What Is Kazano?

Kazano (alogliptin and metformin) is an oral prescription drug used alone or together with other medications and diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Kazano is available as an oral tablet belonging to a drug class called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors/biguanides. Kazano contains two ingredients that work together to help improve blood sugar control.

Alogliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor. It works by increasing the amount of insulin in the body, which helps control blood sugar. Metformin is a biguanide. It works by decreasing the amount of glucose (sugar) that the liver makes. It also reduces the amount of sugar you absorb from food and helps the body respond better to insulin.

Kazano is available by prescription in tablet form.

Drug Facts

Generic Name: Alogliptin and metformin

Brand Name(s): Kazano

Drug Availability: Prescription

Therapeutic Classification: Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors/biguanides

Available Generically: Yes

Controlled Substance: No

Administration Route: Oral

Active Ingredient: Alogliptin and metformin

Dosage Form(s): Tablet

What Is Kazano Used For?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Kazano to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin or are already being treated with alogliptin and metformin. It can also be used as part of triple combination therapy with pioglitazone and insulin. Use Kazano along with dietary and exercise measures.

Kazano is not indicated to treat type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a life-threatening complication caused by a buildup of blood acids or ketones. DKA is more common in people with type 1 diabetes.

How to Take Kazano

If you are prescribed Kazano, read the prescription label and the information leaflet that comes with your prescription. Use Kazano exactly as directed by your healthcare provider, and do not skip doses. Do not change your dose unless your healthcare provider tells you to do so. Consult your healthcare provider if you have any questions.

Take Kazano with food to lessen stomach-related side effects. Swallow the tablet whole with water; do not chew, crush, cut, or break the tablet to take it. In addition to taking your medication as prescribed, continue to follow a diet and exercise plan. Test your blood sugar as directed by your healthcare provider. They may check your blood sugar levels and your hemoglobin A1C, a measure of blood sugar control over three months, and order blood tests to monitor how your kidneys are working.

You should also tell your healthcare provider if you are sick or plan to have surgery. In this case, they may need to change the dose of your medication.

Storage

Store this medication at room temperature, away from heat, direct light, and moisture. Keep this medication in its original labeled container and out of reach and sight of children and pets. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.

How Long Does Kazano Take to Work?

A single dose of Kazano should reach its highest levels in the body within two or three hours. It may take up to 14 days to see significant changes in blood sugar levels. At the three-month mark, the A1C test can show how blood sugar has been controlled over three months.

What Are the Side Effects of Kazano?

Like other medications, Kazano can cause side effects. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effects you experience while taking this medication.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. A healthcare provider can advise you on side effects. If you experience other effects, contact your pharmacist or prescribing healthcare provider. You may report side effects to the FDA at fda.gov/medwatch or 1-800-FDA-1088.

Common Side Effects

The most common side effects of Kazano are:

  • Cough and cold symptoms
  • Diarrhea
  • High blood pressure
  • Stomach problems, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, indigestion, discomfort, and gas
  • Appetite loss
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Low blood sugar
  • Headache
  • Back pain
  • Weakness
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Rash
  • Ovulation induction (Kazano can stimulate ovulation, which can result in an unexpected pregnancy)

Severe Side Effects

Call your healthcare provider right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

  • Hypersensitivity reaction or anaphylaxis: Symptoms can include rash, hives, swelling around the lips, tongue, and face, difficulty breathing, and require emergency medical attention. 
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome: A life-threatening skin reaction can have symptoms of red or purple rash, blistering or peeling skin, fever, burning eyes, and sore throat. Stevens-Johnson syndrome requires emergency medical attention.
  • Lactic acidosis: A life-threatening complication that requires emergency medical attention. Symptoms may include muscle pain, difficulty breathing, stomach pain, vomiting, slow heart rate, or feeling cold, dizzy, tired, lightheaded, or weak. Even if your symptoms seem mild, get emergency medical attention.
  • Liver failure: Symptoms may include nausea, upper stomach pain, appetite loss, dark urine, yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, and fatigue.
  • Heart failure: Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fast weight gain, or swelling in the legs and feet.
  • Inflammation of the pancreas: Call your healthcare provider right away if you have severe upper stomach pain that spreads to the back, nausea, vomiting, appetite loss, or fast heartbeat.
  • Low blood sugar: Your healthcare provider will instruct you on how and when to test your blood sugar and what to do in the event of low blood sugar.
  • Megaloblastic anemia: This occurs when the bone marrow produces very large blood cells that crowd out normal, healthy ones. Symptoms may include pale skin, tiredness, and appetite loss.
  • Severe joint pain
  • Bullous pemphigoid: A rare skin condition that can cause fluid-filled blisters on the
  • stomach, chest, arms, legs, groin, or armpits (or in the mouth as sores).
  • Rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown, which can cause severe kidney damage or death)

Long-Term Side Effects

While many people tolerate Kazano well, long-term or delayed side effects are possible. Some long-term side effects can be mild, such as:

  • Infection
  • Sore throat
  • Appetite loss
  • Back and joint pain

Moderate long-term side effects can include: 

  • Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency
  • Increased liver enzymes
  • Liver problems
  • Metabolic acidosis (too much acid in the body): Symptoms can include tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and fast breathing.

Severe long-term side effects may include: 

  • Lactic acidosis
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • Inflammation of the pancreas
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Liver, heart, or kidney failure
  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Pemphigus
  • Serum sickness (a reaction that can cause rash, fever, and muscle pain)

Report Side Effects

Kazano may cause other side effects. Call your healthcare provider if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your healthcare provider may send a report to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting Program or by phone (800-332-1088).

Dosage: How Much Kazano Should I Take?


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The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):

    • For type 2 diabetes:

      • Adults—At first, 1 tablet (either alogliptin 12.5 milligrams [mg] plus metformin 500 mg or alogliptin 12.5 mg plus metformin 1000 mg) 2 times a day with food. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than alogliptin 25 mg plus metformin 2000 mg per day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Modifications

You may need to use caution when taking Kazano if you are 65 years or older, especially if you have kidney problems. Healthcare providers will generally start Kazano at a lower dose, increasing slowly if needed, and monitor kidney function frequently.

Kazano is only approved in adults. It is not approved in children and adolescents under 18 years old.

People with liver problems or severe kidney problems should not take Kazano.

Kazano may stimulate ovulation, which can result in pregnancy. Discuss effective means of birth control with your healthcare provider if pregnancy is not desired. There is little data on Kazano and pregnancy or breastfeeding. If you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding, consult your healthcare provider.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Kazano, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not take two doses together.

Overdose: What Happens If I Take Too Much Kazano?

Taking too much Kazano can cause low blood sugar or lactic acidosis.

What Happens If I Overdose on Kazano?

If you think you or someone else may have overdosed on Kazano, call your healthcare provider or the Poison Control Center (800-222-1222). 

If someone collapses or stops breathing after taking Kazano, call 911 immediately.

Precautions


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It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and quick to appear, and usually occur when other health problems not related to the medicine are present and are very severe, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. Symptoms of lactic acidosis include abdominal or stomach discomfort, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fast, shallow breathing, a general feeling of discomfort, muscle pain or cramping, and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness.

If symptoms of lactic acidosis occur, you should get immediate emergency medical help.

Pancreatitis (swelling and inflammation of the pancreas) may occur while you are using this medicine. Check with your doctor right away if you have a sudden and severe stomach pain, chills, constipation, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fever, or lightheadedness.

If you are rapidly gaining weight, having shortness of breath, chest pain, extreme tiredness or weakness, irregular breathing, irregular heartbeat, or excessive swelling of the hands, wrist, ankles, or feet, check with your doctor immediately. These may be symptoms of a heart problem.

This medicine may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, or certain skin conditions (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome). These reactions can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin, fever or chills, trouble breathing or swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, mouth, or throat while you are using this medicine.

Check with your doctor right away if you have pain or tenderness in the upper stomach, pale stools, dark urine, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, or yellow eyes or skin. These could be symptoms of a serious liver problem.

This medicine may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). This is more common when this medicine is taken together with certain medicines. Low blood sugar must be treated before it causes you to pass out (unconsciousness). People feel different symptoms of low blood sugar. It is important that you learn which symptoms you usually have so you can treat it quickly. Talk to your doctor about the best way to treat low blood sugar.

Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) may occur if you do not take enough or skip a dose of your medicine, overeat or do not follow your meal plan, have a fever or infection, or do not exercise as much as usual. High blood sugar can be very serious and must be treated right away. It is important that you learn which symptoms you have in order to treat it quickly. Talk to your doctor about the best way to treat high blood sugar.

There may be a time when you need emergency help for a problem caused by your diabetes. You need to be prepared for these emergencies. It is a good idea to wear a medical identification (ID) bracelet or neck chain at all times. Also, carry an ID card in your wallet or purse that says you have diabetes with a list of all your medicines.

It is important to tell the doctor in charge that you are taking this medicine if you are going to have any medical or surgical procedures.

This medicine may cause severe and disabling joint pain. Call your doctor right away if you have severe joint pain while using this medicine.

This medicine may cause bullous pemphigoid. Tell your doctor right away if you have large, hard skin blisters while you are using this medicine.

This medicine may cause some women who do not have regular monthly periods to ovulate. This can increase the chance of pregnancy. If you are a woman of childbearing potential, you should discuss birth control options with your doctor.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

What Are Reasons I Shouldn’t Take Kazano?

Kazano is not appropriate for everyone. You should not take this medication if you are allergic to alogliptin, metformin, or any of the inactive ingredients in Kazano.

Kazano should not be used in:

  • People with liver disease or severe kidney disease (eGFR less than 30)
  • People with type 1 diabetes or DKA
  • People with metabolic acidosis or lactic acidosis
  • People who are severely dehydrated
  • Stress conditions, such as severe infections or surgery
  • People with sepsis (a life-threatening infection that occurs when the body damages its own tissues in response to an infection)
  • People with hypoxemia (low oxygen levels, due to certain heart or lung conditions)
  • Pregnancy or while breastfeeding

Kazano may be prescribed with caution in some people, only if the healthcare provider determines it is safe. This includes:

  • Older adults (aged 65 and older)
  • People with heart failure
  • People with alcohol use disorder
  • Women who do not ovulate and are of childbearing age
  • People with kidney problems
  • People who are at risk for low blood sugar or heart failure

What Other Medications May Interact With Kazano?

Before taking Kazano, tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs and vitamins or supplements. 

Alcohol can interact with Kazano, increasing the risk of low blood sugar. Talk to your healthcare provider about how much alcohol is safe to consume.

Drugs classified as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can lead to lactic acidosis if combined with Kazano. Examples of these drugs include:

When Kazano is taken with insulin or other drugs that lower blood sugar, a dosage adjustment may be required to reduce the risk of low blood sugar.

Some drugs increase blood sugar, so when combined with Kazano, you may require careful monitoring to control blood sugar levels. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Calcium channel blockers, such as Calan SR (verapamil)
  • Corticosteroids, such as prednisone
  • Dilantin (phenytoin)
  • Diuretics such as Microzide (hydrochlorothiazide) or Lasix (furosemide)
  • Estrogen
  • Isoniazid
  • Oral birth control pills
  • Phenothiazines, such as prochlorperazine or thioridazine
  • Thyroid medications

Other drug interactions may occur with Kazano. Consult your healthcare provider for a complete list of drug interactions.

What Medications Are Similar to Kazano?

Kazano contains two ingredients: alogliptin and metformin. Alogliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor. It is also available as a single-ingredient drug under the brand name Nesina.

Other DPP-4 inhibitors include:

Another drug containing alogliptin is Oseni, which includes two ingredients: alogliptin and pioglitazone.

Metformin can also be found as a single-ingredient drug under brand names, such as Glumetza and Glucophage. It is also available as an extended-release tablet (Glucophage XR).

Other oral medications available to help control blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes include:

  • Glinides, such as repaglinide and nateglinide
  • SGLT2 inhibitors, such as Farxiga (dapagliflozin), Invokana (canagliflozin), and Jardiance (empagliflozin)
  • Sulfonylureas, such as Amaryl (glimepiride), Glucotrol (glipizide), Micronase (glyburide) 
  • Thiazolidinedione, such as Actos (pioglitazone)

There are also a variety of drugs that contain more than one ingredient, like Kazano.

Some people who have type 2 diabetes use injectable medications that are not insulin but can help control blood sugar. These drugs belong to a class called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists. Some examples of GLP-1 agonists are:

There is also an oral GLP-1 agonist available called Rybelsus (semaglutide). 

In some cases, people with type 2 diabetes may also need to use injectable insulin to help control blood sugar levels. There are different types of short-acting insulin and long-acting insulin.

This list is a list of drugs also prescribed for type 2 diabetes. It is NOT a list of drugs recommended to take with Kazano. Ask your pharmacist or a healthcare provider if you have questions.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is Kazano used for?

    Kazano is an oral medication that contains two ingredients: alogliptin and metformin. It is used along with diet and exercise to control blood sugar levels in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  • How does Kazano work?

    Kazano contains two ingredients. One ingredient, alogliptin, increases the amount of insulin in the body, helping to control blood sugar. The other ingredient, metformin, decreases the amount of sugar that your liver makes. Metformin also decreases how much sugar is absorbed from food and helps the body respond better to insulin.  

  • What drugs should not be taken with Kazano?

    Kazano can interact with certain drugs and alcohol (see interactions section for details). Before taking Kazano, talk to your healthcare provider about alcohol consumption and how much is safe for you. Tell them about all of your medications, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and supplements.

  • How long does it take for Kazano to work?

    A dose of Kazano reaches its highest levels in the body within two to three hours. It may take up to two weeks to see significant changes in blood sugar levels. The healthcare provider will most likely order an A1C test about 90 days after starting Kazano to look at blood sugar control over three months.

  • What are the side effects of Kazano?

    Stomach problems, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, discomfort, gas, and indigestion are common side effects of Kazano. Other common side effects include cough and cold symptoms, appetite loss, low blood sugar, headache, back pain, weakness, UTI, rash, and a metallic taste in the mouth. Kazano can stimulate ovulation, so women of childbearing age should discuss effective birth control with their healthcare provider if pregnancy is not desired.

    There are also some serious side effects, which are not common but require medical attention. People who experience symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling around the face, lips, tongue, or throat, require emergency medical attention.

  • How do I stop taking Kazano?

    Your healthcare provider will advise you on how long to take Kazano. Do not stop taking the medication without guidance from your healthcare provider. 

How Can I Stay Healthy while Taking Kazano?

Before taking Kazano, discuss your medical history and all medication you take with your healthcare provider. Discuss alcohol use and safe amounts of alcohol consumption.

Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions on how to take Kazano. Carefully read the patient information about your prescription and talk to your healthcare team if you have any questions or concerns.

While taking Kazano, you may need to check your blood sugar. Ask your healthcare provider about the signs of low blood sugar, how to treat it, and how often you should check it. It can be helpful to prepare a diabetes kit or bag with supplies to take everywhere you go. You may want to include the following items:

  • Your blood sugar testing meter and extra supplies (e.g., strips, lancing device, lancets, alcohol wipes, batteries)
  • Emergency contact information
  • Glucagon (injection or nasal Baqsimi)
  • Low blood sugar treatments, such as glucose tablets and small juice boxes 

Wear a medical alert identification, such as a necklace or bracelet, at all times. This can alert responders that you have type 2 diabetes in the event of an emergency.

Kazano should be used along with diet and exercise to help improve blood sugar levels. Ask your healthcare provider about what diet and exercise regimen you should follow. You may want to see a registered dietician for help with dietary changes.

Medical Disclaimer

Verywell Health's drug information is meant for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a healthcare professional. Consult your healthcare provider before taking any new medication(s). IBM Watson Micromedex provides some of the drug content, as indicated on the page.

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By Connie Colbert
GCU Director of Health Services

Since 1984, the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA) has declared May to be National Asthma and Allergy Awareness Month. It is a peak season for people with asthma and allergies and a perfect time to educate patients, family, friends, co-workers and others about these diseases.

According to the AAFA, “More than 65 million Americans overall have asthma and allergies. Some people may have one or both conditions.”

How common is asthma? Here are the statistics from the AAFA:

  • About 25 million Americans have asthma (20 million adults and 5 million children).
  • About 32 million Americans have food allergies (26 million adults and 6 million children).
  • About 24 million Americans have rhinitis (hay fever) or nasal allergies (19.2 million adults and 5.2 million children).
  • Asthma rates are highest in Black adults in the United States.
  • Asthma is a leading chronic disease in children.
  • Asthma is more common in male children than female children. Around 8.4% of male children have asthma compared to 5.5% of female children.
  • Differences in asthma rates, ER visits and deaths are highly connected with structural racism, poverty, air quality, housing conditions and poor health care.

What is asthma?

Do you have a chronic cough that never seems to go away? Do you often feel short of breath after a long hike? Do you feel that every time you get a cold it goes to your chest? You could potentially have asthma.  

Asthma is a chronic condition that causes inflammation and swelling of the airways. This results in narrowing of the airways that carry air from the nose and mouth to the lungs.

The muscles around the bronchial tubes in the lungs tighten, causing the airways to become sensitive and restricted. Thicker mucus is also produced, which contributes to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs.

Symptoms of asthma may include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing, especially at night
  • Wheezing
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Impaired breathing (short, quick or noisy)

The frequency and intensity of these symptoms may vary from person to person. When these symptoms are exacerbated, it is called an asthma attack or asthma flare.

Here’s what can trigger asthma symptoms:

  • Allergens such as mold, pollen, animal dander, dust mites and cockroaches
  • Irritants such as tobacco smoke, scented products such as perfumes, and pollution
  • Intense feelings such as stress, laughter or crying because they can restrict airflow and impair normal breathing patterns
  • Additives found in food and wine, such as sulfites
  • Some have exercised-induced asthma, where the symptoms of cough and shortness of breath are brought on by exercise.

For more information on triggers, see the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.

How do I know if I have asthma?

If you suspect you (or someone in your care) has asthma, you should visit a clinician to get an accurate diagnosis. The clinician will do several tests to determine if you have asthma and to also make sure you are not mistaking asthma for something else.

You may be diagnosed with asthma if:

  • You have frequent periods of coughing, wheezing or shortness of breath.
  • You get “chest colds” that require 10 or more days of recovery.
  • You have a family history of asthma or allergies.

Asthma can range from mild to moderate to severe.

How is asthma managed?

There is no cure for asthma. However, you can do a lot to manage and control your symptoms.

There are two basic types of medications used to control asthma: short-term medications that provide quick relief during attacks and long-term medications that control asthma in general.

You also can manage your asthma by avoiding your triggers.

Avoid allergens and irritants such as smoke and pets, if you know they make your asthma worse.

Maintain a clean-living environment, with minimal dust and mold. Ask your roommate(s) to help, if applicable.

Monitor environmental changes and air quality in your area on a regular basis. You can use Enviroflash from AirNow.gov, a free online service to get air quality updates for your location via email.

Beware of alcohol-medication interactions. Drinking alcohol (for example, wine) and taking medications (such as aspirin) can trigger asthma.

If you exercise, take note if you cough or are short of breath.

Be prepared for an asthma attack. Have medications, medical contacts and emergency information readily available.

Develop an asthma action plan with the help of your medical provider. For an example, see Asthma Action Plan from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

If you have not been formally diagnosed with asthma by a health care provider but have symptoms that are suspicious for asthma, call your primary care provider to discuss as soon as possible.

 

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What Is Anoro Ellipta?

Anoro Ellipta (umeclidinium and vilanterol) is a prescription inhalation powder drug used as a long-term maintenance treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines two active medicines into one inhaler: an anticholinergic (umeclidinium) and a long-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist (LABA) (vilanterol).

Anticholinergics like umeclidinium block the action of a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, which is responsible for communication between the nerves, muscles, and organs in your body. Umeclidinium helps relax and open your airway muscles. As a LABA, vilanterol similarly relaxes the lungs, allowing the airways to open. The effects of LABA medications can last about 12 hours, depending on which inhaler you use. This provides relief from some of the classic symptoms of COPD, such as wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Anoro Ellipta does not treat intense, acute flare-ups of shortness of breath. You should use your rescue inhaler for those instances.

This medication comes in a powder formulation for oral inhalation.

Drug Facts

Generic Name: Umeclidinium and vilanterol

Brand Name(s): Anoro Ellipta

Drug Availability: Prescription

Administration Route: Inhalation

Therapeutic Classification: Respiratory agent

Available Generically: No

Controlled Substance: N/A

Active Ingredient: Umeclidinium and vilanterol

Dosage Form(s): Powder

What Is Anoro Ellipta Used For?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Anoro Ellipta for the chronic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Anoro Ellipta should not be used to:

  • Relieve acute shortness of breath (bronchospasm)
  • Treat asthma, as the use of LABAs without inhaled corticosteroids for asthma, may increase the risk of asthma-related death

How to Take Anoro Ellipta

You should always follow the directions from your healthcare provider. Do not use this medication unless you understand how to use it correctly. Ask your healthcare provider if you have any questions.

Use Anoro Ellipta as prescribed, usually one inhalation once a day. Do not stop using your medication unless told by your healthcare provider, even if you feel better. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. Do not take more than one inhalation per day.

If you happen to be using more than one inhaler, ask your healthcare provider which inhaler should you use first. Be careful not to open and close the cover without inhaling the dose, as doing so results in a lost dose.

Some tips for taking care of your inhaler include:

  • Do not take your inhaler apart, wash it, or put it in water.
  • Clean the mouthpiece with a dry tissue or cloth
  • Use independently of a spacer

When using your inhaler, remember the following:

  • Your inhaler contains 30 doses. You will hear a click each time you open the cover of the inhaler.
  • Slide the cover down to expose the mouthpiece, and you should hear a “click.” The counter will count down by one number.
  • Breathe out fully while holding the inhaler away from your mouth. 
  • Put the mouthpiece between your lips, and close your lips firmly around it.
  • Take one steady and deep breath through your mouth. Do not breathe in through your nose.
  • Remove the inhaler from your mouth and hold your breath for about five seconds (or as long as comfortable for you). 
  • Breathe out slowly and gently. Do not exhale into the inhaler.

Get a refill when you have fewer than 10 doses remaining in your inhaler. The left half of the counter shows red as a reminder to get a refill when fewer than 10 doses are remaining. After you have inhaled the last dose, the counter will show "0".

Storage

Store Anoro Ellipta at room temperature in a dry place away from moisture, heat, or sunlight. Keep out of reach of children or pets to prevent accidental consumption. Keep the unopened inhaler in the original foil tray until ready to use. Discard Anoro Ellipta six weeks after opening the foil tray or after you use all of the doses.

How Long Does Anoro Ellipta Take to Work?

Generally, Anoro Ellipta is absorbed in your body quickly. However, it will not work fast enough to treat acute shortness of breath. You will not see the effect unless you continuously use it on a daily basis.

What Are the Side Effects of Anoro Ellipta?

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. A healthcare provider can advise you on side effects. If you experience other effects, contact your healthcare provider. You may report side effects to the FDA at fda.gov/medwatch or 1-800-FDA-1088.

Common Side Effects

The most common side effects of Anoro Ellipta include:

  • Sore throat or other common cold symptoms
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Muscle pain/spasm
  • Neck pain
  • Chest tightness
  • Nose or throat irritation (respiratory infection)

Severe Side Effects

Call your healthcare provider right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction like rash, hives, or difficulty breathing
  • Worsening breathing problems
  • Change in vision, eye pain, or irritation
  • Irregular heartbeat (palpitation)
  • Change in urination
  • Chest pain
  • Tremor or anxiety

Long-Term Side Effects

Anoro Ellipta is relatively well-tolerated and the long-term side effects are rare. If left untreated, the side effects listed above can turn into long-term issues.

Report Side Effects

Anoro Ellipta may cause other side effects. Call your healthcare provider if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your healthcare provider may send a report to the FDA's MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting Program or by phone (800-332-1088).

Dosage: How Much Anoro Ellipta Should I Take?


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The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For inhalation dosage form (powder):

    • For maintenance treatment of COPD:

      • Adults—One inhalation once a day. Do not take more than one inhalation every 24 hours.
      • Children—Use is not recommended.

Modifications

If you have kidney problems, you can still use this medication and no dose adjustment is needed. However, if you have liver problems, you can still use this medication but may need to discuss it with your healthcare provider before starting.

There are limited data concerning Anoro Ellipta's use in children or while pregnant or breastfeeding. However, it is recommended to talk with your prescriber to weigh the benefits vs risks of using this medication in these circumstances.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of Anoro Ellipta, take it as soon as you remember. Do not take more than one dose per day. Take your next dose at your usual time. Do not take two doses at one time.

Overdose: What Happens If I Take Too Much Anoro Ellipta?

Some common overdose symptoms may include but are not limited to:

  • Headache
  • Chest pain
  • Fast heart rate
  • Tremor
  • Nervousness
  • Worsening shortness of breath

Do not use other medicines that contain a LABA or an anticholinergic with Anoro Ellipta for any reason. Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if any of your other medicines are LABA or anticholinergic medicines. Tell all of your health care providers about your medication history.

What Happens If I Overdose on Anoro Ellipta?

If you think you or someone else may have overdosed on Anoro Ellipta, call a healthcare provider or the Poison Control Center (800-222-1222).

If someone collapses or stops breathing after taking Anoro Ellipta, call 911 immediately.

Precautions


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It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for any unwanted effects.

Tell your doctor if you are also using any other medicine for your COPD. Your doctor may want you to use it only during a severe COPD attack. Follow your doctor's instructions on how you should take your medicine.

This medicine should not be used if you are having a severe COPD attack, or if symptoms of a COPD attack has already started. Your doctor may prescribe another medicine for you to use in case of an acute COPD attack. If the other medicine does not work as well, tell your doctor right away.

Talk with your doctor or get medical care right away if:

  • Your symptoms do not improve after using this medicine for 1 week or if they become worse.
  • Your short-acting inhaler does not seem to work as well as it used to and you need it more often than normal (eg, you use 1 whole canister of the short-acting inhaler in 8 weeks time, or you need to use 4 or more inhalations of the short-acting inhaler for 2 or more days in a row).
  • You have a big decrease in your peak flow when measured as directed by your doctor.

This medicine should not be used together with similar inhaled medicines, such as arformoterol (Brovana®), budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort®), formoterol (Foradil®, Perforomist®), indacaterol (Onbrez®), or salmeterol (Serevent®).

This medicine may increase the risk of worsening asthma, which may lead to hospitalization, intubation, and death in patients with asthma who take this medicine without an inhaled steroid medicine. Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about this.

This medicine may cause paradoxical bronchospasm, which means your breathing or wheezing will get worse. Paradoxical bronchospasm may be life-threatening. Check with your doctor right away if you have coughing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, or wheezing after using this medicine.

This medicine may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, which can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Tell your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth after using this medicine.

Check with your doctor right away if blurred vision, difficulty in reading, or any other change in vision occurs during or after treatment. Your doctor may want you to have your eyes checked by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).

This medicine may cause heart or blood vessel problems, including heart rhythm problems. Check with your doctor right away if you have chest pain or tightness, decreased urine output, dilated neck veins, extreme fatigue, irregular heartbeat, swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs, troubled breathing, or weight gain.

Hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) may occur while you are using this medicine. Check with your doctor right away if you have more than one of the following symptoms: decreased urine, dry mouth, increased thirst, loss of appetite, mood changes, muscle pain or cramps, nausea or vomiting, numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or lips, seizures, uneven heartbeat, or unusual tiredness or weakness.

This medicine may affect blood sugar levels. If you are diabetic and notice a change in the results of your blood or urine sugar tests, check with your doctor.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

What Are Reasons I Shouldn’t Take Anoro Ellipta?

Anoro Ellipta should not be used in the treatment of asthma. The use of LABA without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for asthma may increase your risk of asthma-related death. However, there is no data showing an increased risk of death in people with COPD.

Anoro Ellipta is not meant to be used to relieve acute shortness of breath. It is used for the long-term treatment of COPD to prevent worsening symptoms.

What Other Medications Interact With Anoro Ellipta?

Like many other drugs, Anoro Ellipta is broken down by a protein (enzyme) family known as CYP450. Some drugs may interfere with this housekeeping protein, changing how the drug is absorbed in the body. You might experience more side effects when your body absorbs too much of the active drug. On the other hand, you might delay the treatment effect if your body is not receiving enough of the drug.

Some interactions include:

  • CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as Norvir (ritonavir), Biaxin XL (clarithromycin), and indinavir, can increase the side effects of Anoro Ellipta.
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Marplan (isocarboxazid), and tricyclic antidepressants, including amitriptyline and Silenor (doxepin), may increase the risk of heart problems.
  • Beta-blockers, such as Coreg or Coreg CR (carvedilol) and Tenormin or Tenoretic (atenolol), may block the effects of LABAs.
  • Other anticholinergics, such as Transderm Scop (scopolamine) or Cogentin (benztropine), may increase the side effects of Anoro Ellipta.
  • Other bronchodilators, such as Performist or Foradil (formoterol), may lead to overdosage if taken with Anoro Ellipta.

If you take Anoro Ellipta, talk with your healthcare provider to understand the risks vs benefits of taking any of the other medications listed above.

What Medications Are Similar?

Anoro Ellipta is a combination inhaler with a long-acting anticholinergic and a long-acting beta-adrenergic agonist (LABA). Similar combination inhalers include:

  • Bevespi Aerosphere (glycopyrrolate and formoterol)
  • Duaklir Pressair (aclidinium and formoterol)
  • Stiolto Respimat (tiotropium and olodaterol)

These medications slightly differ in the types of devices. Your healthcare provider may prescribe you a regular inhaler or a combination inhaler for your long-term COPD management, depending on your symptoms and history of worsening symptoms that may or may not cause a hospital visit. Ask your pharmacist or a healthcare provider if you have questions.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Can I travel with Anoro Ellipta?

    There is no current TSA restriction for traveling on a plane with Anoro Ellipta. It is important to get your medication refilled before traveling.

  • Do you have to rinse your mouth after using Anoro Ellipta?

    You do not need to rinse your mouth after using Anoro Ellipta, as it doesn’t have a corticosteroid. In general, you should rinse your mouth after using an inhaled corticosteroid (e.g., fluticasone) to prevent oral fungal infections such as thrush. However, this is not a concern with Anoro Ellipta.

  • Can I use Anoro Ellipta and albuterol together?

    Anoro Ellipta is used long-term to prevent COPD worsening symptoms. If you have acute breathing symptoms caused by COPD, you should use a short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist such as albuterol (e.g., ProAir, Proventil, and Ventolin). Ask your healthcare provider how you should use your albuterol inhaler for your COPD.

  • How much does Anoro Ellipta cost if I don't have insurance?

    Anoro Ellipta is available as a brand-name drug only. If you pay cash, the cost of Anoro Ellipta may cost around $450 for one inhaler (with 60 blisters of 62.5 milligrams of umeclidinium/25 micrograms of vilanterol). However, this price can vary based on the pharmacy and location. If you are paying the full cash price, the manufacturer offers online discount coupon options.

    If you have prescription insurance, check with your insurance company for the copay cost. If the commercial insurance copay is too expensive, you may be eligible for the copay coupon card supplied by the manufacturer. However, this coupon is not valid for any government beneficiaries including those eligible for or enrolled in Medicare. Present the coupon to your pharmacist for each refill.

How Can I Stay Healthy While Taking Anoro Ellipta?

Always follow the instructions provided by a healthcare team member when using your Anoro Ellipta inhaler. Take your medication as prescribed; do not stop taking it without consulting your healthcare provider, even if you start feeling better.

Make sure to tell your healthcare provider:

  • Your medication history and if any medication changes occur
  • If you experience worsening symptoms (call 911 if your exacerbations are severe)
  • If you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding

If you have COPD, you can also make lifestyle modifications to help stay healthy and prevent the disease from worsening:

  • Exercise daily as tolerated.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Perform breathing techniques.
  • Stay up-to-date on vaccinations, such as pneumonia, flu, and COVID-19.

Medical Disclaimer

Verywell Health's drug information is meant for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a healthcare provider. Consult your healthcare provider before taking any new medication(s). IBM Watson Micromedex provides some of the drug content, as indicated on the page.

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Pursed lip breathing exercise

Pursed lip breathing is a simple fashion that consists of alleviation using your nose and expiration using your mouth with help of pursued lips. A case is advised to alleviation using their nose for a many seconds with the mouth unrestricted and also expiration slow over 5 to 7 seconds using lips maintain in a effervescing or position. This procedure did or without abdominal muscle compression

Pursed lip breathing is a fashion that helps conditions like asthma or habitual obstructive pulmonary complaint when they suffer dyspnea. Pursed lip breathing helps lower the dyspnea, and provides a fast and calm way to decelerate your speed of breathing, making breathing patterns more effective.

Source: samarpanphysioclinic.com/deep-breathing-exercise-health-benefits-types-how-to-do/

#pursedlipbreathing #breathingexercise

Pursed Lip Breathing for COPD

This is one of the most effective breathing techniques for COPD sufferers. It can help relax the airways as COPD remedies, like Trelegy Ellipta, do, and relieves the anxiety associated with shortness of breath.

Here’s how to do it:

  • Inhale for two seconds, keeping your mouth closed
  • Purse your lips as if you’re about to whistle or blow
  • Keeping your lips pursed, breathe out for four seconds

You can also use this exercise for coordinated breathing during exertion. For instance, if you’re lifting a dumbbell, start by breathing in and then breathe out when you lift the weight.

Deep Breathing Exercises for COPD

Deep breathing eliminates stale air from the lungs, so you don’t feel short of breath. Try this technique to draw in more fresh air with every breath:

  • Stand or sit with your elbows slightly behind you
  • Take a deep breath through your nose
  • Hold your breath and count to five
  • Release the air slowly and deeply through your nose

To make the most of this breathing treatment for COPD, combine it with other breathing exercises.

Diaphragmatic Breathing Techniques

This type of belly breathing strengthens one of the most important muscles for breathing – the diaphragm. It’s another excellent way to get rid of stale air.

Many COPD sufferers use their back, shoulder, and neck muscles to force air in and out of the lungs. This exercise will teach you the correct way to breathe.

Here’s how to do it:

  • Lie on your back on a flat surface with your knees bent
  • Place one hand beneath your ribs and one over your breastbone
  • Breath in through your nose, deeply and slowly
  • Tense the muscles below your ribs
  • Push in and up with your lower hand at the same time
  • Breathe out slowly through pursed lips
  • Repeat the exercise for five minutes three times daily.

You may feel tired after your first session of diaphragmatic breathing, but you can increase the number and duration of sessions as your diaphragm becomes stronger.

Breathe Easier

To get the best benefit from these breathing exercises for COPD, you should do them for ten minutes at a time, three or four times daily. After a while, they’ll become second nature.

While these exercises won’t cure your COPD, they will help you to learn techniques that make breathing easier and strengthen the muscles you need to breathe effectively.

Would you like to explore more useful health tips? Bookmark our site and check back regularly for interesting articles on a wide range of topics.

Source: insopra.com/2022/05/16/breathing-exercises-for-copd-patients/

#pursedlipbreathing #breathingexercise

Pursed-lip breathing is a common technique used to control hyperventilation and shortness of breath. When practicing this breathing technique, you allow yourself to slow your breathing pattern, making each breath deeper. With pursed-lip breathing, you bring more oxygen to your lungs which helps you relax.

2021 study found that pursed-lip breathing may alleviate shortness of breath, help you gain control over your breathing and increase your sense of relaxation. More research is needed to conclude the long-term benefits of this breathing exercise.

How to practice

The first thing to do is sit down in a comfortable, upright position and relax your shoulders. Become aware of any tight muscles around the face and release the tongue from the roof of your mouth.

1. With your eyes closed, inhale through your nose for two seconds.

2. Pout your lips as if you are going to blow a whistle.

3. Breathe out through your mouth for four to six counts.

4. Repeat for five to 10 cycles.

Source: www.cnet.com/health/relieve-stress-with-these-5-simple-breathing-exercises/

#pursedlipbreathing #breathingexercise

 

Dr Manoj Kutteri

Hypertension is a very common condition at present affecting even teenagers. It used to be considered a disease of elderly in the past. Poor lifestyle habits including wrong food, physical inactivity and sleep problems have been attributed to a higher incidence of hypertension among youngsters. Hence the treatment of hypertension also lies in correcting these factors and maintaining a healthy body and mind. So, naturally, the treatment of hypertension also lies in maintaining a healthy mind and body. While physical exercise and yoga are recommended as best form of physical exercises to tackle hypertension, meditation and breathing exercises are also given as much importance in blood pressure management. Pranayama helps to balance the energies and also to regularise the breathing. Some pranayama also helps to cool off our body. The below are some of the most important breathing exercises one can do to manage high blood pressure naturally.

Alternate Nostril Breathing or Anuloma Viloma Pranayama

This is one of the most important types of Pranayama, which has multiple benefits. This can help to calm down the nervous system by balancing sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in the body. This can also regularise the breathing pattern and streamline the working of the autonomic nervous system and hence, is used to treat blood pressure, anxiety, depression, migraine issues and for general health.

Procedure

  •         Sit in any meditative pose and keep the spine and back erect with shoulders relaxed
  •         Close the eyes and observe few deep breathings
  •         Now inhale deeply from both the nostrils
  •         Adopt the pranayama mudra and close your right nostril and exhale through left nostril
  •         With the right nostril closed, inhale deeply from left nostril for 4 counts
  •         Close left nostril and exhale out through right nostril for 6 counts
  •         Inhale again from right nostril for 4 counts
  •         Close the right nostril and exhale from the left for 6 counts.
  •         This completes one round of Nadishudhi pranayama.
  •         Continue this practice of left to right and right to left breathing for 9 rounds

Chandrabhedana Pranayama

This is one of the cooling pranayamas which is related to Chandra nadi. Moon is the symbol of coolness, so by doing this pranayam we feel some coolness in our body. Best and effective breathing process for cooling down the body.

Procedure

  •         Sit in any meditative pose and keep the spine and back erect with shoulders relaxed
  •         Close the eyes and observe few deep breathings
  •         Adopt the pranayama mudra and close the right nostril with the thumb
  •         Inhale deeply through the left nostril and close the left nostril with the ring finger
  •         Exhale completely through the right nostril for a count of 6
  •         This completes one round of Chandrabhedan Pranayama
  •         Repeat the same for 15-20 rounds for maximum benefits

Sheetali Pranayama

Sheetali pranayama is known for its calming and cooling effect. This can instantly reduce the body heat and soothe the nervous system

Procedure

  •         Sit in any meditative pose and keep the spine and back erect with shoulders relaxed
  •         Close the eyes and observe few deep breathings
  •         Inhale deeply through the mouth with a curled tongue
  •         Close the lips and exhale through the right nostril
  •         This completes one round and repeat for 10-15 counts

Bhramari Pranayama

Bhramari Pranayama is another effective breathing practice that helps to calm down the nervous system, relax the body and mind and also helps to manage stress and to induce good sleep.

Procedure

  • Sit in any meditative pose and keep the spine and back erect with shoulders relaxed
  • Close the eyes and observe few deep breathings
  • Now close your ears with the index finger and take a deep inhalation
  • While exhaling, make the humming sound of a bee which comes from your throat level
  • Repeat the same practice for three to five minutes and then meditate for a few seconds.

Medical Director & CEO, Atmantan Wellness Centre

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Dr. Kevin Lumb, MD, FRCP, is Osler’s Division Head of Respirology and has been practicing at Osler since 2010. Dr. Lumb has also been the Medical Advisor for Osler’s pulmonary function laboratories since 2019, and was the Site Chief of Medicine at Etobicoke General Hospital from 2020-2021. He completed his medical and subspecialty fellowship training at the University of Toronto.

Asthma is a common and potentially serious chronic disease caused by inflammation in the airways of the lungs. This inflammation leads to repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing. Asthma attacks can lead to hospitalization, and may even be fatal. According to Asthma Canada, asthma affects more than 1 in every 10 Canadians.

Get tested

In older children and adults, a diagnosis of asthma can be confirmed with a breathing test. If you or a loved one have asthma-like symptoms or have been prescribed an inhaler medication, ask your doctor about asthma testing.

Use it right

If you have been prescribed an inhaler, it is very important that you know how to use it properly. These medications need to get deep into your lungs to be effective. Talk to your health care provider about practicing proper inhaler technique, or visit The Lung Association for helpful videos.

Have a plan

Asthma fluctuates over time, so make a plan for when symptoms worsen. Work with your health care provider and develop a written plan. When asthma symptoms flare up, put this plan into action! To minimize worsening of episodes, there are strategies to reduce some triggers in your home. Visit Global Initiative for Asthma for tips.

Know your work environment

According to Asthma Canada, approximately 1 in 10 asthmatic adults have symptoms aggravated or caused by exposures in the workplace. Common examples include spray paint and wheat flour. Speak with your occupational health and safety team to determine if your workplace may be contributing to your symptoms.

We share our air

Air pollution can worsen asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions. Be sure to exercise outdoors regularly, but check the Air Quality Health Index and consider exercising indoors when the rating is very high. Also, please do all you can to reduce air pollution.

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Tribune News Service

Ludhiana, May 17

World Hypertension Day was observed on the premises of Hero DMC Heart Institute (HDHI) here today. The theme of World Hypertension Day - 2022 is “measure your blood pressure accurately, control it, live longer”. Among others, Dr GS Wander, Chief Cardiologist and Coordinator, HDHI, and Dr Bishav Mohan, Medical Superintendent, HDHI, present on the occasion.

People were sensitised to the risks of hypertension through presentation in the reception area of the HDHI. They were made aware of the role of good diet, exercise and meditation in maintaining the normal blood pressure and an overall good physical and mental health.

Dr GS Wander, Professor, Department of Cardiology and Chief Cardiologist, HDHI, said stress and sedentary lifestyle are main reasons why people are susceptible to develop hypertension that can lead to further life-threatening diseases as it affects vital organs like heart, kidneys and brain. He further advised people to do the needful to take care of their mental and physical health.

Dr Bishav Mohan, Professor, Department of Cardiology and Medical Superintendent, HDHI, called attention to the fact that hypertension could further lead to diseases such as stroke, heart-related problems, loss of vision, depression and anxiety. He advised people to practice meditation and breathing exercises to keep stress and anxiety at bay.

Free BP check-up was also done in the reception area of the HDHI and around 250 persons were checked for blood pressure levels. They were further advised to follow good diet and exercise for a healthy lifestyle.



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Katie Guttenberg, MD

With rising costs for gas and food, 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, global uncertainty, and the ongoing war in Ukraine, it is hardly a surprise that more than 70% of American adults report feeling stressed.

The Stress in America survey, which was conducted by the American Psychological Association in partnership with The Harris Poll, also found that a growing number of Americans report money as a source of stress, peaking at two thirds of adults in 2022, the highest reported level in 7 years.

Confronted with multiple stressors, many Americans have adopted unhealthy behaviors. More than half of Americans report weight gain, with an average of 26 pounds in the past year.

Stress affects our emotional and physical well-being. Let's examine the body's response to stress and review techniques to reduce cortisol, known as the stress hormone.

The Stress Response

In 1953, Lewis and colleagues developed the first protocol for the perioperative management of patients with adrenal insufficiency. We now have a more nuanced understanding of cortisol production and the effects of stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

A 2020 study sought to determine the best treatment modality for patients with adrenal insufficiency exposed to major stress. The authors measured cortisol production in nearly 300 participants with normal adrenal function exposed to a variety of stressors, including sepsis, major trauma, elective surgery, and the war in Afghanistan.

Serum cortisol was highest and most variable in patients with sepsis. Cortisol levels were elevated in military personnel within 4 weeks of deployment, and production appeared similar to that of surgical patients, illustrating the body's response to both emotional and physical stress.

Cortisol and the Sleep-Wake Cycle

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted our lives and our sleep. Cortisol production is closely tied to the sleep-wake cycle. Levels increase in the early morning and decrease in the evening. This pattern is often disrupted in shift workers, with a blunted response upon waking and increased cortisol production in the evening.

This may have implications for long-term health. One study found higher levels of cortisol in the hair of young shift workers compared with their day worker peers. Cortisol levels correlated with BMI. Levels were lowest in participants with a BMI < 25 and highest in participants with a BMI > 30. This highlights the important relationship between disrupted sleep at a young age, cortisol production, and obesity, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease later in life.

The Impact of Stress on Health

The Whitehall II study, a large, prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom, explores the relationship between the work environment, stress, and health. A subset of participants was selected to evaluate the relationship between stress and hypertension. Salivary cortisol was measured after participants completed stress-inducing activities. Approximately 40% of participants demonstrated a significant increase in cortisol production, highlighting variability in the stress response. Participants with a heightened stress response were more likely to develop hypertension during the 3-year follow-up period.

A separate study found that Whitehall II study participants with higher evening cortisol levels were more likely to develop diabetes.

What can your patients (and you) do to combat stress?

Get Active — Exercise Builds Resilience

Like many Americans, physicians report high rates of burnout. Many medical schools have tried to address this issue by developing curricula that teach skills to cultivate resilience, particularly among postgraduate trainees.

Exercise is key to maintaining physical and emotional well-being and has been shown to moderate the body's response to psychosocial stress. Engaging in regular exercise leads to a reduced stress response to physical activity.

Repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appears to prime the body for future stressors.

Martikainen and colleagues explored the relationship between physical activity and the stress response in healthy 8-year-old children. Children participated in the Trier Social Stress Test, which reliably induces stress with storytelling and mental arithmetic activities. Children with the highest levels of physical activity exhibited the smallest increase in salivary cortisol in response to stress. These findings appear to persist across the lifespan.

College students and older adults who participate in high levels of physical activity develop an adaptive response to stress, producing lower levels of cortisol compared with their less-active peers (Gerber et al; Pauly et al). These studies highlight the role that exercise plays in moderating the stress response and building emotional resilience.

Be Mindful — Meditation Reduces Stress

Practicing mindfulness in everyday life has been shown to reduce stress, but the effects of mindfulness on the body's physiologic response, including cortisol production, is unclear.

Most medical schools in the United States offer mindfulness-related activities, according to Barnes and colleagues. Nearly a third of schools embed these activities in their curriculum.

A 2021 study assessed the impact of two mindfulness-based interventions on heart rate and cortisol secretion. In focused-attention meditation, participants were instructed to center their attention on their breath. This activity improved concentration and reduced distraction.

In open-monitoring meditation, participants were instructed to be aware of their physical sensations and explore the impact of distracting thoughts and emotions on the body. These mindfulness-based interventions appear to have affected the body in different ways: Salivary cortisol levels decreased significantly following open-monitoring meditation, and heart rate decreased significantly following focused-attention meditation. In contrast, there was no difference in salivary cortisol levels following focused-attention meditation and no difference in heart rate following open-monitoring meditation.

Looking Ahead

In the past 70 years, we've gained a better understanding of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the impact of stress on health. How can we apply this knowledge in daily life?

A group of researchers at UCLA developed a smartwatch that can measure cortisol levels in sweat. A growing number of Americans use smartwatches to monitor their activity, sleep, and a variety of health parameters, including heart rate and function as well as oxygen saturation. Expanding these capabilities to include cortisol levels has implications for patient care and possibly for everyday life, allowing us to gain insight into our body's response to stress and learn techniques to effectively manage the stress hormone.

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  • Hypertension is called a 'silent killer' because it has few if any symptoms. 
  • Uncontrolled blood pressure can increase one's risk of stroke, heart attack and other diseases.
  • Practising yoga has been shown to help reduce high blood pressure.

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a condition a person can have for many years without any symptoms.

READ | Hypertension, the ‘silent killer’: Top tips to help you get an accurate blood pressure reading

The World Health Organization refers to hypertension as a serious medical condition. If uncontrolled, high blood pressure can increase one's risk of stroke, heart attack and other diseases.

There are more than 1.13 billion people worldwide living with hypertension. In South Africa, there is a 45% prevalence among men and 48% among women.

READ | Hypertension: A disease that affects people of all ages

Role of yoga

Professor Brian Rayner, Emeritus Professor in the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at the University of Cape Town, previously told Health24 that people should implement lifestyle changes to normalise their blood pressure levels.

Consuming a healthy diet with regular exercise can help control blood pressure. Researchers have also been studying how the ancient practice of yoga can reduce blood pressure levels.

Numerous yoga asanas (poses) allow practitioners to be conscious of their breathing, which can help control blood pressure. After a yoga class, one is left feeling relaxed and stress-free, something researchers have confirmed.

Keen to try yoga but don't know where to start? Here are some effective yoga practices that can help to keep your blood pressure under control: 

Vinyasa

Bikram Yoga

Yin Yoga

Kundalini Yoga

Hot Yoga

Ashtanga Yoga

Hatha Yoga

Iyengar Yoga

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Secretary Law and Parliamentary Affairs, Dr. Rubaba Khan Buledi on Tuesday said that more than 20 million people in Pakistan were suffering from high blood pressure while the prevalence of the disease was increasing rapidly

QUETTA, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News - 17th May, 2022 ) :Secretary Law and Parliamentary Affairs, Dr. Rubaba Khan Buledi on Tuesday said that more than 20 million people in Pakistan were suffering from high blood pressure while the prevalence of the disease was increasing rapidly.

Illness can lead to loss of life, blood pressure can lead to heart disease, cerebral vein rupture and kidney disease, which can be fatal, she expressed these views while in a message on the occasion of the World Hypertension Day.

Dr. Rubaba Khan Buledi said that the purpose of celebrating this day was to raise public awareness about the causes, symptoms, treatment and diet of blood pressure in order to prevent such diseases.

"Blood pressure is closely linked to heart disease and most patients with heart disease suffer from overweight and hypertension, so it is important to control obesity and blood pressure to minimize heart disease', she pointed.

She said that the pressure on the blood vessels during heart contraction and dilation is called "blood pressure" saying that hypertension occurs after the age of 40, but is more common in adolescents today.

Common symptoms include headache, dizziness, visual impairment, feeling tired, vomiting, nervousness and difficulty breathing, if left untreated, it can leads to heart attack, stroke and kidney failure, she noted.

She said generally, people with high blood pressure do not realize that he has this condition unless he has a medical examination due to deterioration in his health or some other disease.

Dr. Rubaba Khan Buledi said that the disease of high blood pressure adopt a simple lifestyle to avoid chicken poultry foods and make exercise a part of your daily routine.

She urged the doctors to play their due role to guide people regarding blood pressure with the aim to control it in the area.



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ROTTERDAM, Netherlands--()--Somnox today announced the U.S. launch of their science-backed sleep companion, shown to improve breathing and settle the mind for better sleep, recovery, and quality of life. Somnox is a category-carving company known for developing the first smart sleep companion to improve quality of rest via built-in sensors that detect respiratory rate and sync with the user to gradually slow the cadence of breath and empower a good night’s sleep. Somnox’s Haptic Breathing™ technology guides breath using a pneumatic system and incorporates an air-bladder, which inflates and deflates to simulate natural inhalation, exhalation and breath holding rhythms.

The proprietary, patented technology embedded in the Somnox encourages better sleep by guiding users’ breathing, thereby relieving feelings of stress and anxiety, while the Somnox App coaches and evolves with the user over time to improve overall rest and recovery. The Somnox sleep companion offers multiple options when incorporating the device into one’s sleep routine. Somnox is multi-functional and can be incorporated into many different parts of a user’s daily ritual. Some use Somnox fifteen minutes before bedtime to help calm the body and mind, while others enjoy it as a true sleep companion in bed throughout the night, in which case the proprietary technology further personalizes and improves future experience. The companion can also be utilized as part of one’s daily self-care routine, accompanying the user during breathwork, meditation, and intentional relaxation.

Boasting plush fabric and memory foam components to comprise the cushion, the Somnox sleep companion easily adapts to any sleeping style and includes enhanced sensors and algorithms to accurately measure breath and encourage sleep. The Somnox is also equipped with WiFi and Bluetooth to allow users to stream their choice of music and ambient sound for a multisensory experience. The Somnox sleep companion is light and compact at 3.75 pounds, making it easy to hold close and suitable for people who toss and turn in their sleep. It is equipped with a USB-C compatible, lithium ion battery that fuels an average of five nights on just one charge.

Somnox is coming off an impressive year in which the company has experienced significant traction and growth, including a 150% year over year increase in revenue and more than 12,000 satisfied (and well-rested) customers. In fact, Somnox users have reported 85% better sleep in the first weeks and 75% continue to use Somnox on a nightly basis two months post-purchase.

“Sleep is more than a pillar of good health, it is the foundation on which the bastions of exercise and diet are built,” said Julian Jagtenberg, CEO and co-founder, Somnox. “Compromising the bedrock of sleep lessens the efficacy of an otherwise healthy diet and lifestyle. Somnox aims to tackle the root-cause of sleep issues: feelings of stress and anxiety. The breathing guidance of Somnox helps people experience the profound power of breathwork and the benefits of quality sleep and overall calm. Sleep is a complex activity, so it's not surprising that external aids like the thousands of pillows and weighted blankets on the market haven't done much to reverse the growing sleep epidemic. We set out to create a safe, comfortable, and science-backed sleep aid that improves sleep through the power of breath and its impact on the autonomic nervous system. Somnox is proven to help people fall asleep faster by reducing feelings of stress and anxiety while also improving mood and energy levels the next day.”

When stressed, our sympathetic nervous system (the one responsible for the “fight or flight” response) becomes overactive. This causes blood pressure and heart rate to increase, which makes relaxing and sleeping more difficult. By breathing slower, the parasympathetic nervous system (which is responsible for our body’s unconscious actions) becomes activated. Blood pressure lowers, heart rate slows, and muscles relax. Somnox's breathing and sleep technique guides users to breathe slower, which has been scientifically proven to activate the body's natural relaxation response.

“Somnox understands that good sleep is all about feeling relaxed, safe and secure,” said Roy Raymann, PhD, sleep scientist, and SleepCzar founder. “The Somnox sleep companion has implemented state of the art science on the effects of breathing and sleep, inventing an intelligent product with exceptional tech to help users feel at ease and smoothly transition into sleep. Ultimately, a good night's sleep is the most effective form of preventative health care and Somnox can effectively empower optimal rest and recovery.”

Quality sleep improves nearly all aspects of life including immunity, performance, and mental health. Current sleep solutions are limited or consist of trackers that simply measure various biometrics without offering any advice on how to improve sleep. Somnox believes it is time to learn what truly works for everyone’s unique physiology and psychology, leveraging personalized biometrics. Somnox helps users sleep better by working effortlessly in the background, physically guiding the breath.

The Somnox sleep companion is made in the Netherlands, retails for $599 USD, and is now available for purchase at somnox.com/usa with free shipping, a 30-night trial with money-back guarantee, and financing options from as low as $55/month via Affirm. For more information, please visit somnox.com.

About Somnox

Somnox is on a mission to help 100 million worldwide achieve better sleep by 2030. Their patented technology provides users with a science-backed sleep companion to relieve feelings of stress and anxiety, resulting in deeper, more restful sleep. Somnox is known for inventing the world’s first technology that leverages biofeedback and breathwork to accelerate the process of falling asleep. CEO and co-founder Julian Jagtenberg conceptualized Somnox while researching sleep as a robotics engineer at the University of Technology Delft in the Netherlands. Somnox has received much acclaim for its innovative design, including the Red Dot Design award and the iF Design award. For additional information, please visit somnox.com.

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With considerable increase in hypertension or high blood pressure among a number of people across the globe, May 17 is observed as the ‘World Hypertension Day’ to spread awareness. Around 46 per cent people in the world are suffering from hypertension which is really alarming.

What is hypertension?

Hypertension occurs when the blood pressure abnormally surges to undesirable levels. It is an increased force exerted by blood against the artery walls. While normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg, high blood pressure is defined as a level greater than 130/80 mm Hg or 140/90 mm Hg as per the guidelines. 

Silent killer

Hypertension is also called ‘the silent killer’ as there are no noticeable signs of it most of the time.  There is a significant risk of brain damage, heart, kidneys, and blood vessels ailments due to hypertension. Ignoring it for a long period of time could be fatal as it leads to stroke, heart attack and kidney failure. High blood pressure should be diagnosed early and treated appropriately.

Accurate measurement

As per a survey, one in every three Indian adults above the age of 60 is being affected by high blood pressure. It is pretty vital to regularly monitor blood pressure and undergo treatment to evade the risk of serious ailments. Monitoring blood pressure is important, but measuring it in an accurate way is also crucial. Accurate measurement of high blood pressure in people gives a clear picture of the cardiovascular risk. This is also very helpful for the people with borderline blood pressure who need proper diagnosis and treatment with right kind of medication. A small error in the measurement of blood pressure has the danger to mislabel someone as having high blood pressure and hence resulting in unnecessary medication.  

Warning symptoms 

Headaches: If someone is suffering from severe headache too often, it could be a symptom of high blood pressure.

Nose bleeding: If someone’s nose is bleeding, it could be a sign of high blood pressure.

Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath is also an indication of high blood pressure.

Irregular heartbeat: Hypertension patients are often found with irregular heartbeats due to uncontrolled pressure in which blood exerts force against walls of the artery.

Chest pain: Hypertension patients often suffer from chest pain due to shortness of breath.

Accurate measurement

When you are measuring your blood pressure, the correct sized blood pressure cuff needs to be put on the bare arm. An empty bladder is advisable as a full bladder can increase readings. One should avoid talking while measuring blood pressure and the arm should be supported at the level of the heart. Consuming food, caffeine and alcohol should be avoided for 30 minutes before measuring. While monitoring blood pressure at home, minimum of three readings should be recorded and the average of the last two readings should be considered for the reading.

Lifestyle changes

There is probably no cure of hypertension. However, lifestyle changes matter a lot to keep it in check. Quality of life should be enhanced by eating a well-balanced diet and limit salt. Alcohol consumption and smoking should be totally avoided. One should do regular exercise to maintain a healthy weight and manage stress. Hypertension patients should take their medications properly and work together with their doctors to minimize the health risks.
 

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Stress is something that everyone deals with from time to time. Whether you’re stressed out at work or dealing with family issues, learning how to relax can be helpful. It has been proven that breathing exercises can relieve stress and anxiety levels and improve overall health. The key is to practice them regularly. Breathing exercises help us to cope with stressful situations and boost our self-confidence. They also improve concentration, memory retention, and even mood.

Rapid breathing can cause a quicker heart rate, dizziness, muscular tension, and other symptoms during a panic attack. These sensations may then add to increased anxiety. This thoracic (chest) breathing varies from diaphragmatic breathing, an abdominal rhythm that occurs when people are calm or asleep. Stress, especially among Americans is rising rapidly too.

This article explains how changing your breathing pattern consciously may help you regulate your stress and anxiety. 

Symptoms of a Panic Attack

The symptoms of panic attacks vary from individual to individual.  Among the most prevalent symptoms are:

  • Tension, nervousness, or dread
  • Oxygen deprivation, often known as quick breathing
  • Insomnia, or the inability to sleep
  • agitation or restlessness
  • trembling and/or sweating
  • Concerned about the past or the future

Top 10 ways to relieve stress with exercise

Inhale deeply. Now let it all out. You may have already noticed a difference in how you feel. Your breath is a wonderful tool for relieving tension and making you feel the least nervous. If you include these easy breathing exercises in your daily practice, they can make a significant impact and relieve stress and anxiety.

Before you begin, keep the following suggestions in mind:

  • Select a location for your breathing workout. It might be in your bed, on the floor of your living room, or in a comfy chair.
  • Don’t push it. This might exacerbate your tension.
  • Try to perform it once or twice a day at the same time.
  • Put on something comfy.

Diaphragmatic Breathing

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle utilized in breathing that is placed directly beneath the lungs. This is one of the best ways to relieve stress and anxiety. Diaphragmatic breathing, also known as belly breathing or abdominal breathing, develops this muscle, and this deep breathing method fills the entire lungs with air.

Here is how it’s done:

  • Place one hand on the stomach and the other on the chest.
  • Inhale for 3-5 seconds via your nose, feeling your abdomen rise as you breathe in. The hand on the chest should not move.
  • Exhale through the nose for 3-5 seconds, feeling the belly return to its natural position.
  • Continue this breathing practice for 5 minutes every day.

Coherent Breathing

The purpose of coherent breathing is to limit the breathing cycle to only five breaths per minute. This breathing pattern lowers heart rate and blood pressure, soothing the nervous system.

  • Inhale via the nose, extending the belly to a count of five.
  • Exhale to a count of 6 without halting at the peak of the inhalation.
  • Repeat at least five times to complete a full minute cycle.
  • If you find it difficult to inhale or exhale for this long, begin with a 3-count and gradually work your way up.

Victory Breath 

In Sanskrit, victory breath is called Ujjayi Breath. It’s also known as ocean breath because the sound generated by closing the throat sounds like waves smashing on the coast.

  • Sit up straight, with your spine straight and your hands in your lap.
  • Inhalation through the nose to a count of four, somewhat limiting airflow to the back of the throat on the inhale. If you execute this correctly, you will hear a sound that sounds like waves or light snoring.
  • Pause for a second at the peak of the inhale before beginning the exhale.
  • Strive to keep your throat contracted and exhale gently to a count of six. Pause for a moment before inhaling again.

Straw Breath

This technique includes breathing through a straw to relieve anxiety and fear. If you don’t have a straw, you can pursue your lips on the exhale instead.

  • Make sure you have a straw on hand for the workout.
  • Inhale softly via the nose, filling the abdomen to a count of four.
  • Take a short pause at the peak of the inhalation to insert the straw into your mouth. Alternatively, you can pucker your lips as if you have a straw in your mouth.
  • Exhale slowly and softly through the straw until you reach a count of six.
  • Pause at the bottom of your exhalation and remove the straw.
  • Do this workout for 5 minutes every day.

Box Breathing

Box breathing, sometimes known as square breathing, is a basic breathing exercise that comprises inhaling, exhaling and holding one’s breath. This approach is used by the Navy Seals to relieve tension and anxiety during warfare.

  • Inhale deeply through your nose, extending your belly to a count of four.
  • Hold the breath for a count of four at the peak of the inhale.
  • Exhale via the nostrils for a count of four before releasing the breath.
  • Hold the breath until a count of four at the bottom of the exhale.
  • Repeat 5-10 times.

The Yogic Breath

The three-part breath, also known as yogic breath, is a great grounding method that occupies the full lungs. The belly, ribs, and upper chest are referred to as the three sections of the breath.

  • Sit up straight with your spine straight.
  • Begin by laying your palm on your tummy. Slowly inhale and exhale through your nose into your abdomen, feeling it rise and fall with the breath.
  • Place your palm on your ribcage and slowly inhale and exhale through your nose into the ribcage, noting how the ribs expand with air.
  • Finally, lay your palm on your upper chest and inhale and exhale gently through your nose into the chest cavity, feeling it rise and fall with the breath.
  • Breathe into each location independently until you feel comfortable with each approach.
  • Fill up the belly first, then the ribs, and lastly the chest on the following inhalation. At the apex of the inhale, pause for a second.
  • Reverse the flow on the exhale, releasing the air first from the upper chest, then the ribcage, and finally the belly.
  • Repeat this breathing exercise 5-10 times.

Conclusion:

These are just some of the many ways you can use yoga techniques to help you relax and relieve stress and anxiety. You may find other methods more effective than others, but these should be enough to get started. Check out how Katrina Kaif battled her anxiety during the lockdown.

If you want more such insightful health & lifestyle tips delivered straight to your inbox, subscribe to the monthly Clout Newsletter and never miss an update.

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World Hypertension Day 2022: Be Aware Of Warning Symptoms And Know How To Accurately Measure Blood Pressure

World Hypertension Day: Throbbing headaches could be a sign of high blood pressure

Hypertension or high blood pressure occurs when the blood pressure abnormally rises to undesirable levels. It is the increased force exerted by blood against the walls of the artery. Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. High blood pressure is defined as a level greater than 130/80 mm Hg or 140/90 mm Hg according to various guidelines. As most of the time, there are no noticeable signs of hypertension, it is also called ‘the silent killer'. Thereby, raising a significant risk to damage the brain, heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. Ignoring blood pressure symptoms can prove to be fatal and lead to a stroke, heart attack including heart failure and kidney failure, if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately.

It is being estimated that one in every three Indian adults above the age of 60 is being affected by hypertension. This shows how vital it is to regularly monitor blood pressure to treat and evade the risk of serious illnesses. Although, monitoring blood pressure is important, but measuring it in a correct way is also crucial as accurate measurement in hypertensive people gives a clear picture of the cardiovascular risk. This is also very helpful to those who have borderline BP and are in need of a proper diagnosis and treatment with the right medication. A small error in BP measurements has the potential to mislabel someone as having high BP, resulting in unnecessary medication.   

This World Hypertension Day, take note of these warning symptoms that one should never ignore and  a few key tips to ensure accurate BP measurement.

Symptoms:

  • Headaches: Sometimes these could be triggered by lack of sleep. However, if you are suffering from a throbbing headache way too often, it could be a sign of high blood pressure.
  • Nosebleeds: If your nose bleeds not due to sinusitis, then it could be a sign that you your blood pressure is high and needs to get levels checked.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath is also an indication for hypertension.
  • Irregular heartbeat: Arrhythmia or irregular heartbeats can also occur in hypertension patients. This happens due to uncontrolled pressure at which blood exerts force against artery walls.
  • Chest pain: Due to shortness of breath in hypertension patients, in extreme cases, it could also lead to chest pain.

Tips for accurate BP measurement:

  • The correct sized BP cuff needs to be put on the bare arm
  • Having an empty bladder is advisable, a full bladder can increase BP readings
  • Patients should sit still with back support and feet on the floor 
  • Avoid talking while measuring BP readings
  • The arm should be supported at the level of the heart 
  • Avoid consuming food, caffeine, alcohol 30 minutes before measuring 
  • If monitoring blood pressure at home, minimum of three readings to be recorded and the average of the last two readings can be considered for the reading

While there is no cure, make lifestyle changes that matter. Enhance quality of life by eating a well-balanced diet, limit salt and alcohol consumption, regular exercise to maintain a healthy weight, manage stress, quit smoking, take your medications properly, and work together with your doctor. These protocols can go a long way and reduce health risks.

(Dr. Sunil Wani, Consultant, Cardiology at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai)

Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.

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“<img src=https://scientect.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Market-research-port-1

Global Analysis on Physiotherapy Instrument Market with Industry Driving Factors, Size, Share, Trends, Competitive Landscape and Forecast by 2026.

The report will help the reader completely understand the global Physiotherapy Instrument market. Therefore, we have covered aspects like products & services, future products & services, upcoming inventions & innovations, profits, and projected profits. There’s also risk analysis that will help you understand and make investments in the market. The data can also be used for competitor analysis, so you can enter the market with your own products and services based on sound data from the report. You can learn about the strategies being used by successful companies, the competitive landscape, and adapt them to enter the market or invest in the market successfully.

This market research report also has data of all the important players in the industry. From their market share in the industry, to their growth plans, important information has been compiled in the report to let you get an insightful look at the leading players operating in the industry and what their strategies are. The functioning of the leading companies in the global Physiotherapy Instrument market has a huge impact on how the market behaves. Therefore, data on these companies can also help you understand and predict how the market behaves. The competitor analysis in the report will give you a complete breakdown of all the important information you need about these top market players.

Get The Sample Report PDF with Detail TOC & List of [email protected]marketresearchport.com/request-sample/65714

Top Companies Covered:

Patterson Medical Holdings, US Physical Therapy, Kindred Healthcare, DJO Global, Concentra Operating, Enraf-Nonius, Isokinetic, BTL Industries, Select Medical, EMS Physio

In the global Physiotherapy Instrument market report, there is solid in-depth data on various segments as well. These segments give a deeper look into the products, applications and what impact they are going to have on the market. The report also looks at new products and innovation that can be real game-changers.

The Report is Segmented into The Following Types:

Market Segmentation by Product Types:
CPM, Ultrasound, Electric Stimulation, Heat Therapy, Therapeutic Exercise, Others

Market Segmentation by Applications:
Neurology, Musculoskeletal, Pediatric, Cardiovascular & Pulmonary, Others

Regions Covered in the Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market:

• The Middle East and Africa
• North America
• South America
• Europe
• Asia-Pacific
• Middle East
• Oceania
• Rest of the World

In the report, you will find statistics, facts and figures, and projections regarding the Physiotherapy Instrument market. This data has been collected, studied, and compiled by the best minds in the industry. They are highly experienced and qualified, and you can trust the authenticity of the market research report. All the facts & figures stated have been checked and re-checked for accuracy. The report also contains personal comments by industry experts which further add credibility and understanding to the report.

Browse The [email protected]www.marketresearchport.com/reports/global-physiotherapy-instrument-market-research-report-2026-industry-analysis-by-product-type-applications-k/65714

Table of Content:
1 Report Overview
1.1 Study Scope
1.2 Key Market Segments
1.3 Players Covered: Ranking by Physiotherapy Instrument Revenue
1.4 Market Analysis by Type
1.4.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size Growth Rate by Type: 2020 VS 2026
1.4.2 CPM
1.4.3 Ultrasound
1.4.4 Electric Stimulation
1.4.5 Heat Therapy
1.4.6 Therapeutic Exercise
1.4.7 Others
1.5 Market by Application
1.5.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market Share by Application: 2021-2026
1.5.2 Neurology
1.5.3 Musculoskeletal
1.5.4 Pediatric
1.5.5 Cardiovascular & Pulmonary
1.5.6 Others
1.6 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Impact Will Have a Severe Impact on Global Growth
1.6.1 Covid-19 Impact: Global GDP Growth, 2019, 2020 and 2021 Projections
1.6.2 Covid-19 Impact: Commodity Prices Indices
1.6.3 Covid-19 Impact: Global Major Government Policy
1.7 Study Objectives
1.8 Years Considered

2 Global Growth Trends
2.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market Perspective (2021-2026)
2.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Growth Trends by Regions
2.2.1 Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Regions: 2015 VS 2021 VS 2026
2.2.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Historic Market Size by Regions (2015-2020)
2.2.3 Physiotherapy Instrument Forecasted Market Size by Regions (2021-2026)

3 Market Competition by Manufacturers
3.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
3.2 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
3.3 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Average Price by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
4 Physiotherapy Instrument Production by Regions
4.1 North America
4.1.1 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.1.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in North America (2015-2020)
4.1.3 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.1.4 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.2 East Asia
4.2.1 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.2.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in East Asia (2015-2020)
4.2.3 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.2.4 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.3 Europe
4.3.1 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.3.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Europe (2015-2020)
4.3.3 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.3.4 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.4 South Asia
4.4.1 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.4.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in South Asia (2015-2020)
4.4.3 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.4.4 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.5 Southeast Asia
4.5.1 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.5.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Southeast Asia (2015-2020)
4.5.3 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.5.4 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.6 Middle East
4.6.1 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.6.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Middle East (2015-2020)
4.6.3 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.6.4 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.7 Africa
4.7.1 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.7.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Africa (2015-2020)
4.7.3 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.7.4 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.8 Oceania
4.8.1 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.8.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Oceania (2015-2020)
4.8.3 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.8.4 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.9 South America
4.9.1 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.9.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in South America (2015-2020)
4.9.3 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.9.4 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.10 Rest of the World
4.10.1 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.10.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Rest of the World (2015-2020)
4.10.3 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.10.4 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
5 Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Region
5.1 North America
5.1.1 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.1.2 United States
5.1.3 Canada
5.1.4 Mexico
5.2 East Asia
5.2.1 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.2.2 China
5.2.3 Japan
5.2.4 South Korea
5.3 Europe
5.3.1 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.3.2 Germany
5.3.3 United Kingdom
5.3.4 France
5.3.5 Italy
5.3.6 Russia
5.3.7 Spain
5.3.8 Netherlands
5.3.9 Switzerland
5.3.10 Poland
5.4 South Asia
5.4.1 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.4.2 India
5.4.3 Pakistan
5.4.4 Bangladesh
5.5 Southeast Asia
5.5.1 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.5.2 Indonesia
5.5.3 Thailand
5.5.4 Singapore
5.5.5 Malaysia
5.5.6 Philippines
5.5.7 Vietnam
5.5.8 Myanmar
5.6 Middle East
5.6.1 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.6.2 Turkey
5.6.3 Saudi Arabia
5.6.4 Iran
5.6.5 United Arab Emirates
5.6.6 Israel
5.6.7 Iraq
5.6.8 Qatar
5.6.9 Kuwait
5.6.10 Oman
5.7 Africa
5.7.1 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.7.2 Nigeria
5.7.3 South Africa
5.7.4 Egypt
5.7.5 Algeria
5.7.6 Morocco
5.8 Oceania
5.8.1 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.8.2 Australia
5.8.3 New Zealand
5.9 South America
5.9.1 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.9.2 Brazil
5.9.3 Argentina
5.9.4 Columbia
5.9.5 Chile
5.9.6 Venezuela
5.9.7 Peru
5.9.8 Puerto Rico
5.9.9 Ecuador
5.10 Rest of the World
5.10.1 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.10.2 Kazakhstan
6 Physiotherapy Instrument Sales Market by Type (2015-2026)
6.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Historic Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
6.2 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Forecasted Market Size by Type (2021-2026)
7 Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption Market by Application(2015-2026)
7.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Historic Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
7.2 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Forecasted Market Size by Application (2021-2026)

8 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Physiotherapy Instrument Business
8.1 Patterson Medical Holdings
8.1.1 Patterson Medical Holdings Company Profile
8.1.2 Patterson Medical Holdings Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.1.3 Patterson Medical Holdings Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.2 US Physical Therapy
8.2.1 US Physical Therapy Company Profile
8.2.2 US Physical Therapy Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.2.3 US Physical Therapy Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.3 Kindred Healthcare
8.3.1 Kindred Healthcare Company Profile
8.3.2 Kindred Healthcare Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.3.3 Kindred Healthcare Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.4 DJO Global
8.4.1 DJO Global Company Profile
8.4.2 DJO Global Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.4.3 DJO Global Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.5 Concentra Operating
8.5.1 Concentra Operating Company Profile
8.5.2 Concentra Operating Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.5.3 Concentra Operating Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.6 Enraf-Nonius
8.6.1 Enraf-Nonius Company Profile
8.6.2 Enraf-Nonius Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.6.3 Enraf-Nonius Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.7 Isokinetic
8.7.1 Isokinetic Company Profile
8.7.2 Isokinetic Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.7.3 Isokinetic Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.8 BTL Industries
8.8.1 BTL Industries Company Profile
8.8.2 BTL Industries Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.8.3 BTL Industries Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.9 Select Medical
8.9.1 Select Medical Company Profile
8.9.2 Select Medical Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.9.3 Select Medical Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.10 EMS Physio
8.10.1 EMS Physio Company Profile
8.10.2 EMS Physio Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.10.3 EMS Physio Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)

9 Production and Supply Forecast
9.1 Global Forecasted Production of Physiotherapy Instrument (2021-2026)
9.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Physiotherapy Instrument (2021-2026)
9.3 Global Forecasted Price of Physiotherapy Instrument (2015-2026)
9.4 Global Forecasted Production of Physiotherapy Instrument by Region (2021-2026)
9.4.1 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.2 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.3 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.4 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.5 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.6 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.7 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.8 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.9 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.10 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.5 Forecast by Type and by Application (2021-2026)
9.5.1 Global Sales Volume, Sales Revenue and Sales Price Forecast by Type (2021-2026)
9.5.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Application (2021-2026)

10 Consumption and Demand Forecast
10.1 North America Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.2 East Asia Market Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Countriy
10.4 South Asia Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.5 Southeast Asia Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.6 Middle East Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.7 Africa Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.8 Oceania Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.9 South America Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.10 Rest of the world Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country

11 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
11.1 Marketing Channel
11.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Distributors List
11.3 Physiotherapy Instrument Customers

12 Industry Trends and Growth Strategy
12.1 Market Top Trends
12.2 Market Drivers
12.3 Market Challenges
12.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
12.5 Physiotherapy Instrument Market Growth Strategy
13 Analyst’s Viewpoints/Conclusions
14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.2 Data Source
14.2 Disclaimer

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Improving physical fitness requires putting stress on your system during vigorous workouts. But the quest for peak performance often backfires—the psychophysiological distress caused by excessive exercise isn't good for you. Finding a "Goldilocks zone" where your daily workouts put enough stress on your body to improve fitness without overdoing it can be tricky.

 Chris Bergland

Chris Bergland finishing a Triple Ironman in the early 2000s.

Source: Chris Bergland

For example, when I was trying to get in shape for extreme events like the Triple Ironman (7.2-mile swim, 336-mile bike, 78.6-mile run), the risk of injury and burnout was extremely high. Monitoring fluctuations in my heart rate variability (HRV) was a way to make sure I wasn't overtraining.

The vagus nerve's ability to counteract the sympathetic nervous system's fight-or-flight stress response is reflected by higher HRV.

In addition to keeping tabs on how my nervous system responded to the previous day's stress load by using HRV, I also kept tabs on day-to-day mood changes. Through trial and error, it became clear that if I was really cranky and in a foul mood the morning after an intense training session, it meant I was on the verge of getting burned out from overtraining and needed to take it easy for a day or two.

As a retired extreme-distance athlete, I know from lived experience that doing too much exercise can be harmful to your psychological and physical well-being. Overtraining is every endurance athlete's Achilles heel. It's so easy for one's passion for sports and competition to become exercise fanaticism, which often leads to injuries or overwhelming psychological distress.

Overtraining, Low HRV, and Negative Moods Go Hand in Hand

New research (Alfonso and Capdevila, 2022) from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) in Spain gives us fresh insights into the link between HRV, overtraining, and mood states. Their peer-reviewed findings were published on March 30 in the PeerJ journal.

Carla Alfonso and Lluis Capdevila of UAB's Laboratory of Sport Psychology found that if a bike workout was very intense and put too much stress on a cyclist's body, HRV plummeted the following morning. Alfonso and Capdevila also discovered that HRV levels correlated with cyclists' moods. Low HRV was correlated with negative mood states; higher HRV was associated with better mood states.

"The objective of the research was to explore the relation among three aspects: training, heart rate variability, and mood," Alfonso said in a news release. "With this study, we aimed to know when an athlete must rest, because their system is saturated, and when an athlete can train, with more or less intensity, because their body is ready to assimilate the training load."

The main takeaway from this pilot study is that HRV and mood states seem to rise and fall in tandem. For example, if a "weekend warrior" overdoes it on Sunday, odds are that they'll be cranky or in a bad mood Monday morning. Negative mood states the day after putting too much stress on your body by overtraining correlate with lower HRV.

 Axel_Kock/Shutterstock

This illustration shows the human brain and "wandering" vagus nerve. In the 1920s, a German-born researcher named Otto Loewi discovered that electrically stimulating the vagus nerve released a parasympathetic substance that slows heartbeats and calms the nervous system. Today, we refer to this vagus substance as acetylcholine. Loewi called it "vagusstoff."

Source: Axel_Kock/Shutterstock

Heart Rate Variability Reflects the Vagus Nerve's Response to Stress

The vagus nerve secretes an inhibitory substance directly onto the heart, slowing it down. Heart rate variability measures how effectively vagus nerve activity is creating healthy fluctuations between heartbeats. Higher HRV indicates that the body has a robust ability to tolerate and recover from stress. Conversely, lower HRV means that the vagus nerve is "frazzled" and isn't effectively inhibiting the sympathetic nervous system's fight-or-flight response, which revs up heartbeats and reflects a lower stress tolerance.

Otto Loewi won a Nobel Prize in 1936 for his discovery that stimulating the vagus nerve releases an inhibitory substance that slows heartbeats and calms the nervous system.

In the 1970s, my neurosurgeon father taught me about Loewi's vagus nerve research in the context of maintaining grace under pressure. My dad knew that "vagusstoff" was released during the exhalation phase of the breathing cycle. So, he used breathing exercises to stay calm during brain surgery and on the tennis court. (See "How 'Vagusstoff' (Vagus Nerve Substance) Calms Us Down.")

When I was a young tennis player, Dad coached me to take a quick inhalation through my nose followed by a long, slow exhalation through pursed lips to calm my nerves before every serve. A recent study found that one five-minute session of deep, slow-breathing exercise (four seconds in, six seconds out) increases vagal tone and reduces anxiety. Personally, I prefer an inhale-exhale ratio of four-second inhalations followed by eight-second exhalations.

On the basis of evidence-based research and lived experience, I know that longer exhalations are an easy way to hack your vagus nerve by triggering the release of vagusstoff. But, I also understand that the calming effect of these breathing exercises tends to be short-lived.

When the sympathetic nervous system is overstimulated by too much exercise, diaphragmatic breathing is just a bandage that gives you temporary relief. Rest is the best remedy for giving your vagus nerve and parasympathetic system a chance to bounce back.

To Sum Up: Excessive Exercise Reduces Vagus Nerve Tone as Indexed by Low HRV

HRV is an indispensable tool for keeping tabs on how your vagus nerve responds to exercise-induced stress and ensuring that you don't overtrain. Low HRV indicates that the fight-or-flight mechanisms of your sympathetic nervous system are in hyperdrive and that vagal tone is weak. Conversely, higher HRV shows that vagus nerve activity is robust and that your parasympathetic nervous system is handling stress well.

The latest research (2022) on HRV and overtraining reaffirms that low HRV is a warning sign that your vagus nerve may be "frazzled" from too much psychophysiological distress. If you don't have access to an HRV monitor, experiencing negative moods the day after exercising vigorously may be a sign that you should take it easy for the next 24 hours and give your system time to recuperate.

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Summer is just around the corner and that means hot temperatures are peering around the bend too. For cyclists, that means it’s time to consider ways to manage performance and even safety when things start to heat up. One surprising thing that may help you adjust: mint.

Mint leaves contain a compound called menthol, which activates cold receptors in the mouth and airways creating a sensation of coolness. This sensation of coolness has the potential to provide an ergogenic (or performance-enhancing) aid to cyclists riding in hot temperatures.

How does mint help with performance in the heat?

In a position paper published in 2020, Sports Dietitians of Australia recommend beverages with menthol to athletes looking to perform their best in the heat. Katie Kissane, M.S., R.D., founder of Fuel 2 Run says,“based on the research, the evidence suggests that consuming mint as an energy gel or as part of a drink or sports nutrition beverage may help improve performance and can provide a cooling sensation which could be beneficial when training in the heat, as a means to improve heat tolerance.”

Researchers who published a study in the peer-reviewed journal PLoS One in 2014, investigated whether the temperature of a beverage or the flavor of the beverage had effects on performance in the heat. Twelve trained male cyclists/triathletes performed six 20-kilometer time trials in a tropical environment (87 degrees Fahrenheit and 78 percent humidity). Before and during each time trial, the participants drank either an ice slushy with menthol, an ice slushy without menthol, just below room temperature water with menthol, or just below room temperature water without menthol.

Researchers found that the participants performed best with an ice slushy with menthol, and that an ice slushy without menthol was better than the beverage served at neutral temperature with menthol. They attributed these positive effects to the cooling sensation of menthol and cold beverages.

Interestingly, there were no differences in heart rate or core temperature between the neutral temperature or cold beverage tests. This shows that the sensory effect of the menthol and cold temperature may be what enhances performance, rather than the cold beverage actually cooling down the body. So while menthol and mint-flavored foods and sports nutrition products may not be doing anything physiologically to improve performance, the sensation of feeling cool may be enough to keep you riding strong.

Drinking cold beverages that contain menthol during a ride or even swishing around a minty beverage may improve performance by reducing perceived exertion, making rides feel easier while maintaining the same effort. The proposed mechanisms of action for menthol beverages on performance include improved feeling of thermal comfort, reduced restriction of breathing during exercise (athletes have an easier time breathing during high exertion), and stimulating mental alertness. Studies show the use of commercially available products, such as sports drinks, to be effective for improving performance in the heat.

Are there any downsides to drinking mint beverages during a ride?

Before you go and try to make your own menthol beverage, know that there is a risk of ingesting too much menthol at one time. Side effects can include burning, irritation, and pain in the mouth and esophagus. Menthol has been shown to cause fatality in large quantities, exceeding 50 milligrams per kilogram body weight. For this reason, The Sports Dietitians of Australia recommend using commercially available products rather than trying to make your own menthol beverage.

While the argument for drinking a cold beverage with menthol to enhance performance exists, that doesn’t mean it is recommended for every athlete in every scenario. The studies conducted which investigate mint’s effect on performance generally have small sample sizes, are short term, and are not compared to sports drinks with other flavors. (Also, one study published in October 2021 in European Journal of Sport Science, found that menthol actually did not improve time to exhaustion—though this study didn’t focus on menthol being used in the heat, specifically.)

One main concern with mint-flavored sports drinks is that athletes may not enjoy the flavor and therefore won’t take in the fuel or hydration they need to perform.

At the end of the day, taking in fluid, electrolytes, and carbohydrates is the main priority for all endurance exercise over 60 minutes. But as long as you don’t go overboard on consumption, there’s no harm in trying a minty beverage during a ride and seeing if you enjoy it enough to get the fuel you need, as well as gain the cooling benefits.

Anything I should know before trying a mint beverage during a ride?

When shopping for menthol/mint beverages to drink during rides, just make sure the product has those electrolytes (and some carbohydrates if you’re riding for over an hour).

The positive effects of menthol do not negate the need for replacing electrolytes lost from sweat during hot rides. Products such as Just Water Infused mint flavor may be enjoyable before or after rides, but will not be as effective for meeting hydration needs as something like Cocoa Elite’s Elite Endurance sports drink, which contains 36 grams of carbohydrate per serving and 500 milligrams of sodium, or NOOMA Organic Sports Drink, which sells a chocolate mint-flavored beverage, and contains electrolytes and some carbohydrates (7 grams) to keep you fueled on your ride.

To maximize the benefits of the cooling effects of menthol, drink 8 ounces of the menthol beverage at a cold temperature every 15 to 20 minutes during a ride. Another smart tip: Make menthol beverage ice cubes, so when you’re out on a hot ride, they melt into the rest of the drink in your bottle.

Kissane says she might not recommend minty drinks for all cyclists, “but for athletes who have a hard time training in the heat and enjoy the flavor of mint, it would definitely be worth experimenting with on a ride.”

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Lifelong runner and licensed psychologist Holly Serrao-Fitzsimmons, Ph.D., knew something was wrong after the birth of two premature sons, in 2012 and 2015. She was experiencing something she was trained to diagnose: post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD.

When her first son was born at just three and a half pounds, she described being in a state of shock, feeling frozen in her body, and on high alert. For several months, her son’s life hung in a delicate balance.

When her firstborn came home, it wasn’t joy she felt, but rather anxiousness and fear about what could happen or go wrong. “I would relive the birth and events leading up to it. I would relive images of them and moments experienced in the NICU. I would then avoid certain streets or areas of town—like the area around the hospital,” Serrao-Fitzsimmons says. “Certain smells of the hospital and certain types of antibacterial gels and soaps they used there would really bother me. Increased arousal was probably the biggest symptom I had. I was on high alert, hyper-vigilant for a long time afterwards.”

At that time, she confirmed her PTSD diagnosis with her therapist.

What is PTSD?

PTSD was formally added to the list of neurological and mental conditions by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980, after many Vietnam veterans were treated for it. Today, the diagnosis is broadly accepted and understood to be a result of experiencing any type of traumatic event outside of the body and mind’s ability to process or control it.

PTSD is an intense physical and emotional response to a traumatic event that persists long after the trauma occurred. The CDC defines the symptoms as falling into three broad types: re-living, avoidance, and increased arousal.

Many humans will experience a traumatic event in their lifetime. Many will aptly process it within a few months. But for those unable to effectively process a significant trauma and move through it could be suffering from PTSD. Clinical neuroscientist Scott Hayes, Ph.D. associate professor in the department of psychology at The Ohio State University tells Runner’s World that PTSD is associated with symptoms such as involuntary and intrusive memories of the event, decreased attention and concentration, and avoidance of things that could trigger the unwanted memory, and further negatively impact mood and brain function.

The Research on Running and Exercise Helping Those With PTSD

One review, from Hayes and his team published in Frontiers in Psychiatry in 2019, looked at ten published studies that examined the impact of exercise interventions on PTSD. As noted in the review, one of the key features of PTSD symptoms is hyper-arousal—when the body is in a state of high alert and feels threatened, just as Serrao-Fitzsimmons felt after giving birth. Being in this state negatively affects the individual as it causes rapid heartbeat, heavy breathing, sweating, and a strong sense of agitation or fear of one’s safety.

The researchers set out to determine if repeated exposure to those unwanted reactions—the increased heart rate, sweating, and heavy respiration—through activities like running, could eventually help patients with PTSD associate these feelings in the body with something positive.

Hayes’ team noted in their review that those who did engage in vigorous-intensity exercise had fewer hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD. “Both observational and intervention studies provide support for the notion that anaerobic exercise, either alone or in combination with standard treatments, exerts positive mental health benefits among individuals with PTSD,” the report reads. “The results are encouraging as positive effects were observed in both civilian and military populations, as well as in both predominantly female and male study samples.”

We know that running elicits the same physiological responses in the body as PTSD (that increased heart rate, perspiration, and respiration), so if a patient with PTSD has repeated exposure to exercise, and these physiological symptoms, over time they learn that these arousal cues are not catastrophic and are not linked to the traumatic event, Hayes says. (He still advises that exercise should be used in conjunction with other forms of cognitive therapy and/or medication depending on the patient’s symptoms.)

Aerobic exercise like running can also improve cognitive function, as well as enhance brain structure and function,” Hayes explains. “In studies of aging, we know that aerobic exercise enhances cognitive functions, including reducing distractibility. We also know that anaerobic exercise can positively impact brain structure and function in some of the same brain regions that are associated with PTSD.”

First-Person Accounts of Exercise Supporting PTSD Recovery

Long after the birth of her son and per the recommendation of her son’s therapists to offer outdoor stimulation, Serrao-Fitzsimmons started running again, this time pushing a stroller. She quickly noticed it was beneficial for her own mental health. Over time, her constant fear and panic of her son’s survival and possible complications started diminishing.

Running through the woods I don’t have to think. It’s grounding and an opportunity to associate the experience of sweating and breathing heavily with something positive happening in my body. It’s about associating that feeling with something that’s not scary or bad and dissociating that feeling with trauma.”

After the birth of her second premature baby, Serrao-Fitzsimmons says the same symptoms returned, but this time she knew social support, therapy, medication, and running were important to her recovery.

“PTSD is often treated with cognitive approaches, which leads us to oftentimes forget that trauma itself is also an embodied experience, meaning that one can physically hold the effects of trauma in their bodies,” says Viann Nguyen-Feng, Ph.D., M.P.H., assistant professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota Duluth, and director of the Mind-Body Trauma Care Lab. “During a traumatic event, our bodies may react and respond in ways that were necessary for our survival and that might have seemed outside of our control.”

James Whitworth, Ph.D., health science specialist at VA Boston Medical Center, and assistant professor in the department of psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine, experienced this first-hand. When he returned home after serving in the United States Army as an E5 Sergeant and fire team leader in an infantry rifle platoon (in Iraq) from 2003 to 2007, as well as the National Guard, he felt like the trauma of war caught up to him. His roommate at the time said he would shout and thrash in his sleep.

In 2012, Whitworth tragically lost a close friend to suicide, and then in 2013 the Boston Marathon bombing (not far from where Whitworth lives) brought forth intrusive memories of roadside bombs in the war to the surface.

He describes his PTSD, which he wasn’t diagnosed with until 2013 (seven years after returning from Iraq), as taking the shape of hyperarousal and aggression. “It was a very messy time. I made the decision to get help on my own, but had the constant support of my partner,” he says.

Whitworth started hiking and climbing mountains during this time and it proved to be a literal and figurative tool to his survival and motivation to get out of bed. He also says the loss of his friend was a deciding factor in his field of research. “My friend ended his life the same year I entered graduate school,” he says.

Today, Whitworth focuses his research on how exercise can be applied to the treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of PTSD among veterans and other trauma survivors.

The Case for Movement and Therapy in Treating PTSD

“Running and other forms of somatic movement (like yoga, dance, or Tai Chi) help us reconnect with our bodies, to acknowledge all that our bodies had to do to ensure our survival, and importantly, to remind our bodies that we have survived; there is no longer a survival need to hold ourselves in fight, flight, freeze, or fawn mode,” Nguyen-Feng explains. In other words, movement is a chance for patients suffering with PTSD to release stress they might be holding onto.

Nguyen-Feng goes on to say, “Running and other forms of somatic movement allow us to tap into the inner wisdom of our bodies and provide a method of grounding us in the here and now, rather than being stuck in our minds.”

Today, Serrao-Fittzsimmons realizes the grounding practice of running. While she still gets triggered when her children are sick, having a consistent running routine helps her manage these triggers. “Running helps me be more present and calmer; it’s kind of like staring out at the ocean—it gives me perspective and helps me see solutions to problems,” she says.

Whitworth also says the tools he’s gained in therapy and from exercise have helped him to be more prepared for stressful life events.

How Therapists Incorporate Movement

Because of the promising pay-offs of exercise when it comes to mental health, some mental health therapists will even incorporate exercise into their sessions in order to further help their patients. For example, Los Angeles-based therapist Sepideh Saremi, LCSW, founder of Run Walk Talk, has built a practice around getting her clients moving and talking. She holds sessions outside along the Pacific Ocean, walking or running with clients.

“In addition to the neurochemical benefits of running (including release of the mood-boosting brain chemicals serotonin and dopamine), it also helps support people’s feeling of self-efficacy and ability to concentrate,” she explains. “Exercise can often help people feel a sense of control, which can counteract the feeling of helplessness that’s part of PTSD.” Saremi works with clients who’ve experienced a wide array of trauma from childhood abuse to sexual abuse.

“In a Run Walk Talk session, I run and walk with patients and clients at the beach while we talk about the things they want to change in their life. We usually spend about forty minutes running and walking, and about ten minutes in my office afterward to cool down and talk about what they’re taking from the session and what they’ll do before the next time we meet,” says Saremi.

I started running right around the time I started graduate school to become a therapist, and was curious about how running was being used to treat mental health. When I looked into it, I realized there was a ton of evidence to support running and walking as a mental health intervention, but I didn’t know any therapists who were doing it,” Saremi adds. “That’s where the idea for it was born, though since starting Run Walk Talk, I’ve discovered a number of therapists who incorporate running into their work, and I’ve trained many therapists myself, as well.”

What to Know Before Trying Exercise for PTSD Recovery

While Hayes’ acknowledges that many of the current studies provide some evidence for the positive influence exercise may have on PTSD symptoms, most of the current studies either test a very small number of participants or lack a control group. So more research is needed to truly confirm the results.

Nguyen-Feng also reminds us that it takes a support team—whether that’s in the form of community or individual therapy sessions—to help address mental health conditions. “I think bodily movement is necessary and complementary to any ‘work’ we do with our minds, and professional and/or social support is necessary for healing,” Nguyen-Feng says. “So I encourage runners and interested runners to consider that support integral to their training regime or running schedule.”

Saremi also reminds patients who’ve experienced trauma and haven’t exercised before to walk or begin running with people you feel safe around, so you’re more comfortable.

How to Find a Therapist

It can be overwhelming for patients to find a good therapist. “There are a lot of factors to consider: cost, your goals, the therapist’s training, and interest areas are often the most relevant,” Saremi says. Know that the process can take some time, but the advantages are worth the effort.

Saremi suggests TherapyDen, a free online directory of inclusive and affirming therapists. You can also check out Psychology Today and Psychologist Locator to search for therapists in your area, or try Teledoc for virtual appointments.

If you or someone you know if suffering from PTSD and needs immediate help, contact the National Suicide Hotline.

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