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Take a deep breath in. Now, slowly, let it out. This simple activity is something we do all day long and seldom think about. But our lives depend on it. Every cell in the body needs oxygen, which is in the air we breathe.

Your lungs receive this oxygen and then move it into the bloodstream. Each cell in the body exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide, a so-called "waste gas" that your bloodstream carries back to the lungs, where it is exhaled.

Even if you learned all of this in high school biology class, you likely haven't thought a lot about your lungs—that is, until you've had reason to do so. COVID-19 had many of us focusing on our respiratory health, of course, but conditions like the common cold, seasonal allergies, and asthma also cause irritation to these highly sensitive organs.

And, while you are aware that smoking, pollution, and viruses can injure the lungs, you may not realize that obesity and stress can harm them, too.

"Lung health affects the health of all our other organs and organ systems, especially our brain, circulation, gut, immune function, and musculoskeletal system," says Stephen Baldassarri, MD, MHS, a Yale Medicine pulmonary, critical care, and addiction medicine specialist. "Our lungs and airways are directly connected to the outside world. With every breath, we are inhaling what's in our environment. And, ideally, we should only inhale clean air."

We talked more with Dr. Baldassarri and other Yale Medicine specialists, from allergy and immunology to obesity medicine, about lung health.

How obesity affects your lungs

There's a reason people who are overweight or obese easily get out of breath going up a flight of stairs or doing other physical activities.

"An important aspect of obesity is how it affects lung volume," explains Jorge Moreno, MD, a Yale Medicine obesity medicine specialist. "If someone is obese, they can't always get a full breath or full volume into their lungs, which can create breathing problems."

Specifically, extra abdominal fat inhibits the ability of the diaphragm (a wall of muscle between the chest and abdomen) to properly draw in air and expand the lungs. People who are obese usually have smaller lung volume because of this, which leads to breathlessness, Dr. Moreno says.

There are also hormonal factors at play, for both men and women. As fat builds up under the skin, the fat cells secrete hormones. These hormones can cause inflammation throughout the body, including in the lungs, Dr. Moreno explains.

Severe lung inflammation was an early problem among many COVID-19 patients. It was no surprise to physicians, such as Dr. Moreno, that obesity emerged as a leading risk factor for severe illness from COVID-19.

"There are two stages to COVID. The first involves cold-like symptoms, which are typical and, in many cases, they resolve," Dr. Moreno says. "The other is the inflammatory stage, in which the lungs can become inflamed and damaged, potentially leading to problems with the heart and other organs. This is what led to severe disease and death."

Obesity is what Dr. Moreno calls "a pro-inflammatory state." If you add the effects of the virus on top of it, the theory is that inflammation is increased even more, he adds.

Even for people who managed not to get sick with COVID, the pandemic presented challenges. For instance, working from home, being glued to a computer much of the day, and putting in more hours, can make it difficult to find time to eat well and exercise.

"One piece of advice is to try and plan meals better. We can be flexible if we are at home, but that might mean grazing on whatever is in the fridge," suggests Dr. Moreno. "Instead, try to be mindful of what you are eating. This goes for alcohol, too."

Dr. Baldassarri recommends daily exercise and a diet consisting mainly of whole foods, vegetables, fruits, high fiber, and plant-based protein. "Try to engage in moderate-to-vigorous exercise at least 20 minutes every day," he says. "If you can do more than that, it's even better. But any amount of exercise, even a few minutes per day, is better than none. A healthy diet and exercise are great for lung-specific and overall health."

How stress harms the lungs

In stressful situations, your body releases hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol, that can contribute to rapid breathing. If your lungs are healthy, this is not dangerous. However, in people with chronic lung conditions, such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) or asthma, the lungs can't move as much air in and out as they should. This can increase shortness of breath and can contribute to a sensation of panic.

More cortisol release can also cause other challenges, including increased appetite. Or, for those who smoke, stress can cause cravings to smoke more, notes Dr. Baldassarri.

"We know that cigarette and alcohol sales increased during the pandemic," Dr. Baldassarri says. "Those trends likely reflect the stress we have been feeling. Stress influences our entire body and is such an important determinant of our health."

The best thing for lung health is to practice a healthy lifestyle, which includes eating well, exercising, not smoking or vaping, and reducing stress as much as possible, Dr. Baldassarri says. "We can reduce our stress by getting enough sleep at night and taking some time each day to do meditation and focused breathing exercises," he says. "It's also important to spend time with friends and family who bring us positive energy."

How air quality impacts your lungs

Both indoor and outdoor pollutants can cause or worsen lung infections, cancers, and other conditions, including asthma.

In the home and workplace, chemicals, radon, asbestos, building and paint products, carbon monoxide, carpets (which can trap pollutants and allergens such as dust mites, pet dander, and mold), lead, and water damage are some examples of things that can make the air around us unhealthy.

Your exposure to outdoor air pollutants—from car exhaust to power plants to forest fires—can be harder to control, but it's important to know that such exposures can also trigger asthma episodes, make people sick, and negatively affect how children's lungs develop.

You can check your local air quality index, a system that tracks ozone (smog) and particle pollution (from ash, power plants and factories, vehicle exhaust, soil dust, and pollen) and other widespread pollutants, in order to know when to avoid spending too much time outside. The index is color-coded and ranges from "good" air quality in green to "very unhealthy" in purple.

Lots of media outlets, including websites, newspapers, TV, and radio stations, report the local air quality index, and you can also look up your location on It's especially important to avoid exercising outdoors in unhealthy air because the effects of pollution on the body are worsened by the deep, quick breaths people take during physical exertion. It's also best to avoid exercising near high-traffic areas in general, and particularly when the air quality is poor.

People with asthma are especially sensitive to poor air quality, says Jason Kwah, MD, a Yale Medicine allergist and immunologist. "We know that asthma is more prevalent in urban areas and in people who live near major roadways," he says.

How infections injure your lungs

Infectious respiratory diseases, including flu, COVID-19, pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), RSV, and the common cold can harm the lungs. This is especially problematic because these conditions spread easily from person to person.

Most types of lung infections can be treated, but they can also be dangerous for infants, seniors, and people who have a lung disease or a weakened immune system. Fortunately, there are vaccinations (with the exception of RSV and the common cold) available for many common diseases that affect the lungs.

One silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic is how it has highlighted the importance of vaccination in general, says Geoffrey Chupp, MD, director of the Yale Center for Asthma and Airway Disease.

"Because of COVID, we have increased awareness about lung viruses—how they can affect the lungs, and the role vaccination plays in preventing these diseases," he says. "Vaccination has been at the forefront of many people's dinner table conversations, which is good. Public awareness is going to ultimately help people be better about taking care of their lungs."

Stopping lung damage before it turns deadly

Provided by
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A user's guide to keeping your lungs healthy and functional (2022, May 20)
retrieved 20 May 2022

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Panic attacks are disturbing and unforeseen. Their intensity can be reduced only when one knows what to do in this situation.

Although no one can predict when a panic attack will occur, planning ahead of time what to do if one occurs can help a person feel more in control and make panic attacks more bearable.

In this article, we will be covering nine ways to stop a panic attack. But before that, let us look at what exactly is a panic attack.

Panic attack?

There have been numerous occasions where we hear about people going through panic attacks in the middle of an event or place or maybe in hospitals during treatments of other diseases! Now, What is a panic attack? Panic attacks are intense bursts of fear or anxiety. They are daunting, and they have both emotional and physical symptoms.

During a panic attack, you may have trouble breathing, sweat a lot, shudder, and feel your heart racing.

During a panic attack, some individuals may experience chest pain and a sense of disconnection. Some have described experiencing as if they are having a seizure.

9 Ways to Stop a Panic Attack

  1. Taking deep breaths
  2. Muscle relaxation
  3. Repeating a mantra
  4. Medication
  5. Seeking counseling
  6. Remembering your triggers
  7. Practicing mindfulness
  8. Focus on one object
  9. Exercise
  10. Recall a happy memory

Taking deep breaths

Deep breathing can help you control a panic attack.

Panic attacks can result in rapid breathing, and chest tightness can cause breathlessness. This type of breathing can exacerbate anxiety and stress.

Rather, take deep breaths slowly, focusing on each inhalation. Deep breaths from the abdomen gradually inflated the lungs while counting to four on both the inhale and exhale.

People can also try 4-7-8 breathing, known as “relaxing breath.” This technique involves inhaling for 4 seconds, holding the breath for 7 seconds, and exhaling gradually for 8 seconds. Deep breathing can aggravate panic attacks in some people. In such cases, the individual should rather try to focus on something they enjoy.

Muscle relaxation

Muscle tension is another sign of panic attacks. Muscle relaxation techniques can help limit the severity of an attack. This is because if the mind perceives that the body is relaxing, other symptoms, such as rapid breathing, may also lessen.

A common technique for dealing with anxiety and panic attacks is progressive muscle relaxation.

This entails tensing and then relaxing various muscles one at a time. To accomplish this, you must:

  1. Keep the tension in place for 5 seconds.
  2. As you let go of the muscle, say, “relax.”
  3. Rest the muscle for ten seconds before progressing to the next.

Repeating a mantra

A mantra is a sound that promotes concentration and endurance. Mentally repeating a mantra can assist someone in overcoming a panic attack.

The phrase might be as simple as “Don’t worry” or “It will go away soon,” and it can be soothing. It may have a spiritual significance for some.

Physical responses will slow as the person concentrates on quietly repeating a mantra, enabling them to control their breathing and calm their muscles.


A doctor may give a use-as-needed medicine depending on the severity of panic attacks. These drugs usually work quickly.

Some have benzodiazepines or beta-blockers in them. Propranolol reduces blood pressure and pauses a rapid heartbeat.

Valium and Xanax are two benzodiazepines that doctors frequently prescribe for panic attacks.

These medicines, however, can be highly addictive, so people should follow their doctor’s instructions to the letter. They can have life-threatening side effects when combined with narcotics or alcohol.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which can help avoid panic episodes in the first place, may also be mentioned by a doctor.

 Seeking counseling

People with panic attacks and panic disorders can benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other types of psychotherapy. 

CBT is available for groups or individuals, online or in person, and the duration of treatment varies. Your therapist will help you work through it in exposure-based CBT.

CBT may change the structures in your mind that are involved in panic symptoms and change your behavior.

Remembering and recognizing your triggers

Panic attacks are frequently triggered by such things as enclosed spaces, crowds, or financial problems.

People seem to be able to decrease the occurrence and intensity of panic attacks by learning to manage or avoid their triggers.

When you recognize that you’re having a panic episode rather than a heart attack, you may tell yourself that it’ll pass and be fine.

It is not always feasible to avoid attack triggers, but knowing what they are will help you recognize that it is a panic attack and nothing else.

Practicing mindfulness

Mindfulness can help you stay grounded because panic attacks can cause a sense of detachment or separation from reality; this can help you combat your panic attack as it approaches or occurs.

Mindfulness entails concentrating your mind on a particular, recognizing your emotional state, and meditating to reduce stress and improve relaxation.

Concentrate on familiar physical sensations, such as trying to dig your feet below ground or feeling the surface of your jeans on your hands. These specific sensations anchor you to reality and provide you with something objective to concentrate on.

Focus on one object

Concentrating on something concrete in the environment might help people feel grounded when traumatizing feelings or recollections overpower them.

Concentrating on one object can lessen the impact of other stimuli. When considering the thing, the person may consider how it feels, who made it, and what form it is. This method can assist in alleviating panic attack symptoms.

If the person suffers from panic attacks frequently, they can carry a specific familiar object to help them relax. It could be a smooth stone or a hair clip.

People with panic disorder, depression, or trauma can benefit from grounding exercises.


Walking can help a person escape a stressful situation, and the cadence of walking may also aid with breathing control.

Endorphins are hormones that calm the body and boost mood when you move around. Exercise helps lower anxiety over time, resulting in fewer or less severe panic attacks.

Imagine a happy place.

A person’s happy place should be where they feel the most at ease. Everyone will have a unique location. It will be a place where they will feel at ease and calm.

When an attack starts, closing one’s eyes and imagining oneself in this location can help. Consider how serene the environment is. People can also picture their bare feet touching cool soil or soft rugs.


Panic attacks seem disastrous, but they can be stopped by taking the actions mentioned above. In this article, we discussed nine ways to stop a panic attack with a quick overview of what a panic attack is. We hope this article will prove to be of great help to you!

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By Dr. Mukesh Batra

The COVID-19 pandemic has tested our medical system in more ways than any of us could’ve imagined. In the past two years, every individual, thanks to the Indian Government, has got a shield against the Novel Coronavirus. Just recently, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) approved vaccination for the age group of children between 5 to 12 years. It’s a great initiative to protect children vulnerable to the virus. While some children have suffered short-term health issues, healthy youngsters have shown long-term health hazards driven by Omicron and its new variant BA.2. 

After recovering from the virus, many children have faced health problems for months, one of the side effects of long-COVID or post-COVID. Children have encountered multiple health complications related to weakness, stomach issues, depression, and lungs (like breathing problems, Asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic mucus, etc.). According to the NCBI, between 0.39–12.3% of children in India were exposed to pandemic-infused respiratory diseases last year, making the virus dangerous for the lungs. Let’s take a brief look at how Long COVID affects kids’ respiratory systems.

Some of the symptoms of long covid can last for 3 months or longer. Children 6 years or older with lasting symptoms may need lung function tests.

How does Long COVID affect the respiratory system?

Although COVID-19 starts with mild flu-like symptoms, it gradually attacks a person’s body and leads to severe symptoms. The virus badly infects the upper or lower portion of the respiratory tract. It travels through the airways, causing the lining to become inflamed and irritated. Some instances show that the infection can even reach the alveoli (tiny air sacs) that transfer oxygen to the blood cells. Such conditions cause symptoms like dry cough, sore throat, heavy breathing, breathing difficulties, increased heart rate, and pneumonia, followed by lung infections where the alveoli get inflamed. As COVID-19 directly correlates with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), its adverse effects continue to trouble every individual’s (including kids) respiratory system even after recovering from it. 

With the prevailing health hazards among children, parents desperately opted for various medical systems such as Allopathy, Ayurveda, and Homeopathy, for their kids’ treatment. Fortunately, Homeopathy has garnered significant traction amid the pandemic between the two medical systems, as it is known for treating the root cause of any illness, including respiratory problems. Here’s how homeopathy helps treat respiratory issues in children.

Homeopathy for kids’ immunity

Owing to the safety of the Homeopathic medicines, many mothers prefer them since it ensures great results and proves to be 100% safe for kids. Homeopathy is considered an ideal treatment method for toddlers, infants and young adults. Homeopathic medicines help strengthen a kid’s immunity system and thus, help them fight against flu naturally It has therefore become the preferred medicine system that a lot of countries are starting to adopt.

Homeopathy remedies for respiratory problems

Homeopathic remedies are exceptionally effective in treating respiratory infections without any side effects. Even the National Library of Medicine (NIH) stated the use of homeopathy in fighting respiratory infections and offering symptomatic relief in its clinical trial. Homeopathic medicines provide a practical approach to reducing the symptoms, intensity, and recurrence. Some of the prescribed medicines for respiratory problems include Aconitum Napellas, Hepar Sulphur, Belladonna, Antimonium Tartaricum, and Bryonia alba. But before taking such medications/treatments, consulting your nearest homeopath is always advisable.

Home remedies for respiratory ailments

For respiratory diseases like shortness of breath, deep breathing is exceptionally beneficial for managing breathlessness. Other valuable tips like pursed-lip breathing, steam inhalation, salt water gargling, and consuming fresh ginger & fresh fruits also come to the rescue of kids. In case of severe health conditions, parents must visit the nearest homeopathic medical facility for guidance. 

Apart from respiratory ailments, there are many other side effects of Post COVID-19:

Post-COVID Chronic Cough and Breathlessness: Homeopathy has proven efficacy against respiratory illnesses and provides symptomatic relief. A clinical study published by the National Library of Medicine (NIH) shows its efficacy in combating respiratory infections.

Post-COVID depression: A clinical trial supported the efficacy and safety of homeopathic treatments for depression. The trial concluded that patients who received homeopathic treatments reported lower rates of depression.

Post-COVID gastrointestinal issues: Homeopathy is used to provide relief from a range of gastrointestinal issues. According to, a study conducted on 25 cases of acute diarrhoea observed that 97% of cases were cured, which indicates that homeopathic remedieshave the power to cure the acute diarrhoeal condition.

Post COVID weakness: In 2004, the journal of Psychosomatic Research conducted an extensive triple-blind trial on the effectiveness of individualized homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. This trial was carried out over six months, and results showed that homeopathy treatment had a significant improvement over placebo.

(The author is the Founder, Dr. Batra’s Group of Companies. The article is for informational purposes only. Please consult medical experts and health professionals before starting any therapy, medication and/or remedy. Views expressed are personal and do not reflect the official position or policy of the

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Use of the ENO Breathe programme led to improvements in mental health wellbeing and elements of breathlessness in patients with long COVID

The ENO Breathe programme used by patients experiencing long COVID symptoms has been found to improve mental health scores and elements of breathlessness compared to usual care. This was the conclusion from the first randomised trial to evaluate interventions for patients with long COVID by a UK team of researchers from London.

A recognised consequence for some patients after an acute infection with COVID-19 is long COVID and which has been defined as new or ongoing symptoms 4 weeks or more after the start of acute COVID-19. A wide range of symptoms experienced by those with long COVID have been documented with the most frequently reported including breathing problems, fatigue, muscle weakness or joint stiffness, sleep disturbances, problems with mental abilities, and mood changes such as anxiety or depression. Furthermore, a review of studies has suggested in both acute and long COVID, the impact of infection on health-related quality of life is substantial. In a systematic review, researchers identified how music interventions were associated with clinically meaningful improvements in health-related quality of life.

The English National Opera has created the ENO Breathe programme, to help patients recovering from the effects of COVID-19 an,d for the present study, the UK researchers set out to determine whether the programme could improve both mental and physical aspects of health-related quality of life, as well as breathlessness, in patients with long COVID. They conducted a parallel-group, single-blinded, randomised trial to compare the ENO programme with usual care. Eligible patients were adults (> 18 years of age) and who were recovering from COVID-19 with ongoing breathlessness with or without anxiety for at least 4 weeks after their acute onset of symptoms. Individuals were randomised 1:1 to the ENO Breathe programme or usual care. The programme was individualised and designed to support people with breathlessness and/or anxiety by focusing on breathing, retraining through singing techniques and delivered online. It consisted of an introductory session followed by 6, once weekly sessions.

The primary outcome of interest was a change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) from baseline to the end of the 6-week programme and which was assessed using the RAND 36-item short form survey instrument and in particular two summary measures, the mental health (MHC) and physical health components (PHC). A number of secondary outcomes were used including a visual analogue scale (VAS) for breathlessness on rest, walking, climbing stairs and running.

ENO Breathe programme and HRQoL

A total of 150 participants with a mean age of 49 (81% female) were randomised to either the ENO programme or usual care. Across the two groups, there was a mean of 320 days since the onset of their initial COVID-19 symptoms.

Compared to usual care, those allocated to the ENO Breathe programme had a greater improvement in the MHC (regression coefficient = 2.42, 95% CI 0.03 – 4.80, p = 0.047). However, there was no significant difference between groups for the PHC component (p = 0.54).

With respect to breathlessness, the only self-reported measure to significantly reduce was based on running (p = 0.0026).

The authors concluded that the ENO Breathe intervention could improve mental health wellbeing and one aspect of breathlessness and suggested that the programme might have a role in supporting patients with persisting long COVID symptoms.

Philip KEJ et al. An online breathing and wellbeing programme (ENO Breathe) for people with persistent symptoms following COVID-19: a parallel-group, single-blind, randomised controlled trial Lancet Respir Med 2022

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a broad term used for defining progressive lung diseases like emphysema, refractory asthma, chronic bronchitis and some other forms of bronchiectasis. The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are so common that sometimes people fail to understand that they are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and consider it as normal cold, cough and symptoms of aging. Symptoms are sometimes not even visible in the early stages of disease and the disease remains undiagnosed for a long time.

The symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease include wheezing, tightness in the chest, frequent coughing and increased breathlessness. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease can be treated using different types of drugs and therapies including oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation programs. In case of extreme severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease surgery is recommended which includes lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplant and bullectomy.

According to the data of British Lung Foundation approximately 1.2 billion people were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the U.K. alone in 2011. Also according to the COPD Foundation approximately 30million Americans were suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2013. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. This data demonstrates the ever increasing demand of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatment worldwide and hence also shows the potential that the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market holds.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Drivers and Restraints

The most important factors that are expected to drive the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease market includes the ever increasing number of cases of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease globally. Also the change in the lifestyle is responsible for increasing the habits like smoking and increase in the number of genetic disorders which in turn are responsible for raising the number of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients.

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Other factors that can boost the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market are rising expenditures on healthcare that is leading to the adoption of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease treatments in the emerging economies. Increase in the level of awareness has also lead to the early diagnosis of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease so that people can go for the treatment of the disease.

Factors that can limit the growth of the therapeutic enzymes in the forecast period include the fact that not all the patients who are suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are aware of the fact that they are suffering from the disease and therefore do not go for the treatment of the disease. Also sometimes people get to know about their disease when the disease can’t be cured by only medication and therapies and surgery becomes mandatory. This factor can also lead to a slow growth in the revenue from the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Overview

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is a growing market and is expected to see an even higher growth in the forecast period. Factors such as increase in the population suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease worldwide and increasing awareness about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease are responsible for fueling the growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market. Betterment of the healthcare infrastructure in Asia Pacific and Middle East and Africa is also responsible for the revenue growth of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market in the forecast period.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Region-wise Outlook

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is in its growth phase and hence this market is expected to see very high growth in the emerging economies like Latin America and Asia Pacific due to high population growth in these regions. North America Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market is the most developed market in terms of revenue, followed by Europe. Middle East and Africa are also expected to see higher growth due to growing advancement in the healthcare infrastructure.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Key Market Participants

Some of the key participants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market include Pfizer Inc, Adamis Laboratories Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc.

The report covers exhaustive analysis on

  • Market Segments
  • Market Dynamics
  • Historical Actual Market Size, 2012 – 2014
  • Market Size & Forecast 2017 to 2027
  • Supply & Demand Value Chain
  • Market Current Trends/Issues/Challenges
  • Competition & Companies involved
  • Technology
  • Value Chain
  • Aircraft Refurbishing Market Drivers and Restraints

For Information On The Research Approach Used In The Report, Ask Analyst @ 

Regional analysis includes

  • North America
  • Latin America
  • Europe
  • Asia Pacific
  • Middle East & Africa

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapeutics Market: Segmentation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease therapeutics market can be segmented on the basis of components and end user.

On the basis of component

  • Drug Class
  • Bronchodilators
  • Steroids
  • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors
  • Theophylline
  • Antibiotics
  • Delivery Systems
  • Oral
  • Inhalation

On the basis of end user

  • Hospitals
  • Private clinics
  • Out-patients

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Dr. Kevin Lumb, MD, FRCP, is Osler’s Division Head of Respirology and has been practicing at Osler since 2010. Dr. Lumb has also been the Medical Advisor for Osler’s pulmonary function laboratories since 2019, and was the Site Chief of Medicine at Etobicoke General Hospital from 2020-2021. He completed his medical and subspecialty fellowship training at the University of Toronto.

Asthma is a common and potentially serious chronic disease caused by inflammation in the airways of the lungs. This inflammation leads to repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and coughing. Asthma attacks can lead to hospitalization, and may even be fatal. According to Asthma Canada, asthma affects more than 1 in every 10 Canadians.

Get tested

In older children and adults, a diagnosis of asthma can be confirmed with a breathing test. If you or a loved one have asthma-like symptoms or have been prescribed an inhaler medication, ask your doctor about asthma testing.

Use it right

If you have been prescribed an inhaler, it is very important that you know how to use it properly. These medications need to get deep into your lungs to be effective. Talk to your health care provider about practicing proper inhaler technique, or visit The Lung Association for helpful videos.

Have a plan

Asthma fluctuates over time, so make a plan for when symptoms worsen. Work with your health care provider and develop a written plan. When asthma symptoms flare up, put this plan into action! To minimize worsening of episodes, there are strategies to reduce some triggers in your home. Visit Global Initiative for Asthma for tips.

Know your work environment

According to Asthma Canada, approximately 1 in 10 asthmatic adults have symptoms aggravated or caused by exposures in the workplace. Common examples include spray paint and wheat flour. Speak with your occupational health and safety team to determine if your workplace may be contributing to your symptoms.

We share our air

Air pollution can worsen asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions. Be sure to exercise outdoors regularly, but check the Air Quality Health Index and consider exercising indoors when the rating is very high. Also, please do all you can to reduce air pollution.

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Around 5.4 million Brits are affected by asthma and experts have now highlighted some of the more “unusual” symptoms that may not initially appear to be a sign of the condition

Older woman having asthma attack due to her allergies
Experts have highlighted some of the more unusual symptoms of asthma

Asthma is a common lung condition that affects the airways causing occasional breathing problems, and impacts around 5.4 million Britons in the UK. While many are aware of the main symptoms of asthma, which typically include wheezing and shortness of breath, some go under the radar.

The WebMB experts revealed: “Not everyone with asthma has the usual symptoms of cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Sometimes individuals have unusual asthma symptoms that may not appear to be related to asthma.”

Anxiety and sleeping difficulties are listed as some of the most unusual asthma symptoms to look out for.

Unusual symptoms of asthma to look out for

Experts have highlighted some of the most “unusual” symptoms of the condition to look out for, these include:

  • Rapid breathing
  • Sighing
  • Fatigue
  • Inability to exercise property (called exercise-induced asthma)
  • Difficulty sleeping or nighttime asthma
  • Anxiety
  • Chronic coughing without wheezing

It is important to note that these symptoms are not always the result of asthma.

WebMD explained: "Asthma symptoms can be mimicked by other conditions such as bronchitis, vocal cord dysfunction, and even heart failure."

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Fatigue has been recognised as an “unusual” symptoms of asthma


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Common symptoms of asthma

If you are concerned you may have a lesser-known symptom of asthma, you should also check whether you are experiencing any common symptoms of the condition.

According to the NHS : "The most common symptoms of asthma are wheezing (a whistling sound when breathing), breathlessness, a tight chest – it may feel like a band is tightening around it and coughing."

These symptoms are more likely to be asthma if they worsen at night or early in the morning, or happen frequently and recurrently.

Asthma can also be triggered by exercise and allergies.

An asthma attack occurs when the condition gets worse for a short period of time, this can include wheezing and coughing, being too breathless to eat, speak or sleep, or breathing faster.

In severe cases, a person may experience a rapid heartbeat, drowsiness, confusion, exhaustion or dizziness and blue lips or fingers.

What to do if you think you have asthma

The best thing to do if you are concerned that you or your child has asthma is to visit your GP.

Your GP will likely ask a series of questions, including notes on any family history or allergies.

They may suggest doing some tests to confirm whether or not you have asthma.

According to the NHS: "A GP will probably be able to diagnose it, but they may refer you to a specialist if they're not sure."

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Research shows that as many as one in eight COVID-19 patients could get Long COVID, which means there are likely hundreds of New Zealanders still experiencing symptoms 12 weeks after testing positive.

New Zealand physiotherapists have been working closely with their counterparts overseas to find out more about Long COVID and how best to support those suffering long-term effects.

Physiotherapy New Zealand (PNZ) spokesperson Dr Sarah Rhodes says it is understandable that patients with Long COVID are increasingly frustrated that their recovery is so slow as the symptoms can persist for months and years in some cases. PNZ calls on the government to support people’s access to effective treatment for Long COVID, just as they have supported people through the pandemic.

“We know that COVID-19 affects people differently and it is the same with Long COVID. It doesn’t only affect those who are hospitalised with an acute COVID infection. It can also affect those whose initial symptoms are mild and even those who are asymptomatic with the acute COVID-19 infection.”

“The desire to get back to normal life after COVID-19 is understandably important for all of us. With today’s busy lifestyles, it’s often hard to be that person who needs to rest instead of going back to work, getting back into your leisure activities, and looking after children and/or older family/whānau members. However, rest is an essential part of managing an acute COVID-19 infection as it is likely to reduce the risk of developing Long COVID,” says Dr Rhodes.

Members of PNZ’s Cardio-Respiratory Special Interest Group have developed some general tips to help guide people through a prolonged period of symptoms.


This is the most common symptom of Long COVID. Undertaking daily activities which were easily managed prior to COVID-19, such showering, can be exhausting.

  • Be kind to yourself. Don’t take on too much. Ask for help.
  • Working out which tasks require more or less energy can help you prioritise your time and activities so that you stay within your available energy levels. Keeping a diary of how you feel after each activity can be useful in identifying which activities make you more or less fatigued.
  • Pace yourself by doing small tasks or breaking up activities and allowing yourself to take rests in between. Choose some activities that you give you pleasure to help support your mental well-being.
  • Plan out your week to allow for periods of activity and periods of rest and recovery.
  • Take regular breaks throughout the day and if you need a rest, listen to your body. Don’t push through the feeling of exhaustion.
  • When fatigue is worsened by physical or mental effort, this may indicate you have post exertional symptom exacerbation (PESE). Exercise is not recommended for rehabilitation of people experiencing PESE as it can worsen symptoms. A physiotherapist can help support you in managing your fatigue.
  • Remember that some activities, like being with friends, may contribute to symptom exacerbation. Connecting with others is important for your mental well-being so you may need to reduce the time you spend with others to conserve your energy for other activities in the day.
  • Adapt activities to make them easier. e.g., sitting down to prepare the vegetables for dinner.
  • Getting outside and spending time in nature can have benefits for both your mental and physical health.


Breathlessness is another commonly experienced symptom in those with Long COVID.

  • Feeling breathless can be a frightening experience.
  • Seek support from a physiotherapist about positions and breathing techniques that can help alleviate feelings of breathlessness.
  • It is important to get an individual assessment of your breathing as a one-size-fits-all approach doesn’t work.
  • A physiotherapist can also screen for disruptions in your pattern of breathing that may contribute to some of the symptoms you are experiencing.

Muscle and Joint Pain

  • Some patients with Long COVID experience muscle aches and joint pain. Gentle stretching and yoga may help relieve these symptoms.
  • Check with your health professional before starting any exercises.

Return to exercise

  • Exercise is not recommended if it worsens your fatigue.
  • If you are not experiencing worsening symptoms, a cautious approach to commencing exercise is recommended. Your response to exercise should be monitored carefully. A safe return to exercise requires careful clinical decision making and a physiotherapist can support you through this.

Physiotherapy can help manage symptoms of Long COVID. However, for some patients a multi-disciplinary approach, involving other health professionals, is recommended.

For more information and interview requests, contact: Dr Sarah Rhodes, 021 210 5270

© Scoop Media


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Aamir Khan’s daughter Ira Khan, recently posted about her anxiety attacks. She also stated on Instagram that talking to her boyfriend Nupur Shikhare and breathing have ‘helped make it not come to an attack.’ She also shared a photo of herself after taking a shower just after an anxiety attack.

Ira Khan
Ira Khan

Ira Khan can be seen in the photo wearing a beige nightgown as she stands in front of a mirror taking a mirror selfie. Sharing this pic, she wrote, “I’ve started getting anxiety attacks. I’ve had anxiety. And I used to get overwhelmed. And have crying fits. But I’ve never had anxiety attacks before. It’s the difference between panic and panic attacks. Anxiety versus anxiety attacks. As far as I understand it (anxiety attacks), they have physiological symptoms.

Palpitations, breathlessness. Plus crying. And it builds. Slowly. Feels like impending doom. This is what mine feels like. I do not know what a panic attack is like. It’s a really crappy feeling. My therapist said if it’s become regular (context, I had 1 or 2 over 2 months versus almost every day now), I needed to tell my doctor/psychiatrist.”

Ira continued, “In case anyone needed words to describe how they’re feeling and this can be of any help. It feels pretty helpless. Because I really want to go to sleep (it usually happens at night for me) but I can’t because it won’t stop. I try to identify my fears, talk myself down. But once it’s hit you, I haven’t found a way to stop it. You kind of need to ride it out. So far. That’s what I’ve figured. But while it’s building, talking to Popeye and breathing has helped make it not come to an attack. At least for a few hours. It also depends on if I get re-stressed by another stimulus later. Life’s full of variables. If you’re trying to be mindful, remember to take them all into account. Hang in there. P.s. This is me after a long shower after an attack. Showers are a beautiful thing. More on that later.”

Ira Khan has always been quite open about her struggles with mental illness. She revealed that she was diagnosed with clinical depression in October 2020.

“Hi, I’m depressed. I have been for more than four years now. I’ve been to a doctor and I’m clinically depressed. I’m doing much better now. For over a year now, I wanted to do something for mental health, but I wasn’t sure what to do. So, I have decided to take you on a journey, my journey, and see what happens. Hopefully, we will get to know ourselves slightly better, understand mental illness better,” Ira had said in a video.

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A charity has seen a doubling in the number of people seeking help for long Covid as it warned that NHS services are failing to meet demand.

Asthma and Lung UK said around half a million people have visited its long Covid advice web pages or called its helpline for support in the last six months.

The number of people viewing the web pages nearly doubled from September to March, as cases of Omicron rose across the UK, it said.

Latest figures from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) show that an estimated 1.8 million people in UK households (2.8% of the population) were experiencing long Covid as of April 3 – the most recent data available.

In these self-reported cases, 382,000 (21%) first had (or suspected they had) Covid less than 12 weeks previously, 1.3 million people (73%) at least 12 weeks previously, 791,000 (44%) at least one year previously and 235,000 (13%) at least two years before.

Fatigue is the most common symptom reported (51% of those with long Covid), followed by shortness of breath (33%), loss of sense of smell (26%) and difficulty concentrating (23%).

Some 1.2 million people (67% of those with long Covid) say symptoms stop them doing some or all of their normal activities.

According to Asthma and Lung UK, many callers to its helpline are at crisis point, with some asking for advice on buying oxygen to manage their long Covid breathlessness. This can be dangerous if it is not issued on prescription.

The helpline has also taken calls from people wanting information on private healthcare providers because they are struggling to get help from the NHS.

The latest data from NHS long Covid clinics in England shows 30% of people waited more than 15 weeks for an initial appointment as of March/April.

Data on the overall number of people still waiting for first appointments is not published by the NHS.

Asthma and Lung UK said many more thousands of people could be waiting to access care.

Sarah Woolnough, its chief executive, said: “As we near the grim milestone of two million people living with long Covid, there is still a dismal lack of treatments for this disabling condition, which is leaving people fighting for breath and devastating every aspect of their life, health, work and relationships.

“Coupled with a lack of support and long wait times for specialist care, hundreds of thousands of people are turning to charities like Asthma and Lung UK, desperate for vital advice and support.

“With cases only rising, the problem is not going to go away.

“The Government must invest in more research into possible treatments and staffing for long Covid clinics to help people with this new and unpredictable condition to get their lives back on track.”

A NHS spokeswoman said: “Since the pandemic began, the NHS has invested over £220 million and opened 90 specialist clinics and 14 hubs for children and young people to help people with long Covid, so we urge anyone who is concerned about long-lasting symptoms after having coronavirus to get in touch with their GP practice or visit the NHS ‘Your Covid Recovery’ website for further advice on the support available.”

A Department of Health and Social Care spokeswoman said: “Long Covid is a new challenge for healthcare systems all over the world and the UK is leading the way on research, treatment, care and guidance.

“We are backing our world-leading scientists with over £50 million to better understand the long-term debilitating effects of Covid so we can ensure the right help and the right treatments are available.”

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World Hypertension Day 2022: High blood pressure is called silent killer not without a reason. Most of the times, there are no noticeable signs of hypertension and even if you have some symptoms, you may not immediately act upon it dismissing it as routine tiredness, work pressure or exertion. Ignoring BP issues can however prove deadly and in worst cases it can cause a heart attack, heart failure, aneurysm, stroke, memory problems or dementia. Monitoring blood pressure regularly is the key to evade risk of serious illnesses. (Also read: Blood pressure basics: How to measure BP at home, ideal range, risks of high BP)

Around 1.13 billion people worldwide suffer from hypertension and the condition is more common in men than women. However, only 1 people in 5 have it in control while others still face the risk of developing complications from it. The incidences of hypertension have seen a sharp rise across the world and while earlier it was common in the older age groups, now we get to see many new cases of young people with hypertension.

"We should not ignore some of the common symptoms of high blood pressure like severe headache, blurring vision, breathing difficulty, especially breathlessness on exertion, chest discomfort, and easy fatigability. High blood pressure can affect your health and cause serious complications if it is left untreated," says Dr. Rajesh Budhiraja, Associate Director- Internal Medicine, Asian Institute of Medical sciences, Faridabad.

Here are some warning symptoms of high blood pressure you should never ignore as per Dr Narayan Gadkar, Cardiologist, Zen Multispeciality Hospital.

1. Nose bleeds: Nose bleeds not only occur due to sinusitis or blowing the nose constantly but even when one’s blood pressure is high. If you are one of them who has encountered nose bleeding then just report it to the doctor.

2. Headaches: If you have a throbbing headache all the time then your blood pressure may be high. A majority of people who blood pressure may have a headache. These unpleasant headaches will steal your peace of mind. So, be vigilant and seek timely treatment.

"Patients experiencing severe headache, especially in the occipital area (posterior part of skull) are the ones who should immediately get their BP checked," says Dr Honey Savla, Consultant Internal Medicines, Wockhardt Hospital.

3. Fatigue: Are you unable to do your office work or household chores with ease then this can be due to high blood pressure. Feeling exhausted even after doing nothing? Try to reach your treating doctor for further evaluation.

4. Shortness of breath: One may also have difficulty breathing when his/her blood pressure is high. This is one of the common symptoms of hypertension.

5. Blurred vision: Untreated hypertension can alter one’s vision. Thus, one will encounter vision problems. His or her vision will be blurred.

"One more sign of hypertension is blurring of vision or developing black spots in your visual field or sudden complete loss of vision are the symptoms which should be taken seriously," says Dr Savla.

6. Chest pain: It is seen when one’s blood pressure is high. Try to take immediate treatment after you notice these symptoms. Ignoring these symptoms can lead to serious complications in later life.

Can high blood pressure land you in ICU?

"Hypertension can have a disastrous effect on the heart resulting in the hardening and thickening of the heart arteries thereby, causing the heart to receive less blood supply, in worst cases, it can cause a heart attack besides other life-threatening conditions brought about by affecting other organs," says Dr Budhiraja.

"Patients with high blood pressure may also develop chest pain and restlessness and some may develop myocardial infarction i.e. heart attack as a result of long uncontrolled hypertension. There is a serious condition called hypertensive heart failure which may present as low oxygen levels, difficulty in sleeping due to breathlessness (due to water filled in lungs) along with swelling over legs and chest pain and such patients if not treated on time, will end up in ICU. Epistaxis i.e. bleeding from nose can occur as a serious complication of high blood pressure and may also call for urgent ICU admission. Hence it is best to do regular health check-ups, get diagnosed on time and treated as soon as possible," says Dr Savla.

Managing BP

If you are suffering from high blood pressure, there is plenty that you can do on a day-to-day basis to keep it in check.

- You can begin with a healthy diet followed by maintaining a healthy weight, being more active, and staying away from smoking and alcohol.

- In addition, tweaking other daily habits can go a long way to help keep your readings in check.

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Rock me Amadeus?

I should say so. A breathing and wellbeing programme developed by the English National Opera with Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, called ENO Breathe, that uses singing as its focus has been found to significantly reduce breathlessness and improve quality of life for people with long covid.

But won’t singing get me into treble?

It might have done during lockdown when choirs were broken up and forced to harmonise online. But even though choirs can meet …

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Registered Kingston charity, Voices of Hope, has offered hope and support to people facing challenges in their daily lives through community choirs and well-being projects since 2019.

The arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic saw the charity rise to the occasion and quickly change direction. As it became clear that the virus was leaving many people suffering with the Long COVID symptoms of breathlessness, disordered breathing, fatigue and anxiety, they established the Active Breathing Course (ABC). The course helps attendees recovering from Long COVID or long-term respiratory conditions to restore lung function and capacity, as well as muscle support, using breathing and singing techniques.

Sarah Clay, founder and CEO of Voices of Hope, explains: “Voices of Hope aims to help anyone who might be struggling, whether recovering from violence and abuse, dealing with long-term mental and physical health challenges, facing financial hardship or breaking the destructive cycle of isolation and social anxiety. In all of these things, we believe that hope is the seed of change.

“As the pandemic arrived, we had to put all of our projects on hold and think about how we could continue best serving our local community. One way was by setting up the ABC, which in one year has helped almost 360 UK and 140 Kingston-based residents gain relief from some of their COVID-19 symptoms and other respiratory conditions such as asthma. It has also proved to be helpful for people struggling with anxiety.”

On the six-week ABC attendees learn valuable breathing and singing techniques to help manage symptoms as well as receiving support from course tutors and other attendees. The course takes self-referrals but people are also referred by GPs, clinicians at Kingston Hospital and physiotherapists due to its successful impact on people’s breathing capacity.

Kingston GP, Dr Annette Pautz, said: “So many people have had COVID-19 and have been left with on-going symptoms. It will be so important for these people, once they have had any necessary medical investigations and treatment, to be able to attend courses like the ABC programme. As GPs, the programme provides a valuable local service for us to be able to refer patients into to offer them further support in a non-medical environment and to help them get the best possible outcomes.”

Paul Cox, a local resident who has completed the course, added: “Even though I had been extremely fit and active, COVID had a severe effect on my life in that I couldn’t exercise; I struggled even to ascend the stairs. I was unsure whether attending the course would help me or not because it had been so long since I developed the virus, but the first thing I found was that I very much enjoyed being on the course because there was interaction with people in a similar position to mine. To my delight, I experienced change on a weekly basis.”

“I certainly have more hope for my condition since I did the course because all the symptoms have gone except for some of the shortness of breath which does persist. I hope that many people may enjoy the benefits from the course that I have.”

To find out more about the course, visit: Voices of Hope (

To access the course fill out the form here. Once it is submitted you will be sent an email with a referral code that can be used to login to the course.

Voices of Hope is just one of the local services that can help if you have Long COVID. To find out more about the condition and a range of local services, visit: Long COVID recovery – South West London Health and Care Partnership (

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The charity Asthma and Lung UK has said that more than three million people in the UK have lung conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are at risk of attacks or flare-ups.

The warning comes after the news that the Met Office predicts high pollen levels from Friday across most of England and Wales and medium levels in other parts of the UK.

The charity is advising people to carry their preventer inhalers if they use them and to keep their reliever inhalers with them at all times.

High Pollen warning to Asthma sufferers

It has also shared some tips on how to get through the high-pollen period from staying indoors when levels are high and keeping an eye on weather forecasts.

READ MORE: 7 tips to relieve your hay fever symptoms as pollen levels rocket

READ MORE: Facebook, Twitter and Instagram users told to 'delete' NewProfilePic app amid Russia links

Pollen is known to trigger symptoms such as a tight chest, wheezing and breathlessness in more than half of people living with asthma (59%), the charity's research says.

The symptoms are also linked with more than a quarter of those living with COPD, according to research from the charity.

Allergies can lead to the tightening of airways and a  build-up of sticky mucus which makes it harder to breathe.

Asthma attacks can also be fatal, with around four people in the UK dying from one every day.

Dr Andy Whittamore, clinical lead for Asthma and Lung UK, said: “When pollen levels are at their highest this can be deadly for those with lung conditions like asthma who can suffer serious symptoms and have life-threatening attacks.

“These attacks can leave people fighting for breath, which can be terrifying, but there are things they can do to look after themselves.

Wandsworth Times: Silhouette of a person using an inhaler. Credit: CanvaSilhouette of a person using an inhaler. Credit: Canva “Using your preventer inhalers as prescribed is important as the medicine reduces sensitivity and swelling in the airways, helping to prevent symptoms such as wheezing and coughing before they even start.

“We also advise people to carry their reliever inhalers every day, especially when they are out and about enjoying the sunshine in case pollen does cause a flare-up of their symptoms.

“Reliever inhalers quickly relax the muscles in the airways and ease symptoms immediately.

“The third thing people can do is to use a steroid nasal spray every day, together with non-drowsy antihistamine tablets to help stop the allergic reaction.

“People should also check pollen and air pollution forecasts in their local area, so they can avoid going outdoors as much as possible on high pollen days.”

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Rising pollen levels this weekend could leave people with asthma at risk of life-threatening asthma attacks, a charity has warned.

Asthma and Lung UK said more than three million people in the UK have lung conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are at risk of attacks or flare-ups.

The charity is telling people to ensure they keep on taking their preventer inhalers if they use them and to keep their reliever inhaler with them at all times.

Other tips include staying indoors on high pollen days and keeping an eye on weather forecasts to check the forecast.

The Met Office is predicting high pollen levels across most of England and Wales from Friday, with medium levels in other parts of the UK.

Pollen can trigger symptoms such as a tight chest, wheezing and breathlessness in more than half of people living with asthma (59%) and more than a quarter of those living with COPD, according to research from the charity.

Allergies can cause airways to tighten up and a build-up of sticky mucus, making it harder to breathe.

Asthma attacks can be fatal, with around four people in the UK dying from one every day.

Dr Andy Whittamore, clinical lead for Asthma and Lung UK, said: “When pollen levels are at their highest this can be deadly for those with lung conditions like asthma who can suffer serious symptoms and have life-threatening attacks.

“These attacks can leave people fighting for breath, which can be terrifying, but there are things they can do to look after themselves.

“Using your preventer inhalers as prescribed is important as the medicine reduces sensitivity and swelling in the airways, helping to prevent symptoms such as wheezing and coughing before they even start.

“We also advise people to carry their reliever inhalers every day, especially when they are out and about enjoying the sunshine in case pollen does cause a flare-up of their symptoms.

“Reliever inhalers quickly relax the muscles in the airways and ease symptoms immediately.

“The third thing people can do is to use a steroid nasal spray every day, together with non-drowsy antihistamine tablets to help stop the allergic reaction.

“People should also check pollen and air pollution forecasts in their local area, so they can avoid going outdoors as much as possible on high pollen days.”

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MILLIONS of people have been warned of life-threatening consequences as the pollen strikes.

People with asthma are at risk of deadly attacks when the pollen count rises - with high levels set for the weekend.

Pollen can make the airways of those with asthma tighter


Pollen can make the airways of those with asthma tighterCredit: Alamy

Asthma and Lung UK said more than three million people in the UK have lung conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are at risk of attacks or flare-ups.

The Met Office is predicting high pollen levels across most of England and Wales from Friday, with medium levels in other parts of the UK.

People with hay fever can expect symptoms such as a runny nose and itchy eyes to pick up.

But more than half of people living with asthma (59 per cent) say pollen can trigger symptoms such as a tight chest, wheezing and breathlessness.

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A further quarter of those living with COPD say the same, according to research from the charity.

Allergies can cause airways to tighten up and a build-up of sticky mucus, making it harder to breathe.

Asthma attacks can be fatal - around four people in the UK die from one every day.

Dr Andy Whittamore, clinical lead for Asthma and Lung UK, said: “When pollen levels are at their highest this can be deadly for those with lung conditions like asthma who can suffer serious symptoms and have life-threatening attacks.

“These attacks can leave people fighting for breath, which can be terrifying, but there are things they can do to look after themselves.”

The charity is telling people to ensure they keep on taking their preventer inhalers if they use them, as this reduces sensitivity and swelling in the airways.

People with the condition have also been told to keep their reliever inhaler with them at all times, especially when out and about.

Dr Whittamore said: “Reliever inhalers quickly relax the muscles in the airways and ease symptoms immediately.

“The third thing people can do is to use a steroid nasal spray every day, together with non-drowsy antihistamine tablets to help stop the allergic reaction.

Other tips include staying indoors on high pollen days and keeping an eye on weather forecasts to check the forecast.

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People with asthma are also cautioned they should be extra vigilant when the weather warms up.

Thunderstorms and wet weather can combine with pollen to heighten asthma symptoms, and potentially trigger an attack.

What to do if you have an asthma attack

You are having an asthma attack if you notice any of the following:

  • Your reliever inhaler (usually blue) is not helping or lasting for four hours
  • Your symptoms are getting worse - think coughing, breathlessness, wheezing, coughing at night or a tight chest
  • You are too breathless to speak, eat or sleep, or it is difficult to do any of these things
  • Your breathing is getting faster, and it feels like you can’t get your breath in properly

Knowing these four steps could be the difference between life and death, Sonia Munde, from Asthma UK, previously told The Sun Online.

  1. Sit up straight and try to keep calm
  2. Take one puff of your reliever inhaler (usually blue) every 30 – 60 seconds, up to a maximum of 10 puffs
  3. If you feel worse at any point while using your inhaler or you don’t feel better after 10 puffs, or you are worried at any time, call 999 for an ambulance
  4. If the ambulance is taking longer than 15 minutes, you can repeat step two

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Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, treatment methods to combat this infectious disease and its symptoms have flourished.

One of these is singing.

This unlikely therapy could improve breathing quality in patients, according to a study conducted by British researchers and published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journal.

“Covid-19 can cause long-term illness and disability, which is increasingly appreciated as a major global challenge,” the researchers note in the introduction to their study.

In the United Kingdom, specialists estimate that 1.3 million people, or 2% of the population, suffer from long Covid.

Symptoms include loss of taste and smell, headaches and persistent fatigue, as well as continuous shortness of breath, anxiety and reduced quality of life.

It is on these last three symptoms that researchers from the UK’s Imperial College London and Imperial College Healthcare focused their research.

To carry out their study, the specialists measured the breathing quality of 150 candidates.

All of them had been suffering from breathlessness for more than four weeks.

Some of them also suffered from anxiety.

The researchers divided them into two groups.

One group received standard care.

The other group followed a programme called ENO Breathe.

For six weeks, the participants took singing lessons with singers from the English National Opera (ENO).

The objective was to learn and sing lullabies, intended to calm and soothe the patients.

After the experiment, the participants evaluated their breathlessness at rest and after physical effort.

Those who took the singing class noticed an improvement in their shortness of breath, compared to the group that did not follow the ENO Breathe programme.

“Our findings suggest that mind-body and music-based approaches, including practical, enjoyable symptom-management techniques, might have a role supporting recovery for people with persisting breathlessness following Covid-19,” the specialists conclude. – AFP Relaxnews

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With a fast-moving life, people do not give enough time to their bodies. They often ignore their physical health and, most importantly, their mental health. While people still take some steps to improve their physical health, they do not prioritise the mind. One of the mental disorders that are quite common nowadays is an anxiety disorder. It is natural to feel anxious, or even panic, when you get stuck in a problem, have to start something new, or have to make an important decision. However, when you start feeling anxious more often and in small instances, you might be dealing with a bigger problem. To learn more about anxiety disorders, let’s take a look at the causes, symptoms, and treatments for anxiety.

What is anxiety?

Anxiety is a feeling of nervousness, fear, or dread. You start feeling uneasy and uncomfortable while experiencing anxiety. Heart palpitations, breathlessness, and trembling are a few of the many indicators of anxiety.

Symptoms of anxiety

  1. Nervousness and restlessness
  2. A feeling of danger or panic
  3. Increased heart rate
  4. Rapid breathing
  5. Sweating, trembling, and exhaustion
  6. Not being able to focus on day-to-day activities
  7. Unable to sleep
  8. Gastrointestinal problems
  9. Urge to avoid things that trigger anxiety.

Causes of anxiety

There is no one reason that causes anxiety. Many people suffer from anxiety due to their physical health or harsh experiences. Let’s look at the common reasons that cause anxiety.

Prolonged stress

If someone is going through stress for a long time, then it takes a dig at the mind. Long-lasting stress and tension can lead to hormonal disbalance and restrict the release of mood-enhancing hormones. This can lead to anxiety.


If something disturbing happens to you which has left you shattered or in fear, then it can lead to an anxiety disorder. Trauma plays an important role in bringing back the feeling of fear.


Sometimes, anxiety disorder runs in the family. If any of your close family members have ever suffered from it, you are most likely to get it from them.



If your anxiety disorder is due to some trauma or bad experience, then it can be treated by talking to a medical professional. They’ll try to pick up the nerve and will counsel you to do better.


Usually, doctors prescribe anti-anxiety pills to reduce the symptoms. They also give blood pressure medications to control heart and breathing rates.

Read all the Latest News , Breaking News and IPL 2022 Live Updates here.

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Overview of Global Asthma Disease Market:

By employing an exceptional Asthma Disease Market report, businesses can get details about market drivers and market restraints which help them to take presumption about reducing or growing the production of particular product. When globalization is growing day by day, many businesses call for global market research consisting of actionable market insights that support decision making. This market report analyses chief factors of the market which provides precise data and information for the business growth. To implement Asthma Disease Market research study, competent and advanced tools and techniques viz SWOT analysis and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis have been employed.

The superiority and transparency maintained in the superior Asthma Disease Market makes it get the trust and reliance of the member companies and customers. Competitive analysis studies of this market report provide ideas about the strategies of key players in the market. In addition, the identity of respondents is kept secretive and no promotional approach is made to them while analysing the data. Not to mention, all the topics of this report have been carefully analysed with the best tools and techniques. Asthma Disease Market research report provides an all-inclusive study on production capacity, consumption, import and export for all major regions across the world.

Available Exclusive Sample Copy of this Report @ .

The Global Asthma Disease Market will exhibit a CAGR of around 4.2% for the forecast period of 2022-2029.

According to the market report analysis, Asthma is a respiratory disease that results in narrowing the airways which leads to difficulty in breathing. Asthma leads to excessive development of mucous in the windpipe which results in period but repetitive attack of breathlessness. Asthma also brings along chest pain, coughing and congestion. Asthma results in lung inflammation and tightens the muscles.

The most important key factors driving the growth of the Global Asthma Disease Market are increasing prevalence of air pollution, cancer, consumption of tobacco and smoking, rapid growth in the consumption of tobacco and increased smoking.

Global Asthma Disease Market Segmentation:

  • On the basis of Classification Type, the asthma disease market has been segmented into mild intermittent asthma, mild persistent asthma, moderate persistent asthma and severe persistent asthma.
  • Based on the Duration of Action Type, the asthma disease market is segmented into long-term asthma control medications, inhaled corticosteroids, anticholinergics, tiotropium bromide, leukotriene modifiers, Long-acting beta agonists, salmeterol, formoterol, arformoterol, theophylline, quick-relief (rescue) medications, short acting beta agonists, albuterol sulphate, salbutamol, allergy medications, allergy shots (immunotherapy), omalizumab (Xolair) and others.
  • Based on the Route of Administration, the asthma disease market is segmented into oral, inhaled, intravenous and others.
  • Based on the End-Users, the asthma disease market is segmented into hospitals, homecare, specialty clinics and others.

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Global Key Vendors:

  1. Merck & Co., Inc
  2. Sanofi
  3. Novartis AG
  4. Astellas Pharma Inc
  5. Pfizer Inc
  6. Abbott
  7. Lilly
  8. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
  9. Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited
  10. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd
  11. Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
  12. Mylan N.V
  13. GlaxoSmithKline plc
  14. Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc
  15. AstraZeneca
  16. AbbVie Inc
  17. Teva Pharmaceutical
  18. Vectura Group plc
  19. Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc
  20. Alkermes

Key questions answered in the report:

What will the market growth rate of Asthma Disease market in 2025?
What are the key factors driving the global Asthma Disease market?
What are sales, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Asthma Disease market?
Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of Asthma Disease market?
Who are the key manufacturers in Asthma Disease market space?
What are the Asthma Disease market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Asthma Disease market?
What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by types and applications of Asthma Disease market?
What are sales, revenue, and price analysis by regions of Asthma Disease market?
What are the market opportunities, market risk and market overview of the Asthma Disease market?

For More Insights Get FREE Detailed TOC of “Global Asthma Disease Market Report 2022” @ .

Major Highlights of TOC: Global Asthma Disease Market

1 Global Asthma Disease Market Overview

2 Global Asthma Disease Market Competitions by Manufacturers

3 Global Asthma Disease Capacity, Production, Revenue (Value) by Region (2022-2029

4 Global Asthma Disease Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Region (2022-2029)

5 Global Asthma Disease Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

6 Global Asthma Disease Market Analysis by Application

7 Global Asthma Disease Manufacturers Profiles/Analysis

8 Asthma Disease Manufacturing Cost Analysis

9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

12 Global Asthma Disease Market Forecast (2022-2029)

13 Research Findings and Conclusion

14 Appendix

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Coughing can be a common symptom of Covid, but what do you do when it lingers well after the virus is gone?

Since the start of the Covid pandemic, coughing has become an awkward symptom when out in public.

The problem is, though, it’s a symptom that lingers, with the Covid cough sometimes persisting for weeks or months after the infection has gone. In fact, around 2.5 per cent of people are still coughing a year after being infected with Covid.

A recurrent cough can undermine your capacity to work, leave you with medical bills, and lead you to withdraw from social situations because you don’t want others to fear you’re spreading Covid, The Conversation reports.

As a GP, I have patients ask whether there’s anything that can fix their post-Covid cough. Here’s how I answer.

What causes a Covid cough?

It’s not surprising Covid causes a cough, because the virus affects our respiratory tract, from our nasal passages right down to our lungs.

Coughing is one of the body’s ways of getting rid of unwanted irritants such as viruses, dust and mucus. When something “foreign” is detected in the respiratory tract, a reflex is triggered to cause a cough, which should clear the irritant away.

While this is an effective protective mechanism, it’s also the way the Covid virus spreads. This is one reason the virus has so effectively and quickly travelled around the world.

Why do coughs drag on after the infectious period?

Inflammation is a defensive process our immune system uses to fight off Covid. Inflamed tissues both swell up and produce fluid. This can last a long time, even after the virus has gone.

Coughing may persist for any of four key reasons, all of which involve inflammation:

• if the upper airways (nasal passages and sinuses) stay inflamed, the fluid produced drips down the back of your throat causing a “post-nasal drip”. This makes you feel the need to “clear your throat”, swallow and/or cough

• if the lungs and lower airways are affected, coughing is the body’s way of trying to clear the fluid and swelling it senses there. Sometimes there isn’t a lot of fluid (so the cough is “dry”), but the swelling of the lung tissue still triggers a cough

• the neural pathways may be where inflammation is lurking. This means the nervous system is involved, either centrally (the brain) and/or peripherally (nerves), and the cough isn’t primarily from the respiratory tissues themselves

• a less common but more serious cause may be the lung tissue being scarred from the inflammation, a condition called “interstitial lung disease”. This needs to be diagnosed and managed by respiratory specialists.

Interestingly, people may experience a range of post-Covid symptoms, including coughing, regardless of whether they were sick enough to be hospitalised. Some patients tell me they weren’t particularly unwell during their Covid infection, but the post-infective cough is driving them crazy.

When should you get it checked out?

We need to be wary not to label a cough as a post-Covid cough and miss other serious causes of chronic coughs.

One thing to watch out for is a secondary bacterial infection, on top of Covid. Signs you may have a secondary infection include:

• a change in the type of cough (sounds different, more frequent)

• change in the sputum/phlegm (increased volume, blood present)

• developing new symptoms such as fevers, chest pain, racing heart or worsening breathlessness.

Other potentially serious illnesses can cause a chronic cough, including heart failure and lung cancer, so if you’re in any doubt about the cause of your cough, have a check-up.

What can help the cough?

If the cough is mainly from post-nasal drip, it will respond to measures to reduce this, such as sucking lozenges, saline rinses, nasal sprays and sleeping in an upright posture.

Some people may develop cough hypersensitivity, where the threshold of the cough reflex has been lowered, so it takes a lot less to set off a cough. It’s a common response to colds and it can take a while for our bodies to “reset” to a less sensitive state.

If a dry or tickly throat sets off your cough reflex, solutions include sipping water slowly, eating or drinking honey, and breathing slowly through your nose.

By slow-breathing through your nose, the air hitting the back of your throat is warmed up and moisturised by first passing through the nasal cavities. Your cough reflex is therefore less likely to be triggered, and over time the hypersensitivity should settle.

If the cause originates from inflammation in the lungs, controlled breathing exercises and inhaled steam (in a hot shower or via a vaporiser) may help.

Thick mucus can also be made more watery by inhaling saline through a device called a nebuliser, which turns liquid into vapour and delivers it directly to the mucus built up in your lungs. This makes it easier to clear out with a cough.

Are there other options?

Budesonide (a steroid inhaler), when given early after a Covid diagnosis, has been shown to reduce the likelihood of needing urgent medical care, as well as improving recovery time.

Unfortunately, there are no good trials on using budesonide inhalers for a post-Covid cough.

However, anecdotally, it has been of help to some patients who have a post-Covid cough, when nothing else is helping them.

Trials on steroid tablets to treat a post-Covid cough are still under way, and won’t be recommended unless they’re shown to result in significant improvement.

Antibiotics won’t help

Concerningly, some countries have guidelines that suggest using antibiotics to treat Covid, showing just how prevalent this misunderstanding is.

Unless there is a secondary bacterial infection, antibiotics are not appropriate and may contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

Post-Covid coughing can last for weeks, be debilitating, and have a variety of causes. Most of the ways to manage it are simple, cheap and can be done without needing medical intervention.

However, if you have any doubts about the cause or the progression of your cough, it is worth a visit to your GP to have it checked out.

This story was originally published by The Conversation and has been reproduced with permission

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