clearance devices. Handheld airway clearance devices that you exhale into may also help break up mucus.
  • Chest physiotherapy (chest physical therapy). These therapeutic techniques may be used to loosen mucus from the lungs. To do chest physiotherapy, a physical therapist will use certain techniques, such as clapping on your chest. Electronic chest clappers you can use at home are also available that mimic the hand motions used by physical therapists.
  • Smoking cessation. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend ways that may help you quit smoking.

If you smoke, stopping will be an important part of COPD treatment. Smoking cessation can help slow the progression of your disease. Talk with your doctor about smoking cessation aids, so you can choose the best type for you.

Other treatment options for people with COPD may include:

Medications

Medications like inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids are commonly prescribed medications for COPD:

  • bronchodilators widen the airways and relax lung muscles, making it easier to breathe
  • corticosteroids reduce inflammation and swelling

Based on your symptoms and the severity of your disease, your doctor may prescribe a short-acting or long-acting bronchodilator for you to use. If your symptoms are severe, inhaled steroids you breathe in along with a bronchodilator may also be prescribed.

Oxygen therapy

If your blood oxygen levels are low, oxygen therapy may be used at home or in a medical setting. Oxygen therapy delivers oxygen to your respiratory system so you can breathe better. It may be delivered through a face mask or tube.

Pulmonary rehabilitation

A supervised pulmonary rehabilitation program will be recommended as part of treatment. Pulmonary rehabilitation may last for weeks or months. It’s designed to teach you COPD management skills that will help you live a healthier life. These include:

Surgery

If your disease is severe and doesn’t respond to medication, surgery may be an option. There are several types of surgery:

  • Bullectomy. A bullectomy is done to remove large bullae (air spaces) caused by destroyed air sacs in the lungs.
  • One-way endobronchial valve implantation. During one-way endobronchial valve implantation, a valve is inserted into a bronchial tube. The valve helps air leave the lung but not re-enter.
  • Lung volume reduction surgery. During lung volume reduction surgery damaged lung tissue is removed.
  • Lung transplant. In a lung transplant, a diseased lung is removed and replaced with a healthy one.

Bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two progressive lung diseases. Even though they share some symptoms, they’re not the same condition.

The main cause of COPD is smoking cigarettes. Bronchiectasis is usually caused by other health conditions. Both conditions are chronic but can be treated with medication, lifestyle changes, and other strategies.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD awareness can encourage people with symptoms to seek help earlier, improving their quality of life. It may also elevate awareness of COPD risk factors, helping decrease the prevalence of this lung condition.

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), COPD affects at least 16 million people in the United States. They suggest that many more people may have the condition but have not yet received a diagnosis or treatment.

Cigarette smoke is the most common cause of COPD. People may also develop COPD from exposure to other harmful substances, such as pollution and workplace chemicals. This means it is a preventable disease. Lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, may also slow COPD progression.

COPD awareness helps people understand the risks of smoking and chemical exposure. It may help people with symptoms to seek treatment earlier and could even improve a person’s life expectancy.

Read on to learn more about COPD awareness, including what it is and why it is important.

COPD occurs when irritants such as toxic chemicals, pollution, and cigarette smoke damage the lungs. Over time, this can cause chronic inflammation that narrows the airways and makes the lungs work less efficiently.

The condition includes two diseases: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Emphysema causes damage to the alveoli, which are air sacs where the lungs exchange gas. Chronic bronchitis can cause the airways to become inflamed and narrow.

Both conditions make the lungs work less well and can make it difficult to breathe. It is often harder to breathe when a person exerts themselves, such as during exercise or in high temperatures.

Over time, COPD can lead to respiratory failure. End stage COPD causes severe breathing problems and eventually death. A person with COPD may also have a higher risk of other health problems, such as heart disease and sudden cardiac death.

Learn more about COPD.

COPD is a very common lung disease and the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. Still, many people do not know about it or how to prevent it.

A 2019 study assessing public interest in COPD used data from Google searches between 2004 and 2018 and found that COPD was highly underrepresented relative to its prevalence and effect on global health. This study and others indicate a pressing need to raise awareness of COPD.

COPD awareness focuses on bringing greater attention to the condition and to treatment and preventive strategies for overcoming it. Over time, this could lower the rate of COPD and improve the quality of life and life expectancy of people who have it.

November is National COPD Awareness Month. During this time, people within the COPD community come together to inform and educate others about the condition.

The COPD National Action Plan is a tool that promotes education about the condition, makes public health recommendations for preventing and treating COPD, and tracks progress toward those goals over time. National programs such as Learn More and Breathe Better also help bring better visibility to all lung diseases.

Important statistics to know about COPD include the following:

  • COPD is the fourth-leading cause of death in the U.S. and the third-leading cause worldwide.
  • Approximately 75% of COPD deaths result from smoking.
  • At least 16.4 million adults in the U.S. have a diagnosis of COPD, and many more may have the condition but never get an accurate diagnosis.
  • In 2020, the CDC reported that 5% of American adults had received a diagnosis of COPD, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema throughout their lifetimes.
  • Rates of COPD are much higher among people over the age of 40 and steadily increase with advancing age.
  • Males are more likely than females to develop and die from COPD.

COPD awareness is important for many reasons. For example:

  • It can help people detect signs and symptoms of COPD earlier, encouraging them to seek treatment. Increasing access to early treatment may prolong people’s lives and increase their quality of life.
  • It may discourage people from smoking and encourage them to adopt protective strategies when working with potentially dangerous chemicals.
  • It raises awareness of the dangers of air pollution.
  • It may inspire political and public health action, such as increased funding for testing, treatment, and outreach campaigns.
  • It can help dispel myths about COPD, such as that all cases of COPD result from smoking.

COPD is a life-limiting, progressive condition that currently has no cure. It is a leading cause of death worldwide.

Despite this, a 2018 study emphasized that many people with COPD do not understand the progressive and potentially deadly nature of the diagnosis.

COPD can affect a person’s life in many ways. They may experience the following:

Treatment, including oxygen therapy, may help ease symptoms. In the end stages of the disease, palliative care may help with pain, breathing difficulties, and other symptoms.

Learn more about COPD treatment.

The COPD National Action Plan outlines a framework of action for raising awareness of COPD, lowering its impact, and promoting legislation that benefits people living with COPD.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and other federal organizations first published the plan in 2017 as a collaborative effort.

It has five core goals:

  • To empower people with COPD and their families and caregivers.
  • To improve diagnosis, prevention, management, and treatment of COPD.
  • To collect COPD data to drive improvements in care and outcomes.
  • To increase and support COPD research.
  • To take meaningful public health actions through national policy, programs, and education.

The COPD community, which involves a range of people from at risk individuals, friends and family of people with the condition, healthcare professionals, scientists, and policymakers, must come together to use the national plan. For example, some people might not understand what COPD is, so it is important for healthcare professionals to make this information accessible to all.

COPD is a chronic, progressive illness. However, a person can live a long life with COPD, especially if they get early treatment.

Awareness of COPD encourages people to understand the condition and seek treatment when needed. It may also inspire political and public health activities, such as providing additional funding for research and treatment. On an individual level, increased awareness may encourage healthy choices, such as quitting smoking.

COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide, but many people do not recognize the danger it poses. Spreading awareness may change this, steadily lowering the rate of COPD.

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Respiration provides a constant supply of oxygen to the lungs, where this gas diffuses through the alveolar-capillary membrane into the blood (external respiration).

The circulatory system then distributes the oxygenated blood to various vascular beds, where oxygen is supplied to the various tissues (internal respiration).

In addition to providing oxygenation of the blood, the lungs also serve to rid the body of carbon dioxide (CO2), a residual product of metabolism.

Carbon dioxide, carried by venous blood, diffuses into the alveoli and is subsequently exhaled into the atmosphere.

Various diseases of medical interest can lead to inadequate gas exchange and thus respiratory insufficiency, which can be ventilatory (hypercapnia) or oxygenation (hypoxaemia).

The amounts of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced each minute are determined by the extent of the patient’s metabolism.

Exercise and fever are examples of factors that increase the body’s metabolism and place greater demands on the respiratory system.

When the cardio-pulmonary reserve is limited by the presence of a pathological process, fever can represent an additional stress that can precipitate respiratory failure and thus tissue hypoxia.

STRETCHERS, LUNG VENTILATORS, EVACUATION CHAIRS: SPENCER PRODUCTS ON THE DOUBLE BOOTH AT EMERGENCY EXPO

Ventilatory failure (hypercapnia)

In ventilatory insufficiency there is inadequate ventilation between the lungs and the atmosphere which ultimately results in an inappropriate elevation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) to values above 45 mmHg (hypercapnia).

Ventilatory failure (hypercapnia) is generally considered to be

  • mild with PCO2 between 45 and 60 mmHg;
  • moderate with PCO2 between 60 and 90 mmHg;
  • severe with PCO2 above 90 mmHg.

When PCO2 exceeds 100 mmHg, coma may occur and, above 120 mmHg, death.

PCO2 is measured by haemogasanalysis.

We remind the reader that the ability to inhale requires the full efficiency of the nervous system, which must stimulate the respiratory muscles.

The contraction of the diaphragm reduces intra-thoracic pressure and causes gas to penetrate the lungs.

Minimal effort is required for this activity if the rib cage is intact, the airways pervious and the lungs distensible.

The ability to exhale, on the other hand, requires patency of the airways and lung parenchyma, which has sufficient elasticity to keep the bronchioles open until exhalation is complete.

Hypercapnia, causes and risk factors

Causes of ventilatory insufficiency include: depression of respiratory centres by pharmacological substances, brain diseases, spinal cord abnormalities, muscle diseases, rib cage abnormalities and upper and lower airway obstructions.

Upper airway obstruction can occur during acute infections and during sleep, when muscle tone is reduced.

Numerous factors can contribute to inspiratory muscle weakness and tip the balance in favour of acute ventilatory failure.

Malnutrition and electrolyte disorders can weaken the ventilatory muscles, while pulmonary hyperinflation (e.g. from pulmonary emphysema) can make the diaphragm less efficient.

Lung hyperinflation forces the diaphragm to assume an abnormally low position, which in turn leads to a mechanical disadvantage.

These problems are common in patients with acute and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema).

Pathophysiology

An acute increase in PaC02 leads to a decrease in arterial blood pH.

The combination of elevated PaC02 and acidosis can have marked effects on the organism, especially when ventilatory failure is severe.

Severe acute respiratory acidosis results in impaired cognitive function due to depression of the central nervous system.

Cerebral and peripheral vessels dilate in response to hypercapnia.

Symptoms and signs

There are few clinical signs suggestive of elevated PaCO2.

Clinical signs suggestive of ventilatory failure include:

  • headache;
  • decreased vigilance;
  • warm flushed skin;
  • hypersyphilic peripheral pulses.

These findings are, however, extremely non-specific as they appear in numerous conditions other than ventilatory failure.

Since hypoxaemia is often present in a patient with ventilatory failure, it is common to observe the simultaneous appearance of signs of inadequate peripheral oxygenation.

Hypothermia and loss of consciousness are common findings, on the other hand, when ventilatory failure is the result of an overdose of substances with a sedative pharmacological effect. Sedatives and tricyclic antidepressants often result in pupillary dilation and fixation.

Tricyclic antidepressants also increase heart rate and blood pressure.

In the case of drug overdose, respiratory sounds are often evident despite the fact that aspiration has occurred.

This is more likely with sedative and alcohol abuse (as a result of the diminished swallowing reflex) and may result in rales in the right lower lobe.

Clinical signs of diaphragmatic fatigue are an early warning finding of respiratory failure in a patient with respiratory distress.

Such signs are, in fact, strongly suggestive of the need for immediate ventilatory assistance of the patient.

Diaphragm fatigue initially causes the appearance of tachypnoea, followed by periods of respiratory alternation or paradoxical abdominal breathing.

Respiratory alternation consists of the appearance of alternating for short periods of time between breathing with the accessory muscles and with the diaphragm.

Paradoxical abdominal breathing, on the other hand, is recognised on the basis of inward movement of the abdomen with each respiratory effort.

This phenomenon is due to the flaccidity of the diaphragm causing it to pull upwards whenever the accessory muscles of respiration create negative intrathoracic pressure.

Diagnosis of ventilatory failure (hypercapnia)

Anamnesis and objective examination are obviously the first steps in diagnosis.

Measurement of blood gas values is very important in assessing patients with ventilatory failure.

The severity of ventilatory failure is indicated by the extent of the increase in paCOz.

The assessment of blood pH identifies the degree of respiratory acidosis present and suggests the urgency of treatment.

The patient requires immediate treatment if the pH falls below 7.2.

Treatment

Acute elevation of arterial PCO2 indicates that the patient is unable to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and may require ventilatory assistance.

PaCO2 does not have to exceed normal values for there to be an indication for ventilatory assistance.

For example, if the PaCO2 is 30 mmHg and then, due to respiratory muscle fatigue rises to 40 mmHg, the patient may benefit considerably from immediate intubation and mechanical ventilation.

This example therefore clearly illustrates how documenting the trend (“trending”) of arterial PaCO2 values can help in giving an indication for assisted ventilation.

Once the patient has been intubated, the set tidal volume should be 10-15 cc/Kg of ideal body weight (e.g. in obese patients a huge tidal volume is not necessary).

Current volumes below this tend to result in collapse of the more peripheral lung units (atelectasis), while current volumes above 10-15 cc/kg tend to overdistend the lungs and can cause barotrauma (pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum).

The ventilatory rate needed by the patient depends on his metabolism, although

  • adult subjects usually require 8-15 respiratory acts/minute. However, ventilation is modified in most patients to maintain PaCO2 values between 35 and 45 mmHg. An exception is the patient with cerebral oedema, in whom lower PaCO2 values may prove useful in reducing intracranial pressure
  • Another exception is patients with chronically high PaCO values in whom the aim of mechanical ventilation is to bring the pH back within normal limits and the patient’s PCO2 back to its baseline values. If the patient with chronic hypoventilation and CO2 retention is ventilated vigorously enough until a normal PCO2 is achieved, the problem of respiratory alkalosis arises in the short term and weaning the patient off mechanical ventilation in the long term.

The doctor should however determine the cause of the ventilatory failure before starting symptomatic treatment.

In the case of drug overdose, efforts should be made to identify the compound responsible, the amount of drug ingested, the length of time since ingestion and the presence or absence of traumatic injury.

Since hypoxaemia is often present in a patient with ventilatory failure, it is common to observe the simultaneous appearance of signs of inadequate peripheral oxygenation.

Hypothermia and loss of consciousness are common findings, on the other hand, when ventilatory failure is the result of an overdose of substances with a sedative pharmacological effect. Sedatives and tricyclic antidepressants often result in pupillary dilation and fixation.

Tricyclic antidepressants also increase heart rate and blood pressure.

In the case of drug overdose, respiratory sounds are often evident despite the fact that aspiration has occurred.

This is more likely with sedative and alcohol abuse (as a result of the diminished swallowing reflex) and may result in rales in the right lower lobe.

Clinical signs of diaphragmatic fatigue are an early warning finding of respiratory failure in a patient with respiratory distress.

Such signs are, in fact, strongly suggestive of the need for immediate ventilatory assistance of the patient.

Diaphragm fatigue initially causes the appearance of tachypnoea, followed by periods of respiratory alternation or paradoxical abdominal breathing.

Respiratory alternation consists of the appearance of alternating for short periods of time between breathing with the accessory muscles and with the diaphragm.

Paradoxical abdominal breathing, on the other hand, is recognised on the basis of inward movement of the abdomen with each respiratory effort.

This phenomenon is due to the flaccidity of the diaphragm causing it to pull upwards whenever the accessory muscles of respiration create negative intrathoracic pressure.

Diagnosis of ventilatory failure (hypercapnia)

Anamnesis and objective examination are obviously the first steps in diagnosis.

Measurement of blood gas values is very important in assessing patients with ventilatory failure.

The severity of ventilatory failure is indicated by the extent of the increase in paCOz.

The assessment of blood pH identifies the degree of respiratory acidosis present and suggests the urgency of treatment.

The patient requires immediate treatment if the pH falls below 7.2.

Treatment

Acute elevation of arterial PCO2 indicates that the patient is unable to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and may require ventilatory assistance.

PaCO2 does not have to exceed normal values for there to be an indication for ventilatory assistance.

For example, if the PaCO2 is 30 mmHg and then, due to respiratory muscle fatigue rises to 40 mmHg, the patient may benefit considerably from immediate intubation and mechanical ventilation.

This example therefore clearly illustrates how documenting the trend (“trending”) of arterial PaCO2 values can help in giving an indication for assisted ventilation.

Once the patient has been intubated, the set tidal volume should be 10-15 cc/Kg of ideal body weight (e.g. in obese patients a huge tidal volume is not necessary).

Current volumes below this tend to result in collapse of the more peripheral lung units (atelectasis), while current volumes above 10-15 cc/kg tend to overdistend the lungs and can cause barotrauma (pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum).

The ventilatory rate needed by the patient depends on his metabolism, although

  • adult subjects usually require 8-15 respiratory acts/minute. However, ventilation is modified in most patients to maintain PaCO2 values between 35 and 45 mmHg. An exception is the patient with cerebral oedema, in whom lower PaCO2 values may prove useful in reducing intracranial pressure
  • Another exception is patients with chronically high PaCO values in whom the aim of mechanical ventilation is to bring the pH back within normal limits and the patient’s PCO2 back to its baseline values. If the patient with chronic hypoventilation and CO2 retention is ventilated vigorously enough until a normal PCO2 is achieved, the problem of respiratory alkalosis arises in the short term and weaning the patient off mechanical ventilation in the long term.

The doctor should however determine the cause of the ventilatory failure before starting symptomatic treatment.

In the case of drug overdose, efforts should be made to identify the compound responsible, the amount of drug ingested, the length of time since ingestion and the presence or absence of traumatic injury.

General objectives in the treatment of logical drug overdose are to prevent absorption of the toxin (gastric lavage or stimulation of the vomiting reflex and use of activated charcoal), to increase excretion of the drug (dialysis) and to prevent accumulation of the toxic metabolic products (e.g. acetylcysteine is the antidote of choice for acetaminophen overdose).

Weaning the patient off mechanical ventilation can begin as soon as the cause of the respiratory failure has been corrected and the medically relevant clinical condition stabilised.

Weaning parameters help to define when weaning has a consistent probability of success.

Physicians should use several parameters to decide when to start weaning from ventilation, as any one of them alone can be confusing. In adult patients, the combination of a spontaneous tidal volume of more than 325 cc and a spontaneous respiratory rate of less than 38 acts/minute seems to be a good indicator of success in weaning.

Methods used in weaning include IMV, pressure support and the ‘T’ tube.

Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages, but each should be able to effectively wean most patients as soon as possible.

Each of the methods is based on the gradual reduction of ventilatory support under controlled conditions during close monitoring of the patient.

Finally, extubation can be performed when the swallowing reflex is intact and the endotracheal tube is no longer needed.

Weaning to IMV is carried out by reducing the number of respiratory acts per minute to an interval of a few hours, until the patient no longer requires mechanical support or demonstrates poor tolerance to weaning (e.g. 20% changes in heart rate and blood pressure).

The main disadvantage of IMV is the potential increase in respiratory work imposed on the patient during spontaneous breathing (13).

This increase in work is mainly due to the excessive resistance placed on the demand valve. More recently developed ventilators, however, attempt to correct this problem.

Pressure support helps to overcome the work imposed by the resistance of the artificial circuit by administering a predetermined positive pressure during inspiration.

Weaning with pressure support requires reducing the pressure support gradually with constant monitoring of the patient’s clinical condition.

Once the patient is able to tolerate low levels of pressure support (e.g. less than 5 cm H2O) ventilatory assistance can be discontinued.

T-tube weaning is, on the other hand, performed by suspending mechanical ventilation for a short period of time and placing the patient under a continuous flow of air at a pre-determined FiO2.

The time during which the patient is allowed to breathe spontaneously is gradually extended until signs of stress appear or the subject requires mechanical ventilatory support again.

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Clinical Review: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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Tracheal Intubation: When, How And Why To Create An Artificial Airway For The Patient

What Is Transient Tachypnoea Of The Newborn, Or Neonatal Wet Lung Syndrome?

Traumatic Pneumothorax: Symptoms, Diagnosis And Treatment

Diagnosis Of Tension Pneumothorax In The Field: Suction Or Blowing?

Pneumothorax And Pneumomediastinum: Rescuing The Patient With Pulmonary Barotrauma

ABC, ABCD And ABCDE Rule In Emergency Medicine: What The Rescuer Must Do

Multiple Rib Fracture, Flail Chest (Rib Volet) And Pneumothorax: An Overview

Internal Haemorrhage: Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Severity, Treatment

Difference Between AMBU Balloon And Breathing Ball Emergency: Advantages And Disadvantages Of Two Essential Devices

Cervical Collar In Trauma Patients In Emergency Medicine: When To Use It, Why It Is Important

KED Extrication Device For Trauma Extraction: What It Is And How To Use It

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Chest Trauma: Clinical Aspects, Therapy, Airway And Ventilatory Assistance

Source:

Medicina Online



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Bananas may be beneficial for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They are potassium-rich and contain antioxidants and fiber. Other sources of these nutrients are berries and whole grains.

COPD is a group of diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. These conditions cause a blockage to the airflow and difficulty breathing.

COPD affects millions of Americans and is the third leading cause of disease-related death in the United States.

Depending on the severity, people can make lifestyle and dietary changes to manage the condition.

This article looks at how bananas may benefit COPD and what the research says. We also discuss other fruits and foods to eat for optimal lung function. Finally, we provide general dietary tips for managing COPD.

Bananas are a healthy food containing vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The studies below demonstrate the nutritional benefits of bananas for COPD.

May improve lung function

An older study examining over 2,000 participants with COPD in a specific cohort found those who ate bananas had better lung function measures over a 3-year period. The research associated bananas with better clinical outcomes, including less emphysema, walking scores, and forced expiratory volume — how much air a person can exhale during a forced breath.

Potassium may prevent exacerbation of COPD

Bananas are a good source of potassium, which may be beneficial in COPD.

A 2020 study of 81 patients with acute exacerbations of COPD found that potassium levels are lower in these people compared to controls. The study also associated lower potassium levels with higher death rates in COPD patients.

According to a 2022 study, 16% of patients presenting to the emergency room with exacerbation of COPD have low potassium, which doctors call hypokalemia. However, the study authors did not find an association between hypokalemia and adverse outcomes in patients presenting with an acute exacerbation of COPD.

Therefore, including bananas in the diet may be helpful. One banana contains 375 milligrams of potassium, providing 8% of the Daily Value (DV) of potassium — how much a nutrient in one serving of food contributes to the recommended DV of the nutrient.

However, another 2019 study indicates high potassium levels (hyperkalemia) were only present in 6.7% of all people with COPD. Although some of these cases may be due to the medications which raised potassium levels, it may be sensible not to overeat bananas.

41% of COPD patients with hyperkalemia were taking medications that may potentially have raised potassium levels. Therefore, it may be sensible to eat bananas in moderation, as with all other foods.

People with COPD and kidney disease may need to limit their potassium intake, so it is important to check with their healthcare professional before adding high potassium foods such as bananas into their diet.

Everyone should include fruit as part of a balanced diet. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020–2025 recommends that a person eating 2,000 calories a day, consumes 2 cups of fruit.

A study from 2021 suggests that people who eat an antioxidant-rich diet have higher lung function scores. Therefore, eating fruits high in antioxidants, such as blueberries and strawberries, may help reduce symptoms.

For example, a 2020 study found that participants with COPD who ate grapefruit had better lung function than those who did not. The authors comment that the effects may be due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the fruit.

2021 research associates the following antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables with a lower risk of chronic disease:

High antioxidant-rich fruits

Some examples of fruits with a high concentration of antioxidants include:

High antioxidant-rich vegetables

Certain vegetables to include in an antioxidant-rich diet are:

A person can also speak with a dietitian to help them plan which fruits and vegetables to eat as part of their diet.

Read more about antioxidant foods.

The American Lung Association advises that the right mix of nutrients can help someone with COPD breathe easier. It explains that the metabolism of carbohydrates produces the most carbon dioxide for the amount of oxygen used. Conversely, the metabolism of fat produces the least. Therefore, for some people with COPD, eating a diet with fewer carbohydrates and more fat helps them breathe easier.

Additionally, the association has the following dietary tips:

  • choose complex carbohydrates, such as whole grain bread and pasta, fresh fruits and vegetables
  • limit simple carbohydrates such as:
    • table sugar
    • candy and cake
  • eat 25–30 grams of fiber each day by consuming food such as:
    • nuts and seeds
    • whole grains
    • legumes
    • fruits and vegetables
  • choose plant sources of fats and oils such as:
  • limit trans fats and saturated fats in:
  • stay hydrated by drinking 6–8 glasses of water per day
  • drinking water 1 hour after meals to avoid feeling too full
  • avoid consuming too much salt
  • try eating 4–6 smaller meals per day to allow the diaphragm to move more freely
  • avoid foods that cause gas or bloating

As a rich source of potassium, eating bananas may help someone avoid low potassium levels, which could exacerbate symptoms of COPD. In addition, bananas are a fiber-rich complex carbohydrate and contain several other vitamins and minerals that contribute to overall health and well-being.

Many fruits contain antioxidants with higher levels in berries and other foods such as whole grains, seeds, and nuts. Therefore, including these foods in the everyday diet could help people with COPD manage their condition.

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Thrive's short-term pulmonary rehab program leverages technology, like the OmniFlow™, for improving pulmonary endurance and respiratory function.

NAPERVILLE, Ill., June 22, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Thrive Personalized Medical Rehabilitation offers a robust short-term pulmonary rehab care program at two of its skilled nursing facilities located in Lisle and Aurora: Thrive of Lisle and Thrive of Fox Valley.

Thrive of Lisle and Thrive of Fox Valley's short-term pulmonary rehab program consists of clinical teams and technology for improving pulmonary endurance and respiratory function. Their teams of professionals have specialized skills and work closely together to develop and implement each patient's pulmonary rehab care plan. Thrive of Lisle and Thrive of Fox Valley's clinical team members include in-house physical and occupational therapists, respiratory therapist, internal medicine physician, nurse practitioner, pulmonary nurse practitioner, registered nurse (RN), psychologist and registered dietitian.

Thrive of Lisle and Thrive of Fox Valley's short-term pulmonary rehab care program treats patients facing pulmonary conditions such as COPD, asthma, emphysema, chronic Bronchitis, pneumonia, and post COVID-19 syndrome.

Thrive of Lisle and Thrive of Fox Valley's short-term pulmonary rehab program also incorporates the latest in therapy technology like the OmniFlow™ and LiteGait©. OmniFlow, developed by Accelerated Care Plus, is a breathing therapy biofeedback system that conducts exercises using visual feedback in a virtual experience. In the following video, a Thrive rehab guest demonstrates the OmniFlow: www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWpHZR9hWaE. The LiteGait is another therapy technology that helps patients with weight bearing restrictions maintain constant support while working on gait therapy exercises.

For more information on Thrive Personalized Medical Rehabilitation and their short-term pulmonary rehab care program and skilled nursing facilities near Naperville—Thrive of Lisle and Thrive of Fox Valley—visit www.ThriveAhead.com.

Media Contact:

Lisa Henderson

[email protected]

773-875-5956

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SOURCE Thrive Personalized Medical Rehabilitation



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