Wilmington, Delaware, United States, Jan. 27, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Transparency Market Research Inc.Increase in adoption of BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) devices to treat a wide range of respiratory problems and sleep disorders has generated high revenues for companies. Rise in adoption of advanced devices, in particular auto-adjusting BiPAP, to treat sleep apnea has accelerated the BiPAP devices market development. The global market size stood at US$ 299.7 Mn in 2021, and is projected to surpass US$ 511.6 Mn by 2031.

Launch of innovative products has created attractive opportunities for vendors in the BiPAP devices industry. These devices are lightweight and portable and are effective in treating certain chronic sleep disorders and respiratory problems, which has increased their popularity among patients. BiPAP machines are frequently used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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Key Findings of Study

  • Rise in Public Awareness about Sleep Disorders to Drive BiPAP Devices Industry Growth: Surge in awareness about sleep disorders is a key market trend propelling the demand for PAP therapy. High global burden of COPD and asthma has intensified the need for their effective treatments. Their prevalence is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in patients worldwide. BiPAP devices are considered a non-invasive and comfortable therapy for a wide range of sleep disorders and respiratory problems.
  • Increase in Demand for PAP Therapies for Treatment of Sleep Apnea: Rise in demand for PAP therapies to treat several forms of sleep apnea and sleep-related breathing disorders has bolstered the BiPAP devices market demand. Sleep apnea is associated with arrhythmia, high blood pressure, stroke, and heart failure. The sleep apnea segment held a dominant BiPAP devices market share in 2021. Several organizations, such as the WHO and non-governmental organizations, are increasing awareness about healthy sleep being vital for an individual’s health and wellbeing. healthy behavior, which has boosted the market prospects. Hence, devices used in PAP therapies have witnessed significant commercialization in the past few years.

Key Drivers

  • Rise in burden of sleep disorders on public health is a key factor which is expected to drive the BiPAP devices market demand
  • Prevalence of COPD, asthma, and other respiratory diseases is likely to create substantial business opportunities for companies in the market

Regional Growth Dynamics

  • North America held major global market share in 2021. The market in North America is anticipated to witness sizable revenues during the forecast period. Rise in prevalence of sleep apnea and other sleep disorders is likely to propel the market. The U.S. held the major share in the regional market in 2021. Extensive R&D activities, especially by prominent companies in the country, have fueled the market growth.
  • The market in Asia Pacific is projected to expand at the most attractive growth rate during the forecast period. Rise in demand for PAP therapies for sleep disorders and presence of a large patient population are expected to accelerate market development in the region.

BiPAP Devices Market: Competition Landscape

The study indicates that presence of large number of players has made the landscape fragmented. Leading companies are focusing on product portfolio expansion and mergers and acquisitions in order to consolidate their positions in the global BiPAP devices market. Additionally, many players consider partnerships and collaborations as key strategies to increase market share.

Some of the prominent companies in the market include SEFAM, Oventus Medical, React Health, Lowenstein Medical Technology GmbH, Koninklijke Philips N.V, Hebei Topson Medical Technology Co., Ltd., Drive DeVilbiss Healthcare, and BMC Medical Co., Ltd.

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BiPAP devises Market Segmentation

  • Indication
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • Sleep Apnea
    • Asthma
    • Others
  • Age Group
  • End-user
    • Hospitals
    • Sleep Facilities
    • Homecare
    • Others


  • North America
  • Europe
  • Asia Pacific
  • Latin America
  • Middle East & Africa


  • U.S.
  • Canada
  • Germany
  • U.K.
  • France
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Australia & New Zealand

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Underlying these phenomena is an inflammation of the airways, accompanied by a narrowing of the muscles of the bronchi and an increase in bronchial secretion, all of which impede the flow of air.

These processes are almost always triggered by exposure to triggering factors that, while in non-asthmatic subjects they are harmless, in asthmatic subjects they can cause various problems, such as pollen, food, a simple laugh, a deep breath or a short run.

Doctors distinguish between two types of asthma: intrinsic (or non-allergic) and extrinsic (or allergic) asthma

The former is not sustained by an allergic process, while the latter is.

Generally, non-allergic asthma appears in adulthood, while allergic asthma can begin at any time in life, although it often appears as early as childhood.

Since sensitisation to allergy-inducing substances (called allergens) increases as the child’s exposure increases, the peak incidence of allergic asthma usually occurs at school age.

How to know if you have asthma

Symptoms of asthma vary from person to person: some people have attacks infrequently, some have manifestations only at certain times, for example when in a dusty environment or in the middle of a lawn or when exercising, and some have discomfort constantly.

In any case, the signs and symptoms of an attack may include:

  • Shortness of breath;
  • Sense of chest tightness
  • chest pain
  • coughing or wheezing attacks
  • wheezing during exhalation
  • sleep disturbances caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing

These attacks can be greatly aggravated by the presence of viruses, such as those that cause the common cold or flu, which is a common sign of asthma especially in children.

Signs that asthma is probably worsening are an increase in breathing difficulty and the appearance of the symptoms described, manifesting poor control of the disease, which is measured at home with a device that checks the functioning of the lungs (peak flow meter), and the need to use a fast-acting inhaler more often.

For these reasons, people prone to asthma attacks should always carry a spray with bronchodilator substances, which are capable of rapidly reducing bronchial spasm (so-called ‘life-saving’).

When asthma attacks occur

For some people, the signs and symptoms of asthma occur in certain situations:

  • when they do sport. In this case, we speak of exercise-induced asthma, which can worsen when the air is cold and dry;
  • when carrying out one’s profession. We speak, in fact, of occupational asthma, a condition that is triggered by irritants breathed in at work, such as chemical fumes, gases or dust;
  • in the case of exposure to allergenic substances. In this case we speak of allergic asthma, a type caused by airborne substances such as pollen, mould spores, dust mites or pet dander;
  • during the night. This situation is referred to as nocturnal asthma;
  • when taking acetylsalicylic acid drugs, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs in general, anaesthetics. In this case, other symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, sinus pressure and coughing are also present, and we speak of drug-induced asthma.

The different types of asthma

Based on symptoms, doctors classify asthma into:

-intermittent mild, in which symptoms are mild and appear less than twice a week. Nocturnal symptoms appear less than twice a month;

-persistent mild, with symptoms present three to six times a week and nocturnal symptoms present three to four times a month. Asthmatic attacks may affect normal activities;

-moderate persistent, with daily manifestations and nocturnal attacks five or more times a month. Symptoms may affect the person’s activities;

-severe persistent, with symptoms persisting both during the day and at night, such that the person is forced to limit their activities.

Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening, which is why they must be addressed promptly.

Signs of an emergency include: rapid worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing; no improvement even after using a quick-relief inhaler; shortness of breath at rest.


Asthma, the risk factors

Certain risk factors are thought to increase the chances of developing asthma, including:

  • having a relative with asthma, such as a parent or sibling;
  • suffering from another allergic condition, such as atopic dermatitis (which is characterised by the presence of symptoms such as red, itchy skin) or hay fever (which causes runny nose, congestion and itchy eyes)
  • being overweight;
  • smoking;
  • being exposed to second-hand smoke, exhaust fumes or other types of pollution;
  • being exposed to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in agriculture and by hairdressers.

Asthma, when to go to the doctor

People who have a frequent cough and/or wheeze lasting more than a few days or other signs or symptoms that can be attributed to asthma should consult their doctor as soon as possible, who may then decide to refer them to a pulmonary specialist.

It is important not to underestimate the situation and not to wait too long: if treatment of the disease is started early, the risk of long-term lung damage and worsening of the disease over time is significantly reduced.

Good long-term control of the disease helps you feel better day after day and can prevent a life-threatening asthma attack.

To monitor asthma after diagnosis, it is important to work with your doctor, also because the disease often changes over time and changes to the prescribed treatment may be necessary.

Do not take more medication than prescribed without first consulting your doctor, as overuse of asthma medication can cause side effects and worsen the situation.

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COPD in Delhi: Who does not want to settle in the capital Delhi, but living here is becoming harmful for health day by day. There are many areas of Delhi where serious lung diseases are spreading rapidly. In such a situation, living here can not only be fatal, but it is also affecting the healthy lifestyle. ICMR’s Jodhpur-based National Institute for Implementation Research on Non-Communicable Diseases (NIIRNCD), NEERI Nagpur, IIT Delhi, Delhi University and Health Effect Institute of Boston This thing has come to the fore in the study cum research done by a total of 6 institutes including.

The lead author of this research-study and Director, NIIRNCD and community medicine Specialist Dr. Arun Sharma Talking to News18 Hindi, it is said that there are some areas of Delhi where two major lung diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ie COPD and Bronchial Asthma are spreading. In the survey conducted on 40040 thousand people of 8510 houses in Delhi, 443 people were found suspected of COPD. While this disease was confirmed in 394 people. In such a situation, COPD has been found in 9.8 people out of 1000 people in Delhi. At the same time, the special thing is that the presence of COPD is not uniform in the whole of Delhi, rather some areas are hotspots where this crisis is hovering over the lungs.

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ie COPD, the airways of the lungs get narrowed. That’s why there is a problem in breathing. In this situation, oxygen reaches inside but carbon dioxide cannot come out from inside the body and the person starts suffocating. When this disease progresses, the patient dies.

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Bronchial Asthma is a chronic disease that causes irritation and inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Due to which the patient has difficulty in breathing and has to exert force. When this disease occurs, there is cough, wheezing in breathing, chest discomfort.

Research has found that in Delhi, the area of ​​Dilshad Garden located in North East Delhi, some areas of Jahangir Puri, all industrial areas of Delhi, and almost all JJ Colony i.e. slum areas, especially COPD and Bronchial Asthma diseases have increased. Has been There are a total of 27 approved industrial areas in Delhi, where industrial activities are carried out. These include Narela, Bawana, Samaypur Badli, Narayana, Tilak Nagar, Anand Parvat, Najafgarh, Okhla, Mayapuri, Anand Parvat, Mangolpuri etc. in 27 areas. It has been observed in research that people living in industrial areas are more likely to have COPD than other people. While people in the rural areas of South and East Delhi have very less COPD.

The research also looked at the air quality of Delhi homes, including cross ventilation, presence and amount of dust, insects, household solid and organic waste disposal, and cooking fuel. was made the basis. On the other hand, in the second question paper, whether any member of the family has COPD or not, for how many years the person has been living in that area of ​​Delhi, information about all these things was taken. Dr. Arun Sharma says that apart from all these things, the big thing for COPD is the pollution of Delhi. Day by day increasing pollution in Delhi, poisonous air, bad environment are possible reasons for these diseases.

Tags: delhi air pollution, delhi news, ICMR, research

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Elderly residents living in an apartment block in the north inner city have said the noise and disruption from the construction of a student accommodation complex is “unbearable”.

ork on a 276-bed student housing complex on the former Kennedy Bakery site on Parnell Street, is taking place just 15 feet away from residents living in 10 apartments in Temple House.

“Most of us here, we are not young. Our windows are manky from the dust, you could write your name on them,” said Margaret McCarthy (64), who has lived in her apartment for 15 years.

She added that a number of the elderly residents suffer from breathing issues and are hesitant to open their windows amid fears of dust collecting in their homes.

Paddy Harris (76) suffers from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) that causes breathing difficulties and said the dust has “inflamed” it.


The construction work is taking place just 15 feet from homes in Temple House

Paddy, who lives in a ground floor apartment with his wife Bridget (74), said when the drilling on the site starts, “we can feel the vibrations”.

He said “everything is destroyed”, pointing to the dust on the windowsills.

Charlie Gillard (79), who has lived in his apartment with his wife for the past 53 years, said the lorries are “damaging the laneway”.

“The main problem is that there were no objections with Dublin County Council. We don’t know what’s next,” said Charlie.

Residents say they have tried to initiate a meeting with the construction company, however, “they don’t communicate with us”.

“They don’t tell us what is going on and it’s very hard to get a meeting with them,” Margaret said.

“You can’t open the window. We are stuck inside. Your telly has to be up real high because you can’t hear it. In one hour you could have eight lorries come up this lane and it is filthy dirty.” 


David McCarty with Temple House residents Charlie Gillard, Margaret McCarty, Paddy and Bridget Harris

Construction on the site, which starts at 8am and finishes at 5pm, is being carried out by Henry Construction on behalf of SP Bakery LTD.

Mick O’Regan, site manager, said there are three noise monitors on the site and the noise levels are “fully compliant” with Dublin City Council regulations.

“There are three noise monitors on site. We have to comply with our construction management plan and that has been reviewed and accepted by the council,” he said.

Mr O’Regan added that staff from Dublin City Council are checking the site regularly amid complaints from residents.

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Lung health

Lung diseases, excluding lung cancer, cause an estimated 235,000 deaths each year

New Delhi: Like other parts of the body, the lungs are an extremely important organ, which needs utmost care.

According to the National Heart, Blood and Lung Insititute, chronic lower respiratory diseases, including obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the leading causes of death globally, every year.

Lung diseases, excluding lung cancer, cause an estimated 235,000 deaths each year.

Lungs age faster than other parts of the body since we breathe in toxic air, pollution, and dust, involve in smoking, and other things that deteriorate the organ. With time, the lungs lose their strength, which can make it more difficult to breathe.

But by adopting certain healthy habits, you can better maintain the health of your lungs, and keep them working optimally even into your senior years.

Your body relies on your respiratory system to supply the oxygen necessary for your organs to function. And if you struggle to breathe, your body may not get enough oxygen, and without enough oxygen, other critical organs may shut down.

Warning signs of respiratory distress

It is very important to learn to recognise the signs and symptoms of respiratory problems that may help you protect your life. If you notice any of these symptoms, you must contact your doctor immediately.


Many people suffer from chronic breathlessness which means they are short of breath and the lungs are not able to get enough oxygen to breathe.

Even though it is normal to get breathless occasionally when you exert more than normal, sudden and regular shortness can be a sign of impending danger.

According to health experts, the lungs are involved in transporting oxygen to your tissues and removing carbon dioxide, and problems with either of these processes affect your breathing. Causes of breathlessness can be due to:

  • Asthma
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Excess fluid in the lungs
  • COPD
  • Covid-19
  • Lung collapse
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Lung cancer
  • Croup
  • Anaphylaxis

Change in skin colour or Cyanosis

Health experts say that people who have less oxygen in their blood have a bluish colour to their skin. The condition is known as cyanosis, and it develops along with breathlessness and other symptoms. Cyanosis is caused due to lung problems and is a slow-progressing ailment, which needs immediate attention.

Causes of cyanosis in the lungs include:

  • High altitudes
  • Asthma
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Blood clots in the arteries of the lungs
  • COPD
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pneumonia


Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract. Massive hemoptysis can cause the production of more than 600 ml of blood within 24 hours, and lead to lung collapse.

Doctors say in hemoptysis, the blood arises from this bronchial circulation when there is a trauma causing damage to pulmonary arteries because of a tumour caused by lung cancer. Hemoptysis is also caused by:

  • Severe pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis
  • Severe respiratory tract infection
  • Bronchitis


If you are constantly wheezing or breathing noisily, it could be an indication that your airways have become obstructed and there is a problem with the functioning of the lungs.

Doctors say it is important to report the first sign of experiencing wheezing. It is a result of inflammation and narrowing of the airway in any location from your throat to the lungs.

The most common causes of wheezing are:

Chest pain

If you suffer from lingering chest pain, you must contact your doctor immediately, as it can be due to:

  • A blood clot in the lung is known as a pulmonary embolism, where the artery can block blood flow to lung tissue.
  • Inflammation of the membrane covering the lungs, known as pleurisy in which chest pain, worsens when you inhale or cough.
  • A collapsed lung when air leaks into the space between the lung and the ribs.
  • High blood pressure in the lung arteries is known as pulmonary hypertension. This condition affects the arteries carrying blood to the lungs and can produce chest pain.

Disclaimer: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purposes only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor or a dietician before starting any fitness programme or making any changes to your diet.

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Global Spirometer Market

Global Spirometer Market

Spirometer Market Growth Overview:
The global spirometer market size was valued at USD 955.8 million in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.13% from 2023 to 2032. The market is anticipated to be driven by an increase in the prevalence of chronic respiratory disorders, rising demand for home healthcare, and technological advances. 90% of people worldwide breathe dirty air, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The lungs are negatively impacted by pollutants and irritants in a variety of ways.

For screening purposes in an occupational setting, the spirometry apparatus assists in the diagnosis of a number of respiratory ailments, including obstructive chronic pulmonary disease, emphysema, asthma, and other breathing problems. In the upcoming years, there will probably be more demand for spirometers due to the rise in COPD patients around the world.

Companies are creating spirometers with enhanced design and functionality to help patients and medical professionals understand the complicated process involved in pulmonary function testing. The major goal is to create spirometers that produce more while improving patient comfort without any consequences. In order to avoid potential bacterial infections, businesses are also implementing novel packaging practises. These technological advancements simplify and ease the testing processes for patients.

Market Analysis and Size
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma, and that the condition has claimed the lives of 250,000 people. Around 16 million Americans had COPD in 2019, and there were around 65 million COPD sufferers worldwide. This number is anticipated to increase in the next years. In the management, monitoring, and therapy of respiratory illnesses, spirometers are frequently employed.

Market Definition
Spirometry is a common test that measures how much air someone breathes in and out to determine how well their lungs are functioning. It assists in the diagnosis of breathing-related disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and others. The test, which monitors lung health and determines whether or not a treatment for a chronic lung ailment is effective, uses a spirometer.

Report Scope:
The primary and secondary research is done in order to access up-to-date government regulations, market information and industry data. Data were collected from the Spirometer manufacturers, distributors, end users, industry associations, governments' industry bureaus, industry publications, industry experts, third party database, and our in-house databases. The report combines extensive quantitative analysis and exhaustive qualitative analysis, ranges from a macro overview of the total market size, industry chain, and market dynamics to micro details of segment by type, application and region and as a result provides a holistic view of as well as a deep insight into the Spirometer market covering all its essential aspects.

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Market Segmentations:
Global Spirometer Market: Segmentations

Global Spirometer Market: By Key Players
BD (CareFusion)
Welch Allyn
Fukuda Sangyo
SDI Diagnostics
Anhui Electronics Scientific Institute

Global Spirometer Market: By Types
Hand-held Spirometer
Table-top Spirometer
Desktop (PC) Spirometer

Global Spirometer Market: By Applications

Global Spirometer Market: Regional Analysis
The countries covered in the regional analysis of the Global Spirometer market report are U.S., Canada, and Mexico in North America, Germany, France, U.K., Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, and Rest of Europe in Europe, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Rest of Asia-Pacific (APAC) in the Asia-Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, U.A.E, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) as a part of Middle East and Africa (MEA), and Argentina, Brazil, and Rest of South America as part of South America.

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Covid-19 Impact
Positive effects are seen on the spirometer market. The major market participants are actively assisting the healthcare systems and professionals as the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) continues throughout the international community. This epidemic has slowed economic growth across a wide range of economies. One of the top causes of death worldwide is respiratory illness. Furthermore, the third most common cause of death is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The COVID-19 outbreak has increased the prevalence of respiratory illnesses. As a result, it is projected that the number of ARDS patients who need respiratory support would rise, which could lead to a rise in the need for spirometers.

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Allergies, climate change, and air pollution are further propelling the market's expansion. The expansion of the market is being driven by the creation of technologically sophisticated devices, governmental approvals, and product launches. However, lack of knowledge about respiratory illnesses and the existence of spirometer alternatives limit market expansion. Additionally, authorities and governments are projected to take more actions to enhance healthcare systems and raise awareness of the advantages of spirometers, which will help the worldwide spirometer market grow.

Q1. Does the spirometer Market report provides Value Chain Analysis?
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Q3. What is the market value of spirometer Market?
Q4. What is the total market value of spirometer Market report?
Q5. Which are the top companies hold the market share in spirometer Market?
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Q8. What would be forecast period in the market report?

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What are New Additions in 2023?

1. Detailed industry forecast
2. More information on the company’s key players
3. On-demand customized reports and analyst assistance
4. Recent market developments and future growth prospects
5. Requested customized regional/country reports

Respiratory Devices Market Projections : The global respiratory devices market is estimated to be valued at US$ 21,725.0 million in 2022 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 9.1% during the forecast period (2023-2030).

Coherent Market Insights has announced the addition of Respiratory Devices Market 2023 Forecast Analysis by Types, Applications, Size, Share, Key Players, and Regions. a new research report to its market research archive. The Respiratory Devices Market has been thoroughly researched and analysed by industry experts and researchers. The industry is examined at the global, regional, and national levels. The report highlights the primary revenue stream for the estimated year, along with sales volumes, growth patterns, and major industry market dynamics. The historical data is provided, as well as a comprehensive revenue analysis for the forecast period. The report focuses on the size, share, growth status, and future trends of the Respiratory Devices Market, as well as recent business developments.

Respiratory devices are medical devices that help patients who have breathing problems. These devices are used to manage and treat conditions like fibrosis, asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). These advanced tools, such as oxygen concentrators, nebulizers, ventilators, and so on, benefit a wide range of diseases. The respiratory device aids in the removal of mucus from the airways as well as the improvement of pulmonary functions.

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Report Drivers & Trends Analysis

The report also discusses the factors driving and restraining market growth, as well as their specific impact on demand over the forecast period. Also highlighted in this report are growth factors, developments, trends, challenges, limitations, and growth opportunities. This section highlights emerging Respiratory Devices Market trends and changing dynamics. Furthermore, the study provides a forward-looking perspective on various factors that are expected to boost the market’s overall growth.

Major Key Contents Covered in Market:

  • Market introduction, including market development and status.
  • Analysis and trends in manufacturing technology.
  • Market analysis, including company and country status and competition.
  • According to market estimates, the following business segments are essential.
  • Future growth rate estimation, as well as valuation of each region.
  • A geographical analysis of the product/service consumption in each region.
  • Forecast market analysis by segment.

Major Key Players: Masimo, Teleflex Incorporated, Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited, ResMed, Hamilton Medical, Medtronic, Koninklijke Philips N.V., ICU Medical, Inc., General Electric Company, Dragerwerk AG & Co. KGaA, Inogen, Inc., TytoCare Ltd., Belluscura, Mitocon Biomed, VYAIRE, Medline Industries, Inc., OMRON Corporation, TNI medical AG, and Xplore Health Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

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Prominent Industry Insights

The report evaluates the most recent technological advances in the Respiratory Devices Market industry. The research employs a variety of methodologies and analysis tools to ensure accurate and comprehensive market information. For example, it provides in-depth insights into SWOT and PESTLE analysis based on industry segmentations and regional developments. The report provides in-depth segmentation by type, application, and region. Throughout the forecast period, each segment study is provided along with information about production and manufacturing. The analysis of these segments will help to understand the significance of the various market growth factors.

Competitive Landscape Analysis

In any market research analysis, the main field is competition. This section of the report provides a competitive scenario and portfolio of the Respiratory Devices Market’s key players. Major and emerging market players are closely examined in terms of market share, gross margin, product portfolio, production, revenue, sales growth, and other significant factors. Furthermore, this information will assist players in studying critical strategies employed by market leaders in order to plan counterstrategies to gain a competitive advantage in the market.

Furthermore, the report includes a geographical analysis of the market, which serves as a useful tool for participants to investigate sales and business expansion opportunities in various regions and countries. Each regional and country-specific market is thoroughly researched in the geographic overview based on Respiratory Devices Market share, CAGR, size, future growth potential, and other key parameters.

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The Regions Covered in This Report Are

  • North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, and the Rest of Europe)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Southeast Asia, and Australia)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and the rest of South America)
  • The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, South Africa, and the Rest of the Middle East and Africa)

One of the primary goals of this report is to investigate competitive developments such as partnerships and collaborations, R&D activities, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), product developments, and market expansions. Furthermore, the study provides business predictions by region, key countries, and information on top firms to help them channel their investments. Furthermore, market prospects are provided based on global sales and revenue forecasts as well as regional Respiratory Devices Market forecasts.

Some of The Key Questions Answered in This Report

  • What will the market growth rate or momentum be over the forecast period?
  • What was the value of the expanding market?
  • Who are the major players in the industry?
  • What is the anticipated size of the emerging market?
  • Which region is expected to have the largest share of the industry?
  • What are the new opportunities that will allow the industry to grow in the coming years?
  • What are their winning strategies for remaining competitive?

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This air travels to the alveoli, the small cavities located at the end of the bronchioles that are responsible for allowing gas exchange between air and blood.

In the case of atelectasis, these small air sacs deflate and cannot inflate properly and/or absorb enough air and oxygen.

If the disease affects a large enough area, the blood may not receive enough oxygen, which can trigger various health problems.

Generally, it is not life-threatening, but in some cases it must be treated quickly.


Atelectasis: what it is

Atelectasis is one of the most common respiratory complications after surgery.

It is also a possible complication of other respiratory problems, including cystic fibrosis, lung tumours, chest lesions, fluid in the lungs and respiratory weakness.

Atelectasis can make breathing difficult, particularly if one already suffers from lung disease.

Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the collapse.

Pulmonary atelectasis, symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms? If atelectasis only affects a small area of the lungs, the person may not even have any symptoms.

But if it affects larger areas, the lungs cannot fill with enough air and the oxygen level in the blood may decrease.

When this happens, annoying and unpleasant symptoms may occur, including:

  • difficulty breathing (shortness of breath; rapid, shallow breathing; wheezing);
  • increased heart rate;
  • coughing;
  • chest pain;
  • bluish discolouration of the skin and lips.

If you experience these symptoms and have difficulty breathing, you should consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

Keep in mind that other conditions, including asthma and emphysema, can also cause chest pain and breathing problems.

Why a lung can collapse

Atelectasis can be triggered by many factors: potentially, any condition that makes it difficult to take deep breaths or cough can lead to a collapsed lung.

Atelectasis can result from airway obstruction (called obstructive atelectasis) or from pressure from outside the lung (non-obstructive atelectasis).

The most common reason for people to develop this disease is surgery.

It must be known that anaesthesia can affect the patient’s ability to breathe normally or cough as it changes the normal breathing pattern and affects lung gas exchange.

All this can cause the air sacs (alveoli) to deflate.

In addition, the pain that is often experienced following surgery may make deep breathing painful: as a result, one may be inclined to adopt continuous shallow breathing, which may favour the development of the disease.

This explains why almost everyone who has undergone major surgery develops a more or less severe form of atelectasis.

Other possible causes of this pathology are:

  • thoracic trauma, e.g. a fall or a car accident, which prevent one from taking deep breaths (due to pain), which can cause compression of the lungs;
  • pressure at the level of the chest: pressure exerted on the lungs, which may depend on a tumour mass outside the bronchus, on a tumour inside the bronchus, which causes airway obstruction. In fact, if air cannot get past the blockage present, the affected part of the lung may collapse;
  • accumulation of mucus in the airways, which may cause a blockage in the airflow. This event commonly occurs during and after surgery because coughing is not possible in such cases. In addition, drugs administered during surgery cause people to breathe less deeply, so normal secretions collect in the airways. Suctioning the lungs during surgery helps to clear them, but sometimes it is not enough. Mucus plugs are also common in children, people with cystic fibrosis and during severe asthma attacks;
  • inhalation of small objects, such as a peanut, the cap of a biro, a small toy, which prevent air from flowing freely;
  • other lung diseases, such as pneumonia, pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Atelectasis is not to be confused with pneumothorax, another condition that commonly causes a collapsed lung.

It is the presence of air between the lung and chest wall.


Atelectasis, the risk factors

Factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disease include:

  • advanced age
  • any condition that makes swallowing difficult;
  • bed confinement with rare changes of position;
  • lung disease, such as asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis;
  • recent abdominal or thoracic surgery;
  • recent general anaesthesia;
  • weak respiratory muscles due to muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury or another neuromuscular condition;
  • use of drugs that may cause shallow breathing;
  • pain or injuries that may make it painful to cough or cause shallow breathing, including stomach pain or rib fracture;
  • cigarette smoking.

What is involved in atelectasis

A small area of atelectasis, especially in an adult, is usually curable.

However, one should be aware that this disease can give rise to the following complications

  • a low level of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). Atelectasis makes it more difficult for the lungs to carry oxygen to the air sacs (alveoli) and thus to the rest of the body;
  • pneumonia: the risk of pneumonia continues until the atelectasis disappears. This is because the presence of mucus in a collapsed lung can lead to infection;
  • respiratory failure: the loss of a lobe or an entire lung, particularly in an infant or in people with lung disease, can be life-threatening.

Prevention of post-surgery atelectasis

Some research suggests that performing deep breathing exercises and muscle training may reduce the risk of developing atelectasis after surgery.

In addition, many patients in hospital are given a device called an incentive spirometer that can encourage them to take deep breaths, thus preventing and treating atelectasis.

If you smoke, you can reduce your risk of developing the condition by stopping smoking before any operation.

Atelectasis in children is often caused by an airway blockage.

In such cases, to reduce the risk of atelectasis, keep small objects out of reach of children.


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Nasal Cannula For Oxygen Therapy: What It Is, How It Is Made, When To Use It

Pulmonary Emphysema: What It Is And How To Treat It. The Role Of Smoking And The Importance Of Quitting

Pulmonary Emphysema: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Tests, Treatment

Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Occupational, Stable Bronchial Asthma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

A Guide To Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD

Bronchiectasis: What Are They And What Are The Symptoms

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Pulmonary Vasculitis: What It Is, Causes And Symptoms

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Chest Pain In Children: How To Assess It, What Causes It

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What Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?


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Respiratory Therapist job description: Respiratory therapists help patients who are having trouble breathing. Respiratory diseases such as emphysema and asthma are examples of these. Read this article to see more details.InformationGuideNigeria 

Patients range from infants with undeveloped lungs to adults with lung disease. Respiratory Therapists also provide emergency care for breathing difficulties, heart attacks, drowning, and shock.

A respiratory therapy technician is another name for them. Patients with breathing or cardiopulmonary disorders are interviewed and examined by respiratory therapists.

Medical practices that want to hire the best people often start the job description with a few sentences that tell job seekers about the things that make your company environment unique and the value you bring to new employees. This is your chance to make your hospital, clinic, or medical facility stand out from the crowd of therapist job postings.

For consideration, you must have a degree in respiratory therapy from an accredited program or college, as well as an RCP license.JAMB Portal

Strong knowledge of pulmonary function and rehabilitation, as well as experience with respiratory equipment, are essential for success in this role.

Responsibilities of a respiratory therapy

  • Monitoring patient physiological responses to therapy, such as arterial blood gases, vital signs or blood chemistry changes, and changes in lung function, and consulting with physicians if there are any adverse effects.
  • Assisting with medical procedures as part of a team of healthcare professionals to manage patient care.
  • Configuring and operating therapeutic gas administration apparatus, mechanical ventilators, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators.
  • Treatment parameters must be followed.
  • Providing emergency care, such as external cardiac massage, artificial respiration, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation assistance.
  • Inspecting, testing, cleaning, and maintaining respiratory therapy equipment to ensure safe and efficient operation.NYSC Portal
  • Keeping records that include patient identification and therapy information.
  • Measuring arterial blood gases, reading prescriptions, assessing lung capacity, and reviewing other information to determine the patient’s condition.
  • Delivering blood analysis results to a doctor.
  • When necessary, make emergency visits to resolve equipment problems.
  • When necessary, order equipment repairs.
  • To gain cooperation from patients, explain health care treatment procedures.
    Examining patients’ pulmonary function.
  • By planning and administering medically prescribed respiratory therapy, the patient’s pulmonary function is restored, pain is relieved, and life is supported.
  • Meets the goals and needs of the patient while also providing quality care by performing pulmonary function tests, assessing and interpreting evaluations and test results, and determining respiratory therapy treatment plans in consultation with physicians and by prescription.
  • Assists patients in carrying out their treatment plans and maintaining their quality of life by administering inhalants, operating mechanical ventilators, therapeutic gas administration apparatus, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators.
  • Performs bronchopulmonary drainage, assists with breathing exercises, and monitors physiological responses to therapy, such as vital signs, arterial blood gases, and blood chemistry changes, to administer respiratory therapy treatments.
  • Treatments are directed by aides, technicians, and assistants.
  • Evaluates the effects of a respiratory therapy treatment plan by observing, noting, and evaluating the progress of the patient and recommending adjustments and modifications.
  • Consults with physicians, nurses, social workers, and other health care workers to complete discharge planning; participates in patient care conferences.
  • Assures that the therapeutic plan is followed after discharge by designing home exercise programs and instructing patients, families, and caregivers on how to use them.
  • Outpatient or home health follow-up programs are recommended and/or provided.
  • Charts in patient and department records to document patient care services.
  • By keeping information confidential, you can maintain patient trust while also protecting hospital operations. How to Recharge GOTV using First Bank USSD Code
  • Maintains a safe and clean workplace by adhering to procedures, rules, and regulations.
  • Adheres to infection-control policies and protocols to protect patients and employees.
  • Provides information and develops and implements in-service training programs for respiratory therapy staff.
  • Complies with federal, state, and local legal and certification requirements by researching existing and new legislation, anticipating future legislation, enforcing compliance, and advising management on appropriate actions.

Duties of a respiratory therapy

  1. Patients with breathing or cardiopulmonary disorders should be interviewed and examined.
  2. Consult with doctors about patients’ conditions and treatment plans.
  3. Conduct diagnostic tests.Respiratory Therapy Job Description
  4. Treat patients in a variety of ways.
  5. Track and record the progress of patients.
  6. Teach patients how to use medical equipment and medications.

Registered nurses, physicians and surgeons, and medical assistants collaborate closely with respiratory therapists. They use a variety of tests to assess patients.

Respiratory therapists, for example, perform pulmonary function tests to assess lung capacity by having patients breathe into an instrument that measures the volume and flow of oxygen as they inhale and exhale. Therapists may also take blood samples and test oxygen and carbon dioxide levels with a blood gas analyzer. How to Buy TikTok Followers using Cryptocurrency?

Respiratory therapists also treat airway obstructions to improve breathing. Chest physiotherapy, for example, may be used to remove mucus from the lungs by tapping the patient’s chest and encouraging him or her to cough.

In an emergency, respiratory therapists may connect patients who are unable to breathe on their own to ventilators that deliver oxygen to the lungs.

They set up and monitor the equipment to ensure that the patient receives the appropriate amount of oxygen at the appropriate rate.

Home respiratory therapists teach patients and their families how to use ventilators and other life-support systems. They may inspect and clean equipment, inspect the home for environmental hazards, and ensure that patients understand how to use their medications during these visits. When necessary, therapists also make emergency home visits.

Roles of a respiratory therapy

Respiratory therapists work under the supervision of doctors and treat a wide range of patients, from premature infants with underdeveloped lungs to elderly people with lung disease. They provide oxygen to patients, manage ventilators, and administer medications to the lungs. Romantic Love Messages

The registered respiratory therapist (RRT) applies scientific knowledge and theory to clinical respiratory problems. The respiratory therapist is qualified to assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of CRT functions.

Under the supervision of a physician, the respiratory therapist may be required to exercise considerable independent clinical judgment in the treatment of patients with respiratory dysfunction.

The respiratory therapist provides oxygen therapy, breathing treatments, humidity-aerosol therapy, pulmonary drainage procedures, mechanical ventilation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Respiratory care practitioners work with adults, premature infants, and geriatric patients in surgical services, air and ground transport, multi-disciplinary nutrition teams, emergency departments, neonatal/pediatric intensive care, and medical, cardiac, and surgical intensive care in acute care hospitals.

Practitioners can work in a variety of settings, including the diagnostic pulmonary laboratory, bronchoscopy laboratory, long-term acute care units, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) units, or as a traveling therapist, home respiratory therapist, or pharmaceutical sales representative.

In the hospital, the respiratory therapist has a wide range of responsibilities. Responsibilities daily include various respiratory care modalities in the treatment of pulmonary diseases as well as advanced critical care procedures. Good Morning Love Messages

The respiratory therapist is also skilled in the use of advanced diagnostic tools to accurately diagnose the severity of respiratory dysfunction in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly.

Respiratory therapy job qualifications/skills

An associate’s degree in respiratory therapy is typically required for respiratory therapists. Some companies prefer candidates with a bachelor’s degree. Except for Alaska, all states require respiratory therapists to be licensed; requirements vary by state.

Respiratory therapy salary structure in USA

What is the average salary for a Registered Respiratory Therapist in the United States? As of September 26, 2022, the average Registered Respiratory Therapist salary in the United States is $73,241, with a salary range of $66,544 to $79,619.JAMB Result

Types of Respiratory Therapy

  • Long-term care is available. Almost one in every seven middle-aged and elderly people suffers from chronic lung disease.
  • Neonatal-pediatrics. This type of respiratory therapy is used in neonatal and pediatric units.
  • Rehabilitation of the lungs.
  • Polysomnography is a type of sleep study.
  • Intensive care.

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Asia Pacific Digital Respiratory Device Market to soar at CAGR

The Asia-Pacific Digital Respiratory Device Market Analysis, 2023, by MarkNtel Advisors, presents a well-researched, detail-driven, and accurate study for the stakeholders. This analysis entails prominent aspects like trends, & recent developments, drivers, opportunities, challenges, & restraints, among other parameters, influencing the overall industry expansion across different locations.

According to Asia-Pacific Digital Respiratory Device Market Research Report: Forecast (2023-2028), "The market is projected to grow at a CAGR of around 36.2% during the forecast period, i.e., 2023-28. The market growth is aided by the region's increasing number of respiratory diseases, including asthma, sleep apnea, chronic bronchitis, and more.

However, emerging economies, coupled with bolstering public awareness, are adopting new technologically advanced devices with government-increased healthcare expenditure. Furthermore, the increasing geriatric population and obesity presents chances for the market to expand more in coming years."

Request A Free PDF of The Study's Report (To Completely Understand This Report's [Summary + TOC]] Structure) - www.marknteladvisors.com/query/request-sample/asia-pacific-digital-respiratory-device-market.html

Segmentation Analysis

The Asia-Pacific Digital Respiratory Device Market is highly fragmented and comprises various bifurcations & geographies. These sections cover information on opportunities & challenges faced by the players, fluctuations in the demand, supply, revenue generation, size, sales, profits, volume, & price, among other parameters for the investors.

The stakeholders can also attain an overview of the external factors influencing the industry expansion over the years. The Asia-Pacific Digital Respiratory Device Market bifurcates into the following segmentations:

By Device Type

-Therapeutic Devices

--CPAP Devices

--BI-PAP Devices





--Oxygen Concentrates


-Diagnostics Monitoring Devices


--Pulse Oximeters

-Consumables and Accessories

-Respiratory Therapy Wearable Medical Device

--Watch and Wristband


--Nasal Cannulas


--Breathing Circuits

By End-User


-Hospitals and Clinics

-Ambulatory Care Centers

By Application

-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

-Sleep Apnea


-Infectious Disease

Check Out the Complete Research Study's Comprehensive Benchmark, Click Here - www.marknteladvisors.com/research-library/asia-pacific-digital-respiratory-device-market.html

Growing Prevalence of Asthma Stimulates Demands for Digital Respiratory Devices

"Asthma as most prominent in APAC region instigate demand for related treatment methods in the forecasting period. Healthcare professionals facing continuous blocks in managing respiratory diseases despite the presence of novel therapies propel the demand for smart inhalers with advanced features. Moreover, the features of tracking dosage, supervising schedules, recording data, and more, further accelerate the market demand and growth.", states the research report.

Rapid Adoption of Digital Respiratory Devices Grants China the Lion's Market Share

"Country-wise, China procures the largest share with its rapid adoption of digital respiratory devices after the outbreak of Covid-19 and to cope with increasing asthma and respiratory problems with the ever-increasing aging population. Besides, China's initiative, Healthy China 2030, further propels the market to seek and improve the national health system.

However, the increasing cases of respiratory diseases among the growing population of India has resulted in the rapid adoption of new health-related technologies, promising lucrative growth to the market.", states the research report by Markntel Advisors.

Competitive Projection & Analysis

The researchers at Markntel Advisors have rigorously profiled each company operating in the industry, offering insights to the stakeholders about the competition and allowing them to strategize their tactics using the data put together in the report.

This information comprises the recent developments, mergers & acquisitions, product/service launches, expansion plans, & opportunities utilized to attain revenue, alongside the role & participation of the governments and more.

The prominent players profiled in the report include Philips, 3M Healthcare, Astra Zenca Plc., Novartis AG, GE Healthcare, Masimo Corporation, Cipla Ltd., Resmed Ltd., Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd., and Acorda Therapeutics.

For Any Additional Information or Questions About This Report, Please Contact Us @ - www.marknteladvisors.com/query/talk-to-our-consultant/asia-pacific-digital-respiratory-device-market.html

Customization Available

To avail of exciting offers & customization services on the report, reach out to MarkNtel Advisors and get a personalized analysis of the Asia-Pacific Digital Respiratory Device Market. Out researchers compile data for the stakeholders, incorporating all the prominent aspects influencing the industry expansion alongside the particular chapters requested. This detail-driven, unbiased, and accurate data on grounds curating the fundamentals underlying the market potential & lucrative opportunities shall benefit the investors in numerous ways in the future.

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MarkNtel Advisors is a leading research, consulting, & data analytics firm that provides an extensive range of strategic reports on diverse industry verticals. We deliver data to a substantial & varied client base, including multinational corporations, financial institutions, governments, & individuals, among others. Our specialization in niche industries & emerging geographies allows our clients to formulate their strategies in a much more informed way and entail parameters like Go-to-Market (GTM), product development, feasibility analysis, project scoping, market segmentation, competitive benchmarking, market sizing & forecasting, & trend analysis, among others, for 15 diverse industrial verticals.

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Respiratory care job description: Read this article to see the respiratory care job description and duties, roles/responsibilities, and qualifications.InformationGuideNigeria

The practice of diagnostic cardiopulmonary evaluation and respiratory therapy treatment applied to patients with inadequacies and abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary system is the focus of the allied health profession known as respiratory care. It involves pertinent patient, family, and public education.

Respiratory Care Job Description and Duties, Roles/Responsibilities, Qualifications
Photo Source: Mayo Clinic College of Medic

Research on the cardiopulmonary system, diagnostic tests including pulmonary function and sleep studies, research on the cardiopulmonary system, and neurophysiological studies about respiratory care are all included in the cardiopulmonary evaluation.

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In respiratory care, particular testing methods are used to support diagnosis, therapy monitoring, and research. This is taken to mean measuring blood gas analysis, ventilatory volumes, pressures, and flows, among other relevant physiologic monitoring.

Aerosols, inhaled medications, environmental control systems, humidification systems, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage, pulmonary rehabilitation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and airway management, which may include emergency endotracheal intubation, are some examples of respiratory therapy techniques.JAMB Portal

Identifies, prevents, treats, investigates, and rehabilitates acute or chronic cardiopulmonary dysfunction by the application of scientific principles, resulting in optimum health and function.

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To assess patients’ respiratory health, create a respiratory care plan, and decide whether the recommended therapy is suitable, the respiratory care specialist reviews existing data gather new data, and makes recommendations for gathering data.

Initiating, carrying out, and altering the therapeutic and diagnostic procedures that have been prescribed. such as administering medical gases, humidification, aerosols, aerosol medications, postural drainage, bronchopulmonary hygiene, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, supporting patients who are being mechanically ventilated, maintaining artificial and natural airways, performing pulmonary function testing, hemodynamic monitoring, and other physiologic monitoring, and collecting samples of various bodily fluids.

Read Also: Technical Writer Job Description and Roles/Responsibilities, Qualifications

Conveys necessary information to other members of the healthcare team and records it in the patient’s medical record and on other forms. assembles, calibrates, and inspects the required equipment.How to Buy TikTok Followers using Cryptocurrency?

Uses problem-solving techniques to locate and fix issues with respiratory care equipment. Shows the right interpersonal abilities to collaborate effectively with clients, families, staff, and colleagues. accepts instructions, keeps professional ethics, preserves confidentiality, doesn’t discriminate, etc.

They are found in almost every aspect of today’s healthcare services and treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and others.

They are professionals who care about their patients and coworkers. Their analytical and technical abilities are also outstanding. It is a rapidly growing profession that is also highly competitive.

They have a bachelor’s degree before entering medical school. After completing medical school and residency, a license and certification to practice medicine are granted.

Responsibilities of a Respiratory Care

  • Patients with respiratory or cardiopulmonary issues should be questioned and examined.
  • Consult medical professionals when determining a patient’s condition and creating a treatment plan.
  • run diagnostic procedures.
  • Treat patients with a range of techniques.
  • Track and document the progress of your patients.
  • Diagnosing and treating conditions affecting the heart, lungs, brain, diabetes, and gastrointestinal tract as well as hypertension, diabetes, and various heart, brain, cardiopulmonary, and other conditions.NYSC Portal
  • Treating lung illnesses, severe allergies, some sleep difficulties, and breathing problems.
  • Administering and interpreting diagnostic tests, such as pulmonary function tests, analyzing patient histories, and determining the level of risk that patients have been exposed to, such as asbestos and tobacco smoke.
  • Getting lung or chest wall lining samples by angiographic imaging and other specialist methods.
  • Evaluating the resilience of patients to the stress brought on by surgery, collaborating with surgeons to develop breathing management techniques, and perhaps keeping an eye on patients’ status as they undergo surgery.
  • Advising surgeons on the risk statuses of patients and suggesting interventions.
  • Administering vaccinations to safeguard people against illness.
  • Obtaining advice from other doctors.How to Recharge GOTV using First Bank USSD Code
  • Creating, testing, and researching new drugs or treatments.
  • Using interventional procedures from other medical specialties, such as balloon angioplasty, stent implantation, and tiny needle biopsies, to keep the airways open.

Duties of a espiratory care

  • By planning and administering medically prescribed respiratory therapy, the patient’s pulmonary function is restored, pain is relieved, and life is supported.
  • Meets the goals and needs of the patient while also providing quality care by performing pulmonary function tests, assessing and interpreting evaluations and test results, and determining respiratory therapy treatment plans in consultation with physicians and by prescription.Romantic Love Messages
  • Assists patients in carrying out their treatment plans and maintaining their quality of life by administering inhalants, operating mechanical ventilators, therapeutic gas administration apparatus, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators.
  • Performs bronchopulmonary drainage, assists with breathing exercises, and monitors physiological responses to therapy, such as vital signs, arterial blood gases, and blood chemistry changes, to administer respiratory therapy treatments.
  • Treatments are directed by aides, technicians, and assistants.
  • Evaluates the effects of a respiratory therapy treatment plan by observing, noting, and evaluating the progress of the patient and recommending adjustments and modifications.
  • Consults with physicians, nurses, social workers, and other health care workers to complete discharge planning; participates in patient care conferences.
  • Assures that the therapeutic plan is followed after discharge by designing home exercise programs and instructing patients, families, and caregivers on how to use them.
  • Outpatient or home health follow-up programs are recommended and/or provided.
  • Charts in patient and department record to document patient care services.
  • By keeping information confidential, you can maintain patient trust while also protecting hospital operations.Good Morning Love Messages
  • Maintains a safe and clean workplace by adhering to procedures, rules, and regulations.
  • Adheres to infection-control policies and protocols to protect patients and employees.
  • Provides information and develops and implements in-service training programs for respiratory therapy staff.
  • Complies with federal, state, and local legal and certification requirements by researching existing and new legislation, anticipating future legislation, enforcing compliance, and advising management on appropriate actions.

Read Also: House Manager Job Description and Roles/Responsibilities, Qualifications

Roles of a respiratory care

Respiratory care practitioners work with adults, premature infants, and geriatric patients in surgical services, air and ground transport, multi-disciplinary nutrition teams, emergency departments, neonatal/pediatric intensive care, and medical, cardiac, and surgical intensive care in acute care hospitals.

Practitioners can work in a variety of settings, including the diagnostic pulmonary laboratory, bronchoscopy laboratory, long-term acute care units, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) units, or as a traveling therapist, home respiratory therapist, or pharmaceutical sales representative.JAMB Result

Responsibilities daily include various respiratory care modalities in the treatment of pulmonary diseases as well as advanced critical care procedures.

Respiratory care qualifications/skills

  • Oxygen administration
  • Resuscitation by cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
  • Mechanical ventilator administration.
  • Drug administration to the lungs.
  • Cardiopulmonary systems are being monitored.
  • Lung function testing.

Respiratory care salary structure in USA

What is the average salary for a Respiratory Care Practitioner in the United States? As of September 26, 2022, the average Respiratory Care practitioner’ salary in the United States is $66,589, but the salary range typically falls between $60,396 and $71,873.

Read Also: Community Manager Job Description and Roles/Responsibilities, Qualifications

Types of Respiratory Care

  • Intensive care.
  • Acute treatment (hospital)
  • Emergency treatment.
  • Adult.
  • Pediatric.
  • Outpatient care/home care

Respiratory care practitioners use diagnostic tests to determine the specific pulmonary condition affecting a patient and then treat them accordingly.

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Nine out of ten people breathe polluted air In the world, which kills 7 million people every year, reports the World Health Organization (WHO). However, this happens not only outside, but also inside homes.

What are the health effects of breathing polluted household air?

According to the World Health Organisation, it is bad to breathe not only outside but also inside homes. “Some 2.4 billion people cook over open fires or leaky stoves that use kerosene, biomass (firewood, animal dung, or agricultural waste), or coal fuel, which can add harmful pollutants to the air in their homes. Let’s put it.”

particular, About 4 million people die prematurely every year Causes of diseases caused by household pollution.

“Las suspended particles and other pollutants In this inner part They inflame the airways and lungs, inhibit the immune response and reduce the oxidizing capacity of the blood”, reports the organization.

In addition, WHO warns that household air pollution especially causes non-communicable diseases. stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer,

In addition, the health agency continues, it has been shown that there is a link between household air pollution and Low birth weight, tuberculosis, cataracts, and cancer of the larynx and nasopharynx.

What are the health effects of ambient air pollution?

In turn, outdoor air pollution represents a major environmental risk to health. Affects all people in low, middle, and high-income countries WHO has warned.

According to this organization’s 2019 estimates, ambient (outdoor) air pollution in cities and rural areas around the world Causes 4.2 million premature deaths every year,

“Microscopic air pollutants can bypass our body’s defenses and penetrate deep into our respiratory and circulatory systems,” our lungs, heart and Brain,

WHO estimates that about 37% of premature deaths in 2019 were due to outdoor air pollution ischemic heart disease and stroke, from 18% to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 23% acute respiratory infection, and from 11% to cancer of the respiratory tract,

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The global smart bike market size is expected to reach US$ 2,640.10 million by 2028, registering a CAGR of 10.7% from 2022 to 2028, according to a new research study conducted by The Insight Partners.

The rising health consciousness among people is fueling the demand for smart bikes globally. Regular exercise using smart bikes helps people improve their cardio-respiratory capacity, thus, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Cycling also helps in improving lungs and breathing capacity. People with chronic lung disease, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can improve their lungs and breathing capacity through physical activities.

Due to this, the demand for smart bikes has increased. Smart bikes also give the feel of an actual ride with health benefits.

When opting for different modes, riders feel like riding on a road or hills. The movement of the handle and seat make it more realistic for a rider when riding the bike in the above-mentioned mode.

Advanced smart bike technologies help attract more customers and make the rider work more enthusiastically, thus helping them fight the above health issues. Thus, these advantages are fueling the smart bike market growth

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The smart bike market is analyzed based on connectivity, handle type, and application. Based on connectivity, the market is bifurcated into Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.

In terms of handle type, the market is segmented into fixed handle type and moving handle type. Based on application, the market is bifurcated into residential and commercial.

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The ecosystem of the global smart bike market comprises the following stakeholders: contract manufacturers, technology providers, other suppliers, logistic partners, retail partners, smart bike market players, and end users. Smart bike manufacturing is mostly contracted to contract manufacturers.

Most such manufacturers are based in China and other Asia Pacific countries. Contract manufacturers form an integral part of this ecosystem, offering better profitability.

Technology providers can include several suppliers, from artificial intelligence (AI) powered back-end software providers to ride scenario developers. Other suppliers include providers of music content for smart bike apps, packaging materials, and labels.

Logistic partners aid the smart bike market players in both pre-and post-sale scenarios. The major end users of the smart bike market include commercial establishments and individuals.

The COVID-19 pandemic was an unprecedented event that disrupted several industry verticals globally. While some received a positive impact, most were negatively impacted.

Implementation of containment measures, such as trade bans, travel restrictions, and workforce limitations, impacted various businesses' manufacturing, supply, sales, and promotional activities. People had to opt for indoor fitness activities as they stayed indoors due to lockdown and isolation measures.

Therefore, there was a sharp increase in demand for smart bikes worldwide. Hence, the COVID-19 pandemic positively impacted the smart bike market.

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Echelon Fitness Multimedia, LLC; Garmin Ltd.; Keiser Corporation; Life Fitness; Nautilus, Inc.; Peloton Interactive, Inc.; Wahoo Fitness; Johnson Health Tech; Mad Dogg Athletics; and Sole Fitness are key smart bike market players profiled during this study. In addition, several other important smart bike market players were studied and analyzed during this market study to get a holistic view of the global smart bike market and its ecosystem.

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DUBLIN--()--The "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Market, Global Forecast 2023-2028, Industry Trends, Growth, Insight, Impact of Inflation, Company Analysis" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The Global Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Market will increase to around USD 22.91 Billion by 2028 according to the publisher. Chronic inflammatory lung disease causes breathing difficulties.

Companies Mentioned

  • AstraZeneca
  • Pfizer, Inc
  • GlaxoSmithKline plc
  • Novartis AG
  • AstellasPharma Inc.
  • Abbott Laboratories
  • BoehringerIngelheim International GmbH
  • Almirall

It is a group of progressive lung diseases. The most common diseases are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD, if left untreated, can lead to worsening respiratory infection, heart problems, and the progression of various other diseases.

COPD is commonly caused due to smoking tobacco-related products. The longer and more tobacco products an individual smokes, the greater risk of having COPD.

Cigarette smoking, cigar smoke, pipe smoke, and second-hand smoke can also cause COPD. According to World Health Organization (WHO), COPD is considered the third leading cause of death worldwide, and nearly 90% of Global Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease deaths in those under 70 years of age occur in low and medium income countries (LMIC).

Worldwide Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market will grow at a CAGR of 5.73% from 2022 to 2028

The rise in the incidence of COPD is the major contributor to the market's growth. In addition, people's lifestyle change is responsible for increasing habits like smoking and drinking.

The other factors that influence the growth of the COPD market are a rise in demand for medications for the treatment of COPD symptoms, an increase in funding for R&D and drug production by government and pharmaceutical companies, growing awareness among people across developing and underdeveloped countries, are boosting the growth of the market companies.

Nevertheless, the high cost of COPD treatment and lack of knowledge about COPD is anticipated to hinder the market's growth. Also, factors like patent expiry for medical devices will restrict the development of the market.

Chronic Bronchitis will lead in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Market

Based on type, the global COPD market is categorized into; chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The chronic bronchitis category dominates the market share of the worldwide COPD market. The reason for its dominance is the growing incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis worldwide, due to the rise in the consumption of cigarettes and the increase in industrialization, which results in air pollution and the release of harmful gases into the environment.

Drug remain the most important segment in Treatment Type

Based on treatment, the global COPD market is divided into; drugs, oxygen therapy, surgery, and others. The drugs segment has a higher market share in the market, owing to the increasing use of drugs as the first line of treatment for COPD to make breathing easier by widening airways.

The oxygen therapy market is also expected to surge at a significant CAGR rate in the forecast period. The growth can be attributed to factors like the rapid growth of the geriatric population, the rising prevalence of tobacco smoking, the development of respiratory disorders, the increase in the usage of home-based oxygen therapy, and technological advancements.

Rise in Number of COPD Therapeutics Dispensed to boost the hospital Segment

The distribution channels can be segmented into; hospital pharmacies, retail pharmacies, and online pharmacies. The hospital pharmacies segment has a high market share. The dominance due to the rising number of patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases and rising awareness about these diseases. Furthermore, the availability of various diagnostics and treatment facilities and higher purchasing power has contributed to the segment's growth.

North American area dominates the COPD Industry

The report divides the region into; North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and Middle-East & Africa. The North American area dominates the market share. This can be attributed to increased investment in R&D activities to develop innovative drugs for treating diseases. Also, the rise in an older population, rising incidence and prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases, technological advancement, growing healthcare sectors, and massive presence of leading market players are some of the major factors that boost the COPD Market in the region.

The Asia-Pacific region is forecasted to have significant growth, owing to increasing focus on the development of healthcare infrastructure, rising prevalence of various chronic respiratory diseases along with lifestyle diseases, rise in industrialization, changes in the lifestyle, and increase in the patient population suffering from COPD in the developing nations such as China, and India. According to our research report, Worldwide Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Market was at US$ 16.40 Billion in 2022.

For more information about this report visit www.researchandmarkets.com/r/f0ka08

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The Respiratory Heaters Market report focuses on regional and global market opportunities and competitive scenarios for respiratory heaters. Estimates and forecasts of market size have been provided based on a unique research design tailored to the dynamics of the respiratory heaters market. The respiratory heaters market has been classified according to application (asthma, bronchitis, COPD, and others), end user, and region (hospitals, clinics, home healthcare, and others). To provide precise market size estimates, the historical background for the respiratory heaters market has been analysed based on organic and inorganic developments. In addition, key factors influencing the growth of the respiratory heaters market with potential gravity have been identified. The study’s major regions include North America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East, and the Rest of the World.

Respiratory heaters are widely used in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis, demand for them is expected to rise in the future. External respiratory heaters are used in conjunction with a nebulizer system. These heaters are used to provide heated breathing gas or heated aerosol to patients requiring respiratory support via a nasal cannula and tracheal tube.

 Edition : 2023

Scope of Respiratory Heaters For 2023:

Respiratory Heaters Market research assesses the rate of growth and market value based on market dynamics and growth generating variables. Complete understanding is based on the most recent industry news, prospects, and trends. The research includes a thorough market analysis and vendor landscape, as well as a SWOT analysis of the top vendors.

Major companies in Respiratory Heaters Market are: Teleflex Ink. , Care Fusion Corporation, Armstrong Medical, Healthcare Trust and Mediline industries, Great Group Medical., Co., Ltd, and GE Healthcare

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Reasons to Buy This Report:

• Provides niche insights for decision about every possible segment helping in strategic decision making process.

• Market size estimation of the respiratory heaters market on a regional and global basis.

• A unique research design for market size estimation and forecast.

• Identification of major companies operating in the market with related developments

• Exhaustive scope to cover all the possible segments helping every stakeholder in the respiratory heaters market.

Years Covered in the Study:

Historic Year: 2016-2021

Base Year:2021

Estimated Year: 2022

Forecast Year: 2030

Objectives of this report:

• To estimate the market size for respiratory heaters market on regional and global basis.

• To identify major segments in respiratory heaters market and evaluate their market shares and demand.

• To provide a competitive scenario for the respiratory heaters market with major developments observed by key companies in the historic years.

• To evaluate key factors governing the dynamics of respiratory heaters market with their potential gravity during the forecast period.

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Highlights of the Global Respiratory Heaters report:

‣ A complete backdrop analysis, which includes an assessment of the Respiratory Heaters Market

‣ An objective assessment of the trajectory of the market

‣ Market segmentation up to the second or third level

‣ Reporting and evaluation of recent industry developments

‣ Important changes in market dynamics

‣ Emerging niche segments and regional markets

‣ Historical, current, and projected size of the market from the standpoint of both value and volume

‣ Market shares and strategies of key players

‣ Recommendations to companies for strengthening their foothold in the market


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Spirometer Market by Type (Hand-Held and Table-Top), Technology (Volume Measurement and Flow Measurement), Application (Asthma, COPD and others), and End User (Hospitals and Clinics, Home Healthcare and Others): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2020-2027  , Covid 19 Outbreak Impact research report added by Report Ocean, is an in-depth analysis of market characteristics, size and growth, segmentation, regional and country breakdowns, competitive landscape, market shares, trends and strategies for this market. It traces the market’s historic and forecast market growth by geography. It places the market within the context of the wider Spirometer market, and compares it with other markets., market definition, regional market opportunity, sales and revenue by region, manufacturing cost analysis, Industrial Chain, market effect factors analysis, Spirometer market size forecast, market data & Graphs and Statistics, Tables, Bar &Pie Charts, and many more for business intelligence. Get complete Report (Including Full TOC, 100+ Tables & Figures, and Chart). – In-depth Analysis Pre & Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak Impact Analysis & Situation by Region

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Key Segments Studied in the Global Spirometer Market

The global spirometer market accounted for $1,079.51 million in 2019, and is expected to reach $1,471.59 million by 2027, registering a CAGR of 3.5% from 2020 to 2027. The spirometer device helps in the identification of different respiratory diseases, such as chronic lung disease that is obstructive, emphysema, asthma, and other breathing diseases, for screening in an occupational environment. Therefore, the rising cases of COPD across the globe are thus ultimately increasing the demand for spirometers. In addition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, globally, and there are several studies, which have shown that there is a little awareness of COPD in the general population. However, many individuals with respiratory symptoms are not aware that they need to be diagnosed, which is limiting the use of spirometers, for detecting respiratory devices, which restrict the growth of the market.


Increase in prevalence of respiratory diseases owing to lifestyle habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption along with surge in geriatric population are some of the major factors driving the growth of the market. For instance, in 2017, according to the WHO, respiratory diseases were considered to be the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Nearly 65 million people suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 3 million are expected to die from it each year, making it the third leading cause of death across the globe.


Moreover, approximately 334 million people suffer from asthma, the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 14% of all children globally. In addition, factors such as ever-increasing air pollution, climatic changes and exposure to dust and fumes are adding up to respiratory illnesses among the populace, which in turn, is driving the adoption of spirometers for diagnosis purpose worldwide. Furthermore, companies are developing technologically advanced spirometers that are portable, small in size along with quicker response and higher accuracy. This is expected to augment the market growth during the forecast period. Moreover, the market is witnessing an emerging trend for intelligent spirometers such as hand-held and table-top, which are helping in providing real-time monitoring. However, lack of awareness regarding respiratory diseases, reimbursement issues and time required for spirometry tests are some of the factors hindering the growth of the market.


The spirometer market is segmented on the basis of type, technology, application, end user, and region. Based on type, the market is segmented into hand-held and tabletop. Based on technology, the market is segmented into volume measurement, and flow measurement. Based on application, the market is segmented into COPD, asthma and others. Based on end user, the market is segmented into hospitals & clinics, home healthcare, and others. Region wise, the market is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA. These regions are further analyzed on the basis of their respective countries.



– The study provides an in-depth analysis of the global spirometer market along with the current trends and future estimations to elucidate the imminent investment pockets.

– Comprehensive analysis of factors that drive and restrict the market growth is provided in the report.

– Comprehensive quantitative analysis of the industry from 2019 to 2027 is provided to enable the stakeholders to capitalize on the prevailing market opportunities.

– Extensive analysis of the key segments of the industry helps in understanding the forms and types of spirometer used across the globe.

– Key market players and their strategies have been analyzed to understand the competitive outlook of the market.


By Type

– Hand-Held

– Table-Top

By Technology

– Volume Measurement

– Flow Measurement

By Application

– Asthma


– Others

By End-User

– Hospitals and Clinics

– Home Healthcare

– Others



– Hill-Rom, Inc.

– Midmark Corp.

– Vitalograph

– COSMED srl

– MGC Diagnostics Corporation

– Smiths Medical

– Vyaire Medical

– Teleflex


Our market research provides vital intelligence on market size, business trends, industry structure, market share, and market forecasts that are essential to developing business plans and strategy.

A combination of factors, including COVID-19 containment situation, end-use market recovery & Recovery Timeline of 2020/ 2021

covid-19 scenario Market Behavior/ Level of Risk and Opportunity End Industry Behavior/ Opportunity Assessment Expected Industry Recovery Timeline Business Impact Horizon
Opening of Economy by Q3 2020 xx xx xx xx
Recovery – Opening of Economy extended till Q4 2020 / Q1 2021 xx xx xx xx

Under COVID-19 Outbreak Impact Analysis:
We analyzed industry trends in the context of COVID-19. We analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on the product industry chain based on the upstream and downstream markets. We analyze the impact of COVID-19 on various regions and major countries.
The impact of COVID-19 on the future development of the industry is pointed out.

Study Explore :

  • Market Behavior/ Level of Risk and Opportunity
  • End Industry Behavior/ Opportunity Assessment
  • Expected Industry Recovery Timeline

For more information or any query mail at [email protected]

Each study, more than 100+ pages, is packed with tables, charts and insightful narrative including coverage on: Report Ocean provides complete tailor-made market reports that deliver vital market information on industry. Our market reports include:

  • Market Sizing and Structuring
  • Micro and macro analysis
  • Regional dynamics and Operational landscape
  • Demographic profiling and Addressable market
  • Legal Set-up and Regulatory frameworks
  • Profitability and Cost analysis
  • Segmentation analysis of Market
  • Existing marketing strategies in the market, Best practice, GAP analysis
  • Competitive landscape, Leading market players, Benchmarking
  • Future market trends and opportunities – Scenario modeling


Geographical Breakdown: The regional and country breakdowns section gives an analysis of the market in each geography and the size of the market by geography and compares their historic and forecast growth. It covers the impact and recovery path of Covid 19 for all regions, key developed countries and major emerging markets.


Countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, USA, Venezuela, Vietnam

In-Depth Qualitative COVID 19 Outbreak Impact Analysis Include Identification And Investigation Of The Following Aspects: Market Structure, Growth Drivers, Restraints and Challenges, Emerging Product Trends & Market Opportunities, Porter’s Fiver Forces. The report also inspects the financial standing of the leading companies, which includes gross profit, revenue generation, sales volume, sales revenue, manufacturing cost, individual growth rate, and other financial ratios. The report basically gives information about the Market trends, growth factors, limitations, opportunities, challenges, future forecasts, and details about all the key market players.

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Key questions answered: Study Explore COVID 19 Outbreak Impact Analysis Our team will be able to provide clear answers, identify key opportunities, new investments, and recommend high quality strategy routes in the market. These answers will include a holistic analysis of the:

  • Existing market infrastructures
  • Market challenges and opportunities
  • Potential for growth in certain industries in the coming years
  • End-consumer target groups and their potential volumes of operation
  • Best regions and segments to target
  • Pros and cons of various promotion models
  • Touch points and an opportunity breakdown within the value chain
  • Market size and growth rate during forecast period.
  • Key factors driving the Market.
  • Key market trends cracking up the growth of the Market.
  • Challenges to market growth.
  • Key vendors of Market.
  • Detailed SWOT analysis.
  • Opportunities and threats faces by the existing vendors in Global Market.
  • Trending factors influencing the market in the geographical regions.
  • Strategic initiatives focusing the leading vendors.
  • PEST analysis of the market in the five major regions.


The Study Explore COVID 19 Outbreak Impact Analysis


  • What should be entry strategies, countermeasures to economic impact, and marketing channels?
  • What are market dynamics?
  • What are challenges and opportunities?
  • What is economic impact on market?
  • What is current market status? What’s market competition in this industry, both company, and country wise? What’s market analysis by taking applications and types in consideration?

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Key Points Covered in Spirometer Market Report:

Global Spirometer Market Research Report
Section 1: Global Spirometer  Industry Overview
Section 2: Global Economic Impact on Spirometer  Industry
Section 3: Global Market Competition by Industry Producers
Section 4: Global Productions, Revenue (Value), according to Regions
Section 5: Global Supplies (Production), Consumption, Export, Import, geographically
Section 6: Global Productions, Revenue (Value), Price Trend, Product Type
Section 7: Global Market Analysis, on the basis of Application
Section 8: Spirometer  Market Pricing Analysis
Section 9: Market Chain, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers
Section 10: Strategies and key policies by Distributors/Suppliers/Traders
Section 11: Key Marketing Strategy Analysis, by Market Vendors
Section 12: Market Effect Factors Analysis
Section 13: Global Spirometer  Market Forecast

……..and view more in complete table of Contents

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality, as well as higher chances of cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer-associated deaths, in a group of people living in Finland, a recent study has found.

While asthma was also linked to a higher mortality risk over the 18-year study (from 2000 to 2018), having symptoms of both COPD and asthma — a condition known as asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) — wasn’t significantly associated with such a risk.

The study, “Mortality of asthma, COPD, and asthma-COPD overlap during an 18-year follow up,” was published in Respiratory Medicine.

Recommended Reading

An illustration of a tree with fallen leaves on the ground.

Chronic uncontrolled asthma may be risk factor for COPD

Obstructive lung diseases are a group of disorders that cause airflow blockage and breathing problems. Asthma and COPD both belong to this group of disorders and can cause symptoms like shortness of breath and cough.

Still, they are distinct from one another. While asthma often develops in children with allergies, COPD usually occurs later in life as a result of lung damage, such as that caused by smoking. Chronic uncontrolled asthma may also be a risk factor for the development of COPD, especially if a person also smokes.

About 27% of COPD patients have ACO, a condition in which they exhibit clinical signs of both COPD and asthma.

COPD, asthma, and ACO have all been previously associated with a higher risk of mortality relative to the general population. To learn more about that relationship, researchers examined mortality rates and clinical features among those with asthma, COPD, and ACO in Finland.

Data were obtained from Health 2000, a Finnish national population health survey of adults, conducted from 2000–2001. A total of 5,922 adults, 30 and older, who completed the survey and agreed to undergo a comprehensive clinical examination were included in the analysis.

Of these, 320 (5.4%) had asthma, 151 (2.5%) had COPD, and 99 (1.7%) had ACO. Patients in these groups had a mean age of 56.5, 63.9, and 66.7 years, respectively.

People with asthma were more often women who did not have a history of smoking, but who did have a history of atopic eczema (dry, itchy inflamed skin), conjunctivitis (eye inflammation), or allergic rhinitis (nose inflammation), all of which are consistent with allergies.

In contrast, COPD patients were more often men and current smokers. Asthma and ACO were also associated with cardiovascular disease, and asthma with diabetes.

Participants were followed until the end of 2018 to monitor causes of death. A total of 1,324 deaths were reported over the 18 years of follow-up. Most deaths — 92.2% or a total of 1,221 — were due to natural causes.

Of the people who died, 109 had asthma, 90 had COPD, and 64 had ACO. In final statistical analyses, having asthma or COPD at the study’s start were each significantly associated with death during follow-up.

These analyses were adjusted for potentially influential factors, including sex, age, smoking, educational level, body mass index (a measure of body fat), physical activity, and history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Specifically, asthma increased the risk of death by about 1.3 times, while COPD increased the odds by 1.5 times, a risk that was “comparable to those with a major cardiovascular disease or diabetes,” according to the researchers.

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Asthma and COPD significantly increase mortality risk

COPD was also associated with greater odds of respiratory (2.3 times higher), cardiovascular (1.5 times higher), and cancer-related (1.9 times higher) deaths.

Asthma was similarly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (1.5 times higher), as well as respiratory death (2.6 times higher).

While ACO did not significantly influence overall mortality risk, ACO patients who also had blood levels of C-reactive protein (an inflammation marker) from 1–2.99 mg/L had a 2.3 times higher risk of death. Respiratory deaths were also about 3.6 times more likely among ACO patients.

“A small number of ACO patients and a small number of total or cardiovascular deaths may explain the lack of association with total or cardiovascular mortality,” the researchers wrote.

Altogether, these findings indicate that asthma and COPD significantly increase the risk of mortality among the general Finnish population.

The team noted, however, that the analysis may be limited by the fact that a low percentage of people who participated in this general health survey had COPD, asthma, or ACO.

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Jose Maria Casais's income of 2,700 euros ($4,230) a month from a pension and incapacity benefits ought to leave him better off than most of his fellow Spaniards.

But Mr Casais, a retired engineer living in Barcelona, says he is being forced to raid his savings every month due to his energy bills soaring because of his reliance on an oxygen machine to alleviate his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

For the past two years, Mr Casais has been plugged into the oxygen concentrator for up to 24 hours a day.

A man holds asthma medication to his mouth.
Jose Maria Casais has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, making him reliant on an oxygen machine.(Reuters: Nacho Doce)

He says his electricity bill has almost tripled since Russia invaded Ukraine in February, triggering an energy crisis in Europe because of its dependence on Russian gas.

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Breathing problem in winter: Stepping outside and feeling a cold wind blow against your face is a stark reminder that the wickedness of winter has arrived. For people who suffer from respiratory diseases including asthma, bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, taking a deep breath of cold air can be dangerous.

Here are 5 tips to help you breathe easier in cold weather:

1. Cover your face

People should protect their face and wear warm clothes while going out in cold weather. This retains some moisture and helps warm the air around the nose. Although some people find it irritating to have their scarf wet, remember that you are breathing in moisture rather than cold, dry air.

2. Breathe through your nose

The nose acts as a greater humidifier than the mouth, making nose breathing better than mouth breathing. Breathing through the nose with a face covering greatly reduces the chances of shortness of breath and chest tightness.

3. Avoid Intense Outdoor Exercise

Exercise makes breathing more difficult because it increases the amount of air you breathe in compared to when you are at rest. If you enjoy running or other intense outdoor exercise, wear appropriate clothing and drink enough water.

4. Keep yourself hydrated

When you stay hydrated, your body will be better able to protect your lungs from the environment and your mucus will be less thick and less likely to get trapped. Warm or hot herbal tea, water, lemon and raw honey are recommended. An added benefit is that some teas including chamomile or peppermint help to relax the airways.

5. Healthy indoor environment

People spend more time indoors in the winter, and there are steps you can take to make your indoor environment better for respiratory health. For example, take extra care to keep your home clean and free of allergens such as dust that make it difficult to breathe.

Additionally, people with respiratory conditions usually take medications to manage their condition.

(Disclaimer: This article is based on general information and is not a substitute for the opinion of a medical expert. Zee News does not confirm the same.)

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According to the official report on the COVID-19 page of the World Health Organization, globally, as of 5:34 pm CET, 1 December 2022, there have been 639,572,819 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 6,615,258 deaths, reported to WHO. While early intubation was the initial recommended strategy for COVID-19 patients with severe hypoxemia, a large case series in the US, as well as data from Britain, China, and Italy, suggests high mortality for patients requiring invasive ventilation [1]. The National Institute of Health now recommends high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) as first-line oxygen support [2]. The COVID-19 clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic cases to severe respiratory involvement leading to hypoxemia and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Various oxygen therapy modalities have been used in such patients, including invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation.

To overcome the hypoxemic crisis, immediate oxygenation is mandatory for these patients. This is not usually feasible in a distressed, anxious patient without resorting to invasive ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation strategies are not well tolerated. Dexmedetomidine due to its sedative, analgesic, and anti-delirium effects, without respiratory depression, may serve as a conduit for acceptance of NIV mask for non-invasive ventilation in a non-compliant, uncooperative patient, leading to effective ventilation and even avoid endotracheal intubation with its consequences as reported by Karim et al. [3]. Recently, for sedation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), it emphasized maximizing patient comfort so that they remain cooperative, oriented, and able to follow instructions. This is observed to be feasible with dexmedetomidine under targeted therapy to a desired sedation of 0 to -2 RASS score [4].

Case report

We reported six patients with acute respiratory distress, five cases were of COVID-19, and one was of acute exacerbation of COPD. All were severely hypoxaemic, dyspnoic, and in an agitated state at the time of admission. The criteria for acute respiratory distress was taken as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200 mm Hg. The patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), requiring NIV, were uncooperative, rated as +1, +2, or at times even +3 on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). The dexmedetomidine was administered intravenously, 0.2 to 0.3 mcg/kg as a bolus in 10-15 minutes, followed by 0.3-0.4 mcg/kg/hr infusion. The RASS is a structured assessment system for the evaluation of sedation and agitation; sedative medications may be titrated as per the desired target scoring [3]. It is a 10-point scale describing various levels of agitation/sedation, with 0 representing the awake and calm patient, +4 (overtly combative) to +1(restless), and −1(drowsy) to −5 (unarousable). The target sedation level was kept as a RASS of (-1) or (-2) for patients included. 

In COVID-19, dexmedetomidine was given as a trial in our ICU, where commonly used sedatives such as haloperidol, fentanyl, midazolam, and promethazine turned out to be ineffective. 

However, this medication was not used in patients who are gasping or in severe respiratory distress warranting immediate endotracheal intubation (who cannot be put on an NIV face mask) or those with hemodynamic instability, hepatic or renal failure; GI bleed was excluded to give dexmedetomidine for sedation. Informed consent was obtained from the patient’s relative before administering the drug, the patient being too agitated/delirious. During administration, patients were monitored for RASS scoring, apart from the basic monitoring of blood pressure (BP), heart rate, respiratory rate, complications associated with sedation, and other parameters as indicated by the patient’s clinical condition. Weaning from NIV was planned once there was no dyspnoea at inhaled oxygen percentage (FiO2) of 40% either on CPAP (4 cm) mode or Bi level-PAP mode; the Pao2 should be at least 100 mmHg at room air.

Case 1

A 52-year male, weighing 65 kg, and COVID-19 positive, with a history of systemic hypertension for the past 20 years, was brought to our facility with a complaint of mild to moderate fever for the last 10 days along with shortness of breath, which increased progressively to such an extent that now patient had dyspnoea at rest. On examination, the patient had a respiratory rate (RR) ≥ 30 breaths per minute, oxygen saturation (SpO2) was ≤ 74% on room air, and auscultation revealed bilateral crepitations and > 50% lung infiltrates on the X-ray chest. Therapy was immediately begun with oxygen administration with a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), iv antibiotics, and steroids, targeting a peripheral oxygen saturation as measured by a pulse oximeter (SpO2) of 92%. Oxygen saturation failed to improve even on high-flow oxygen; the patient was then shifted to ICU for mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive bi-level positive pressure (BiPAP) ventilation was given a trial through a non-vented face mask, settings kept as FiO2= 50%, I/E PAP = 10/5 cm H2O, and R/R of 15 breath/min. But the patient was very much agitated and unable to tolerate the mask. Inj. haloperidol and inj. promethazine was given intramuscularly, but no success could be achieved in calming down the patient. Dexmedetomidine 0.2 mcg/kg intravenous bolus followed by infusion at 0.4 mcg/kg/hr was started. This helped the patient to calm down and use the NIV mask for longer periods, improving ventilation and oxygenation. The patient was kept on continuous NIV with good acceptance, later on intermittently. He improved and was weaned off subsequently in the next five days.

Case 2

A 68-year male without any comorbidities reported to the emergency with complaints of cough and shortness of breath for the last two days. His oxygen saturation was 82% on room air. Oxygen administration was begun through Hudson mask, along with intravenous (i.v.) antibiotics and steroids. Improvement was seen initially for the first few days, but the patient again started complaining of shortness of breath, and his oxygen saturation started falling despite increasing inhaled oxygen delivery. As he was COVID -19 positive, invasive mechanical ventilation was planned to be avoided. He was kept on non-invasive ventilation, but he was repeatedly removing the NIV mask; thus, oxygenation could not be achieved adequately. Dexmedetomidine 15mcg bolus followed by infusion at the rate of 0.3mcg/kg/hr was started. Thereafter, the patient was able to breathe properly, his hemodynamics settled, and adequate oxygenation could be achieved. 

Case 3

A 40-year female who was a known case of diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and COPD reported to the emergency with complains of shortness of breath, intermittent fever, and cough for the past 15 days. On presentation, her oxygen saturation was 70% on room air with bilateral fine crepitations on chest auscultation. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral bronchopneumonia. Oxygen therapy was initiated immediately with Hudson’s mask at 8-10 L/min, patient improved transiently. Over the next two days, her oxygen requirement increased, followed by increased respiratory rate and labored breathing. She was shifted to ICU for further management. She was initiated on bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) support using a non-vented face mask. Initially, the patient had good acceptance of the NIV mask with intravenous inj. fentanyl and midazolam. The patient-reported discomfort, and her oxygen requirement increased. A feeling of suffocation on the NIV mask was reported, which led to removing the mask (NIV failure). To increase the acceptance of face masks and to alleviate anxiousness inj. dexmedetomidine was started at a dose of 0.2mcg/kg/min bolus followed by an infusion, titrated to a dose of 0.45 mcg/kg/hr to achieve a state of calmness and comfort in the patient. This aided in the acceptance of the NIV mask and BiPAP ventilation, with improved hemodynamic stability accompanied by improved oxygen saturation and PaO2 in arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. The patient was later weaned from non-invasive ventilation and finally discharged from the hospital.

Case 4

A 50-year male with a history of fever, difficulty in breathing, and cough for the last six days was brought to our emergency. On arrival, the patient was conscious, oriented, and dyspnoic, with a respiratory rate of 28 breaths per minute and an oxygen saturation of 68% on room air. High-flow oxygen therapy was started. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral bronchopneumonia, and on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), the ‘CT severity’ score was found to be 14/25. The patient was shifted to ICU on the third day of emergency admission as he required NIV support. We started BiPAP, but he was restless and had poor acceptance of NIV, which also resulted in anxiety and tachycardia. He was initially given inj. fentanyl and midazolam infusion for NIV compliance, but after the second day, he again became agitated and started removing the NIV mask. Dexmedetomidine was started as a bolus (0.3mcg/kg) and infusion (0.5mcg/kg/hr) intermittently during the use of NIV. This helped in achieving an increased duration of use of BiPAP with decreased agitation and better compliance with the NIV. It also helped in stabilizing the hemodynamic parameters and also relieved the discomfort during NIV use. This translated to improved ventilation and oxygenation, and the general condition of the patient was finally weaned off from NIV after two days of dexmedetomidine infusion.

Case 5

A postpartum day five female with a previous history of peripartum cardiomyopathy developed a fever followed by cough and mild difficulty in breathing. She started oral paracetamol, antibiotics, and oral steroids at home. The patient was relieved from the above complaints but again had a bout of fever on postpartum day 11, which was associated with a fall in oxygen saturation to 89%, and was brought to the emergency department for medical management. She was started on supplemental oxygen via a high-flow nasal cannula for respiratory support. The patient's condition worsened drastically over the next few hours, and her oxygen saturation fell to 68% despite a high flow of oxygen. Though, her HRCT revealed a CT severity score was 7/25. She was brought to ICU immediately and was put on non-invasive ventilation. The patient was very agitated and repeatedly removed her NIV mask because of the feeling of suffocation and discomfort and an inability to sleep. She was given oral lorazepam to help her calm down but to no effect. She was then started on injection dexmedetomidine which was given as 10 mcg iv bolus followed by infusion at 0.3 mcg/kg/hr. This helped in making the patient feel at ease and calming her down and able to feel comfortable to take rest. This also allowed for the increased duration and better acceptance of the NIV mask, which automatically improved her ventilation. The patient's vital parameters improved over the next week with intermittent NIV and dexmedetomidine use. Her general condition and chest X-ray were improved. She was then tapered off NIV and put on HFNC, which ceased the requirement of sedation.

Case 6

A 54-year male came to casualty in respiratory distress, a known case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure exacerbations, as well as bronchopneumonia. His baseline vital signs were a heart rate of 127 beats per minute, tachypnoea with a respiratory rate of 32 breaths per minute, a blood pressure of 158/85 mm Hg, his SpO2 was 74% on room air with bilateral fine crepitations in the chest. Oxygen therapy was initiated immediately by Hudson mask at 8-10 L/min, along with iv antibiotics and steroids.

As the patient was in respiratory distress, non-invasive ventilation was started by BiPAP machine using a non-vented face mask (settings: FiO2= 50%, I/E PAP was 10/5 cm H2O, R/R was 16 breath/min). But the patient was very much agitated and unable to tolerate the mask. To alleviate his agitation, dexmedetomidine was administered at a starting dose of 0.2 μg/kg/min as a bolus, titrated to 0.2-0.45 μg/kg/hr infusion for a sedation scale of up to 3. The response could be seen within half an hour of dexmedetomidine; the patient was no longer agitated. His clinical condition improved dramatically, and oxygen saturation and PaO2 in arterial blood gas (ABG) also became better. His vital signs were stable, without any bradycardia or hypotension. Dexmedetomidine infusion was tapered as the patient’s NIV requirements decreased and were stopped, the patient is taken off from NIV with an improved clinical condition, and SpO2 increased to 97%, respiratory rate returned to normal (18 breaths per minute). The total duration of dexmedetomidine administration for this patient was 48 hours. He was discharged from the hospital on the fifth day.

These initial six cases of COVID-19 were managed with the help of dexmedetomidine to make feasible the NIV mask acceptance; thus, NIV ventilatory support compliant. The patients had RASS of +3 before the intervention, which became -1 or -2 after dexmedetomidine intervention, with improved oxygenation (SpO2) (Table 1).

Sl. No. Cases Age/sex Clinical Scenario Ventilatory mode Drugs initially tried Second line Drug Remark
1 51 yrs./M SpO2=74%, R/R= 30   Hypertensive, COVID positive, acute respiratory failure                RASS Score +3 NIV bi-level PAP Inj haloperidol and inj promethazine Dexmed 0.2 mcg/kg bolus followed infusion 0.4mcg/kg/hr intermittently      oxygenation improved     Spo2=>90%,R/R=16, RASS Score became-2,  weaned off on day 5
2 68 yrs./M SpO2=82%, COVID positive, respiratory distress, RASS Score +3 BiPAP ventilation with orofacial mask Inj haloperidol and inj promethazine Dexmed 15 mcg bolus followed infusion 0.3mcg/kg/hr intermittently Oxygenation improved   (Spo2=>92%), RASS Score became-2, weaned off 
3 40 yrs./F SpO2=70%, acute respiratory failure, known case of COPD, DM & hypothyroidism RASS Score +3 NIV BiPAP mask ventilation Inj fentanyl and midazolam for NIV compliance and failure to weaned off Dexmed 0.2 mcg/kg bolus followed infusion 0.45 mcg/kg/hr RASS Score became-2,  Spo2=>92% weaned off NIV in 2 days             
4 50 yrs./M SpO2=68%,   COPD, acute respiratory distress,with bilateral bronchopneumonia,  RASS Score +3 NIV BiPAP ventilation Inj fentanyl and midazolam for NIV compliance for 4 days failure to weaned off Dexmed 0.2 mcg/kg bolus followed titrated, infusion 0.4 mcg/kg/h for sedation RASS Score became-2, Spo2=>90% weaned off NIV within 2 days
5 30 yrs./F postpartum day 5th  COVID positive, respiratory failure, with peripartum cardiomyopathy    Spo2=69%  RASS Score +3 HFNC followed by BiPAP NIV ventilation Inj haloperidol and inj promethazine Dexmed 10 mcg bolus followed titrated, infusion 0.3 mcg/kg/hr oxygenation improved, Spo2=>92%   RASS Score               -1, weaned off on day 2
6 54 yrs./M COPD, R/R=32/min, Spo2=>68%, bilateral bronchopneumonia in CHF, COVID positive RASS Score +3 NIV BiPAP ventilation Inj haloperidol and inj promethazine Dexmed 0.2 mcg/kg bolus followed titrated, infusion 0.2-0.4 mcg/kg/hr oxygenation Improved, Spo2=>90% RASS Score became-2, 

The COVID-19 disease causes influenza-like symptoms ranging from fever, sore throat, body ache, and cough to shortness of breath, fall in oxygen saturation, and even chest pain. Oxygen therapy is indicated in moderate and severe cases through an HFNC, non-invasive ventilation, or an invasive ventilatory support.

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a well-established treatment for acute respiratory failure [1], especially in patients with hypercapnia [2] and cardiogenic pulmonary edema [5]. There is now growing evidence that NIV may be of benefit to patients early in the disease process and may also prevent further deterioration and the need for endotracheal intubation [6]. It acts by supplying a mixture of air and oxygen using positive pressure to help the patient breathe comfortably, therefore, improving oxygenation, increasing the lung volume, and decreasing the work of breathing, although this has little or no effect on the natural course of the disease [7,8].

NIV is delivered via a tight face mask or a helmet. NIV includes both the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in which a constant driving pressure is supplied by the machine, and the bi-level positive airway pressure (Bi-level/BIPAP), in which the driving pressure alters rhythmically between inspiration and expiration [8]. The initiation of breath in BIPAP has to be driven by the patient. Therefore, a conscious patient able to initiate their own breaths and able to maintain their own airway is a key factor in the success of NIV [7,9]. Patient acceptance and compliance/coordination are required to prevent any ventilator asynchrony, which has been found to adversely affect sleep, an established cause of NIV failure [10-12]

Sedation has been proposed to help in mechanical ventilation, allaying anxiety, improving sleep, and thereby, helping in modulating physiologic response to stress such as tachycardia and hypertension [13,14]. Various studies have addressed the efficacy of sedation during NIV using dexmedetomidine, midazolam, propofol, and remifentanil in patients with several diseases in which there was a high to intermediate level of evidence for NIV use [11,15-18]. Opioids have been commonly used in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU, and fentanyl is the most commonly used sedative drug in ICU [19]. Respiratory depression and alertness of an individual to maintain his own airway limits the use of benzodiazepines and opioids as sedatives in ICU.

Ketamine does not cause respiratory depression [20]. It limits airway resistance, thereby improving dynamic compliance, minute ventilation, functional residual volume, and tidal volume without inhibiting protective laryngeal and pharyngeal reflexes. However, it precipitates hypersalivation and emergence reaction along with its relative contraindication in hypertension and those with an increased cardiac workload. Hence, its use in NIV is controversial.

Dexmedetomidine is an α2 adrenoreceptor agonist with potent anxiolytic, sedative, and mild analgesic effects without any respiratory depression. The lack of respiratory depression and arousable sedation makes it a very convenient drug to use in patients with NIV support [21]. The drug has also been known to have both cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties [22]. Its organ protective effects against acute organ injury, such as brain, lung, and kidney, have been well established in pre-clinical settings [23,24]. Its cholinergic anti-inflammatory mechanisms are also postulated to suppress excessive inflammatory responses to COVID-19 [25]. Demuro et al., in their study, used dexmedetomidine to improve ventilator synchronization among patients with acute respiratory failure and reduce the length of ICU stay [25]. However, the role of combination therapy for sedation may be a better choice to improve ventilator synchronization, and NIV mask acceptance as a single drug is inadequate to achieve the target sedation [26,27]. The other facts which are relevant in our cases are that - COVID-19 patients are in requirement of higher sedation and frequently require more than one drug. This might be also one of the reasons why our patients failed the first line [27]. Muriel et al. had shown an improved outcome if proper sedation is achieved following non-invasive ventilation [28].

This study entails substantial limitations, a small case series limited to a single center covering a small geographical area. As most of our patient belongs to COVID-19, we failed to get detailed data regarding the lab findings. The data were based on clinical outcomes rather than a methodically well-planned study. With most of the patient population belonging to the lower socioeconomic strata catered by the institute, drug procurement was also a limitation. Large-scale, multi-centered randomized trials are needed to establish the results and findings of this study.

Dexmedetomidine was found an effective sedative for non-invasive ventilation in COPD/ COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory insufficiency/failure to improve oxygenation, absence of respiratory side effects, prevent ventilator asynchrony, maintain intact airway reflexes, maintain organ perfusion, and prevent the onset of or progression to multi-organ dysfunction and the need for invasive ventilation with its attendant complications was averted. Therefore, we recommend that low-dose dexmedetomidine (0.2 to 0.3 mcg/kg as a bolus followed by 0.3-0.4 mcg/kg/hr infusion) may be used as a sedative of choice in a very agitated and hypoxemic but hemodynamic stable patient who do not tolerate close-fitting NIV face mask, especially in a setting of prior administration of midazolam/ fentanyl/haloperidol/phenothiazine, as has also been suggested recently.

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