Cystic fibrosis is a progressive inherited disorder most often associated with lung damage that limits breathing. It can also affect the pancreas and digestive tract. Most people with this disorder develop lung complications and frequent infections. Over time, this can lead to severe health consequences, like pneumonia, and even death.

This article discusses the link between cystic fibrosis and pneumonia as well as symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment.

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What’s the Link Between Cystic Fibrosis and Pneumonia?

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that affects many organ systems, but its damage to the lungs is the most concerning problem. People develop frequent episodes of pneumonia or bronchitis, which can lead to severe complications and early death. 

The faulty gene causing cystic fibrosis disrupts the movement of salts and water in the body, which leads to a buildup of mucus in places that can damage organ systems. The buildup of thick mucus is most prominent in the lungs, making it difficult for a person to clear bacteria that enter the lungs. Thus, people with cystic fibrosis frequently develop bacterial pneumonia.

Over time, repeated episodes of pneumonia lead to chronic (long-term) lung damage. Additionally, the overuse of antibiotics to treat frequent infections leads to antibiotic resistance. Eventually, the lung damage is so severe and the treatments no longer effective that a person cannot survive.

How Many People Have Cystic Fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States.

Symptoms of Lung Infections

Cystic fibrosis affects many different organ systems. Often, the initial symptoms of the disease are due to problems in the pancreas and intestines. People with cystic fibrosis cannot digest food because of a lack of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, which leads to malnutrition.

Since cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, the symptoms can start when a person is a baby. The initial symptoms of lung disease are nonspecific and include:

Newborns in the United States are screened for cystic fibrosis so the illness can be detected and symptoms treated as early as possible. However, in places without neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis, these nonspecific lung symptoms are initially misdiagnosed as asthma, mild bronchitis, or pneumonia not related to an underlying lung problem.

Which Organs Are Affected by Cystic Fibrosis?

The two central organ systems affected by cystic fibrosis are the lungs and pancreas. However, two other common problems that people with cystic fibrosis develop include recurrent episodes of sinusitis and diabetes.

Causes of Pneumonia and Other Lung Infections

Bacteria and viruses constantly circulate in the environment, and they can be passed from one person to another through respiratory droplets, such as by coughing or sneezing. Most people can clear their lungs of these invaders by producing mucus that can be coughed up and expelled.

However, people with cystic fibrosis are unable to clear mucus from their lungs. When mucus mixed with bacteria sits for a long time in a part of the lung, the area becomes inflamed and the person develops pneumonia.

Bacterial Causes

Early in life, the bacterial organisms that usually lead to pneumonia in people with cystic fibrosis are:

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Haemophilus influenzae

As a person’s lungs become repeatedly damaged from recurrent infections, other, more unusual and dangerous bacteria cause pneumonia, including:

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Burkholderia cepacia 
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
  • Achromobacter xylosoxidans 

Once a person has been infected and has lived with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for a while, they develop severe lung infections more frequently, have a more rapid decline in lung function, and are at higher risk for death. 

Most Common Causes of Bacterial Pneumonia

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial organism found in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. The most common bacterium found in adults with cystic fibrosis is Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Viral Causes

Like people without cystic fibrosis, people with cystic fibrosis can develop viral infections of the lungs, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). People with cystic fibrosis are not more likely to develop a viral infection. Instead, they are sicker when a viral infection occurs compared with people who do not have cystic fibrosis. 

Fungal Causes

People with cystic fibrosis can also develop pneumonia caused by a fungus instead of a bacteria. The most common fungal organism that leads to pneumonia in patients with cystic fibrosis is Aspergillus fumigatus.

Diagnosis

In the United States, there is a nationwide program that screens newborn infants for cystic fibrosis. The screening is performed in the first few days of life from a few drops of blood. Different states use different screening tests to confirm the diagnosis.

Newborn screening tests are vital because they help parents and healthcare providers know when to begin specialized cystic fibrosis treatments. Initiating treatment early extends the time without complications. 

If an infant or a person suspected of having cystic fibrosis tests positive during the initial screening test, they are given an additional test. This definitive diagnostic test is called a sweat test. It measures the amount of electrolytes in a person's sweat.

What Are Autosomal Recessive Carriers?

Testing for cystic fibrosis involves looking for the gene responsible for the disease. Some people are carriers of the gene but do not develop the disease. This is because the gene is autosomal recessive (passing from both parents to a child). If you are one of these people, speak with your healthcare provider about what this means.

Treatment

When people are treated for pneumonia several times over several years, they eventually develop antibiotic resistance. When a particular bacteria is resistant to many different antibiotics, the organism is called a multidrug-resistant bacterium. Infections from these types of bacteria are complicated to treat and can lead to death from pneumonia in a person with cystic fibrosis.

Healthcare providers need to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization or pneumonia early to help clear the infection. People chronically infected with the specific bacteria are treated regularly with inhaled antibiotics, such as tobramycin, which helps prevent severe infection.

What to Do About Pseudomonas aeruginosa

People with cystic fibrosis do not develop Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections until they are older children, young adults, or adults. Research has shown that if a person is treated early for this bacterium and the organism is destroyed completely, people live longer.

Antibiotics and Antifungals

Treatment of acute lung infections requires antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the bacterial organism in the lungs and whether a person has developed resistance to antibiotics needed to kill it.

If a person develops fungal pneumonia, treatment involves an antifungal agent and corticosteroids.

Airway Clearance Techniques 

Since people with cystic fibrosis cannot clear mucus out of their lungs, other treatments include airway clearance techniques. Examples include:

These techniques help move the mucus up and out of the airway. Airway clearance techniques are recommended daily for people with cystic fibrosis.

Regular aerobic exercise is also recommended for patients with cystic fibrosis because it stabilizes lung function.

Inhaled Therapy

People with cystic fibrosis are also encouraged to use inhalers that rehydrate and break up the mucus so that it can be coughed up and expelled. The inhaled medications are called mucolytics and options include:

  • 7% hypertonic saline solution
  • Mannitol
  • Dornase alfa

Transplant

People with end-stage lung disease with cystic fibrosis are eligible for lung transplantation. People can often live an additional ten years after a lung transplant.

How to Prevent a Lung Infection

People with cystic fibrosis who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are started on chronic preventive therapy. Patients are treated with inhaled and oral antibiotics to prevent future bacterial pneumonia. The most commonly used antibiotics include:

Other general preventative measures recommended for anyone with respiratory symptoms include:

  • Handwashing
  • Using masks when in healthcare facilities or close contact with someone with a respiratory illness
  • Social distancing when needed
  • Cleaning and disinfecting nebulizers and other tools used by the cystic fibrosis patient

Summary

Cystic fibrosis is a chronic, inherited disorder that leads to frequent lung infections. Symptoms of a lung infection include cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath. People with cystic fibrosis can develop various types of pneumonia, but bacterial pneumonia is the most common.

In the United States, treatment for cystic fibrosis usually starts early because of widespread neonatal screening programs used to detect it. Treatments aim to prevent infections, treat acute infections, and rid the lungs of mucus. 

A Word From Verywell

Living with cystic fibrosis can be extremely difficult because of the number of lung infections people develop, even in childhood. However, scientists have come a long way in improving life expectancy for people with cystic fibrosis through new treatments and preventive strategies.

If you are expecting a baby, make sure you participate in cystic fibrosis screening programs for your child. If you have cystic fibrosis, follow your healthcare provider's recommendations in trying to prevent frequent lung infections. 

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is the most common cause of pneumonia in people with cystic fibrosis?

    The most common cause of pneumonia in a child with cystic fibrosis is Staphylococcus aureus. The most common cause of pneumonia in an adult with cystic fibrosis is Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  • What is the risk of getting pneumonia if you have cystic fibrosis?

    Due to a buildup of mucus in the lungs, patients with cystic fibrosis are at risk of developing lung infections early in life. Sometimes the first episode develops as a baby.

  • Is pneumonia a symptom of cystic fibrosis?

    A single episode of pneumonia is not a symptom of cystic fibrosis. A diagnosis of cystic fibrosis would not be suspected in a person unless they had recurrent episodes of pneumonia. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder, so it usually presents early in life.

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We are delighted to announce the 8th Biennial Seminar in Paediatric Respiratory Medicine at the Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick.

For the first time, we will also be introducing our interactive short course scheduled for 1/2 day on 24 September. The short course offers three engaging modules with practical workshops to provide you with insights, tools and updates on Spirometry (Lung Function), Chest Physiotherapy techniques and Asthma Inhaler Devices.

The seminar and short course cover face to face presentations, practical activities, engaging discussions with industry leaders, and online course materials.

Over a period of 1 ½ days, you will have the opportunity to join thought-provoking debates and deep dive discussions from some of the world’s brightest minds in paediatric respiratory medicine!

So, mark your calendars and register to join us! We look forward to seeing you there!

About the seminar

The seminar aims to give you insights, practical tools and updates on best practice in paediatric respiratory medicine on a day-to-day basis.

Brought to you by UNSW Medicine & Health and the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network (SCHN), the seminar offers a series of interactive face to face presentations, engaging discussions, practical short course modules, and online course materials by leading experts in children's respiratory medicine in Australia and New Zealand.

Who should attend this seminar?

Paediatricians, GPs, junior doctors, nursing staff, allied health professionals and other interested health workers who are involved in the care of children with acute and chronic respiratory conditions.

About the short course

The short course is a collaboration between the UNSW Medicine & Health and the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network (SCHN). Brief descriptions of the 3 modules are below:

  1. Spirometry (Lung Function): covering how do you interpret lung function (good quality vs uninterpretable lung function), how to approach a breathless child - exploring the techniques of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), provocation test such as mannitol challenge, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET).
  2. Chest Physiotherapy: covering who to refer and who doesn’t need referral (inpatient vs outpatient), what improvement you can expect from chest physiotherapy, new vs old techniques.
  3. Asthma Inhaler Devices: covering why do we need asthma education and how to provide education, advice on improving breathing including indoor air quality, house dust mite minimisation, how to provide a green asthma management plan (including new vs old devices and techniques).

Delegates are expected to attend the short course on 24 September which will be delivered sequentially one after another. An assessment consisting of 25 multiple choice questions (MCQs) will be available for credentialing.

What are the course credentials?

Upon successful completion of the assessment, you will be issued with a UNSW Medicine & Health verifiable credential badge. The credential provides formal recognition of professional development and reflects 1.5 days of learning inclusive of the 1 day seminar and 1/2 day short course.

The 1.5 days of learning and verifiable credential may be counted towards your continuing professional development (CPD). Please check with your college as the credential provides documentary evidence which may substantite activities claimed under your college program.

 

Q&A questions

Please feel free to send your questions ahead of time to shortcourses.health@unsw.edu.au.

Event registration

Early registration is recommended as places are limited.

Registration Price (GST inc.) For online price use discount code at checkout
Seminar & Short Course (in person) $500.00  
Seminar & Short Course (online) $450.00 PRMSONLINE

Inclusions

Price is inclusive of 1 ½ day seminar covering deep insights, practical tools and updates on best practice in paediatric respiratory medicine on a day-to-day basis, our short course (in person and online), professional learning and development materials, online learning resources, evidence-based research, practical tools and techniques, courses completion assessment, digital badging, and networking.

Morning tea, lunch and afternoon tea will be provided on Day 1 and morning tea will be provided on Day 2. All are covered in the price for attending the seminar in person.

Seminar program: Friday 23 September (full day)

Time Topic Speakers
8:00 - 8:50 Registration  
8:50 - 9:00 Welcome and Introduction Cathryn Cox, Chief Executive, SCHN
Session 1: Upper Airways
9:00 - 9:30 I can’t breathe - causes of shortness of breath on exercise dyspnoea Professor Hiran Selvadurai
9:30 - 10:00 The importance of sinuses in respiratiry health Dr Catherine Banks
10:00 - 10:30 Screening and managing children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing Dr Mimi Lu
10:30 - 11.00  Morning Tea  
Session 2: Respiratory Hot Topics
11:00 - 11.30 Improving asthma outcomes Dr Nusrat Homaira 
11.30 - 12:00 Virtual care in children with chronic respiratory condition Michael Doumit
12:00 - 12.30 Latest advances in therapeutics for respiratory disease in CF and SMA Dr Sandra Chuang
12:30 - 13:00 To eat or not eat peanut Dr Brynn Wainstein
13:00 - 14:00 Lunch  
Session 3: Latest Guidelines
14:00 - 14:30 Update on Tracheo-oesophageal fistula management guideline Dr Yvonne Belessis
14:30 - 15:00 Improving outcomes for non-CF bronchiectasis Dr Bernadette Prentice
15:00 - 15:30 Respiratory guidelines for Cerebral Palsy Prof Adam Jaffe
15:30 - 15:50 Afternoon Tea  
Session 4: Challenges in breathing
15:50 - 16:20 3 challenging cases Dr Louisa Owens
16:20 - 16:50 Promoting health in adolescents: vaping and tobacco control Alecia Brooks
16:50 - 17:20 John Beveridge Oration – Lessons learnt from the health system in COVID A/Prof Lucy Morgan
17:20 - 17:30 Program Evaluation QR code here

Short course program: Saturday 24 September (½ day)

Time Topic Presenters
8:30 - 9:00 Registration  
9:00 - 9:40

Chest Physiotherapy: covering who to refer and who doesn’t need referral (inpatient vs outpatient), what improvement you can expect from chest physiotherapy, new vs old techniques

Michael Doumit
9:40 - 10:20

Asthma Inhaler Devices: covering why do we need asthma education and how to provide education, advice on improving breathing including indoor air quality, house dust mite minimisation, how to provide a green asthma management plan (including new vs old devices and techniques)

Melinda Gray
10:20 - 10:50 Morning tea  
10:50 - 11:30

Spirometry (Lung Function): covering how do you interpret lung function (good quality vs uninterpretable lung function), how to approach a breathless child - exploring the techniques of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), provocation test such as mannitol challenge, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET)

Jamie McBride
11:30 - 12:00pm Assessment: consisting of 25 multiple choice questions (MCQs) Dr Sandra Chuang
12:00 - 12:30pm Q&A and Closure Dr Sandra Chuang

Speakers & presenters

Listed in order of speaker and presenter appearance.

Day 1

 
Cathryn Cox PSM – Chief Executive, Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network (SCHN)
Professor Hiran Selvadurai – Head of Respiratory Medicine Department, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
Dr Catherine Banks –  Ear, Nose and Throat Surgeon, Sydney Children’s Hospital Randwick and Prince of Wales Hospital
Dr Mimi Lu – Respiratory and Sleep Physician, Sydney Children’s Hospital Randwick and Children’s Hospital Westmead, Woolcock Clinic
Dr Nusrat Homaira – Respiratory Epidemiologist, Early Career Fellow of National Health and Medicla Research Council, Senior Lecturer with Discipline of Paediatrics UNSW, honorary research scientist SCH Randwick
Michael Doumit – Senior Physiotherapist, SCH Randwick, Conjoint Associate Lecturer Discipline of Paediatrics UNSW, Lecturer in Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences Macquarie University
Dr Sandra Chuang – Respiratory Clinical Academic SCH Randwick, Lecturer Discipline of Paediatrics UNSW
Brynn Wainstein – Paediatric Immunologist and Allergist SCH Randwick, Conjoint Senior Lecturer Discipline of Paediatrics UNSW, President of the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA)
Dr Yvonne Belessis – Respiratory Physician SCH Randwick, Conjoint Senior Lecturer Discipline of Paediatrics SCH
Dr Bernadette Prentice – Respiratory Physician, SCH Randwick
Prof Adam Jaffe – Respiratory Clinical Academic SCH Randwick, John Beveridge Chair of Paediatrics
Dr Louisa Owens – Head of Respiratory Medicine Department, SCH Randwick; Conjoint Lecturer Discipline of Paediatrics UNSW
Alecia Brooks – Manager, Tobacco Control, Cancer Council NSW
A/Prof Lucy Morgan – Clinical Associate Professor, Concord Clinical School

Day 2

 
Michael Doumit – Senior Physiotherapist, SCH Randwick, Conjoint Associate Lecturer Discipline of Paediatrics UNSW, Lecturer in Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences Macquarie University
Ms Melinda Gray – Respiratory Clinical Nurse Consultant, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sydney Children’s Hospital Randwick
Jamie McBride – Senior Respiratory Scientist, SCH Randwick

Venue & transport

Venue

John Beveridge Lecture Theatre, Level 1
Sydney Children’s Hospital
High St, Randwick NSW 2031

Map

Parking

Street parking is very limited. All-day parking is available at the Prince of Wales Hospital Car Park, via Barker St, Randwick (Maximum daily rate: $31.20).

Drop-off zone

There is a drop-off zone in the driveway of the Sydney Children’s Hospital on High St, Randwick.

Public Transport

For timetable information call the Transport Infoline on 131500 or see www.transportnsw.info

Cancellations & Refunds

Cancellation must be provided in writing to UNSW in which case the following terms and conditions apply:

  • If written notice is received by UNSW more than 10 working days prior to the seminar commencement date, 80% of the fees and charges will be refunded.
  • If written notice is received by UNSW less than 10 working days prior to the seminar commencement date, 50% of the fees and charges will be refunded.
  • No refund of the fees and charges will be made if written notice is received on or after the seminar commencement date or in the case of non-attendance at the seminar.

Accommodation

Delegates are advised to make their own arrangements for accommodation, if required.

Seminar, short course and course materials

Seminar, short course and course materials will be available in the UNSW Medicine & Health Canvas learning management system.  

Liability

The program is correct at the time of issuing. However, the organisers reserve the right to alter the program without notice due to unforeseen circumstances. The seminar organisers accept no responsibility for any loss incurred by registrants resulting from their attendance at the seminar.

The Inaugural John Beveridge Lecture

The John Beveridge Lecture recognises the life, contribution and commitment of Professor John Beveridge, to the health and welfare of children.

John Beveridge was the Foundation Professor of Paediatrics at the University of NSW and the Director of the Prince of Wales Children’s Hospital (now the Sydney Children’s Hospital, Randwick) from its inception in 1962 until 1991.

During his early career, he realised that paediatrics was his passion, and he is remembered for his high standards of service and care. Professor Beveridge was a strong, passionate and determined advocate for the Hospital specifically, and for children’s health more widely.

His clinical interest in respiratory conditions, like cystic fibrosis, provides a poignant connection to the respiratory presentations which will be delivered at this forum.

Reach us for further information about this seminar and the short course. We continuously improve our short courses, education and training, seminars and bespoke programs to reflect the needs of our learners and their employers. If you are interested in connecting with us to explore bespoke program for your organisation or team, please contact us.

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, during 2016–2018, approximately 8.0% of the U.S. population was reported to have asthma, with 8.1% among children aged 0–17 years and 7.9% among adults aged ≥18 years. Such rise in prevalence of asthma is expected to propel the North America respiratory trainer market growth over the forecast period.

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North America Respiratory Trainer Market – Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic

Supply chains and manufacturing activities in the North American region have been disrupted due to lockdowns worldwide, and the distributors are facing problems with regard to transportation. This has negatively impacted the North America respiratory trainer market. However, as the prevalence of respiratory diseases increases with the COVID-19, the demand for respiratory trainers will also increase. This is expected to drive the North America respiratory trainer market growth over the forecast period.

Key market players are focusing on launching Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) to reduce breathing discomfort by reducing the effort required to breathe, which is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in July 2021, Vyaire Medical Inc., a company developing medical equipments, announced the availability of AirLife Open oxygen mask. It is a low-flow oxygen therapy device that is designed to improve the satisfaction of patients receiving low-flow oxygen therapy.

Browse 22 Market Data Tables and 24 Figures spread through 138 Pages and in-depth TOC on “North America Respiratory Trainer Market” – Forecast to 2028, North America Respiratory Trainer Market, by Product Type (Resistance Training Devices and Endurance Training Devices), by Technique (Inspiratory Muscle Training (Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading and Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading), Expiratory Muscle Training, and Combination of Both), by Disease Indication (Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Others), by End User (Children and Adults), and by Country (U.S. and Canada)

Key players are adopting inorganic growth strategies such as acquisitions to expand their product offerings. This is expected to aid in the North America respiratory trainer market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in October 2018, Teleflex Incorporated, a company providing medical devices, announced the acquisition of Essential Medical, Inc., a privately-held medical device company.

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Key Takeaways of the North America Respiratory Trainer Market:

  • The North America respiratory trainer market is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 7.3% during the forecast period, owing to the growing adoption of inorganic strategies such as partnerships by key market players. For instance, in August 2019, Smiths Medical, a subsidiary of the global technology company, Smiths Group Plc., announced that it had entered into a partnership with Medline Industries, a healthcare company, for the distribution of Portex acapella choice vibratory positive expiratory pressure device (PEP), a device that promotes the opening of airways in patients with lung diseases with secretory problems such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis.
  • Among product types, the resistance training devices segment accounted for the largest market share in the North America respiratory trainer market in 2021. Resistance training is the practice of breathing through a respiratory mouth device that is created to constrain the airflow to the user, increase airway resistance, and consequently increase the work required for inhalation and exhalation by the respiratory muscles. Inspiratory pressure threshold loading (IPTL) is a commonly used method for respiratory muscle training (RMT).
  • On the basis of country, the U.S. accounted for the largest market share in the North America respiratory trainer market in 2021, due to the growing prevalence of asthma in the country. For instance, according to data published by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America in 2021, about 20 million U.S. adults aged 18 years and older had asthma.
  • Major players operating in the North America respiratory trainer market include Teleflex Incorporated, Koninklijke Philips N.V., Smiths Medical, Inc., Vyaire Medical, Inc., IngMar Medical, POWERbreathe International Limited, PN Medical, Aleas Europe LLC, Aspire Products, LLC, and Airofit

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Table of Content

Chapter 1 Industry Overview
1.1 Definition
1.2 Assumptions
1.3 Research Scope
1.4 Market Analysis by Regions
1.5 North America Respiratory Trainer Market Size Analysis from 2022 to 2028
11.6 COVID-19 Outbreak: North America Respiratory Trainer Industry Impact

Chapter 2 North America Respiratory Trainer Competition by Types, Applications, and Top Regions and Countries
2.1 North America Respiratory Trainer (Volume and Value) by Type
2.3 North America Respiratory Trainer (Volume and Value) by Regions

Chapter 3 Production Market Analysis
3.1 Production Market Analysis
3.2 Regional Production Market Analysis

Chapter 4 North America Respiratory Trainer Sales, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2017-2022)
Chapter 5 Company Profiles and Key Figures in North America Respiratory Trainer Business
Chapter 6 North America Respiratory Trainer Market Forecast (2022-2028)
Chapter 7 Conclusions
Research Methodology

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Long-acting Beta-agonists Market: Introduction

• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease defined by growing airflow restriction and respiratory symptoms, which are frequently accompanied by chronic comorbidities, resulting in a major burden for the patient.

• Specific pharmaceutical therapy for COPD aids in the prevention and control of symptoms, frequency & intensity of exacerbations, improvement of health status, and improvement of exercise tolerance. Inhaled bronchodilators, such as 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists, enhance lung function by changing airway smooth muscle tone; however, these have an effect on the peripheral airways. These decrease air trapping and enhance lung emptying, lowering lung volumes, and improving lung function.

• Since the late 1990s, inhaled long-acting 2-agonists (LABAs) such as formoterol and salmeterol have been approved for the treatment of COPD. These enhance lung function, symptoms of shortness of breath and activity restriction, health-related quality of life, and reduce the number of exacerbations. However, not all patients obtain clinically relevant improvements in symptoms or health-related quality of life.

Moreover, LABAs have a good safety profile and are not linked with an increased risk of respiratory mortality. However, side effects such as palpitations and tremor could restrict the tolerable dose. The half-life of formoterol and salmeterol is 12 hours.

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Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market: Drivers, Restraints, Trends

• Rise in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is a key factor boosting the growth of the global market. Additionally, adoption of combination therapies such as formoterol and salmeterol has increased, as these have shown significant improvements in lung function.

• Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are caused due to exposure to air pollution, working with chemicals, dust & fumes, breathing secondhand smoke, and a history of childhood respiratory infection or a genetic condition called alpha-1 deficiency. This is projected to boost the growth of the global long-acting beta-agonists market during the forecast period.

• According to the American Lung Association, about 85% to 90% of all COPDs are caused by cigarette smoking. More than 7,000 chemicals are created when a cigarette burns, many of which are harmful. The toxins in cigarette smoke has dangerous effects that weakens lungs' defense against infections, narrows air passages and causes swelling in air tubes, and destroys air sacs, which in turn cause COPDs.

• Long-acting beta-agonist usage is increasing across several industries, with significant growth in hospitals, clinics, and ambulatory surgical centers, as well as increased environmental concerns. This boosts the growth of the global long-acting beta-agonists market.

• Rise in disposable income, increase in awareness, and surge in geriatric population are anticipated to fuel the growth of the global market
• Surge in usage of bronchodilators for the treatment of cystic fibrosis augments the global long-acting beta-agonists market

• However, adverse effects associated with bronchodilators and government restrictions regarding the safety and efficacy of bronchodilators are expected to restrain the global market. Nevertheless, continuous R&D initiatives on bronchodilator are expected to drive the long-acting beta-agonists market.

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North America Accounts for Major Share of Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market

• North America accounted for the largest share of the global long-acting beta-agonists market in 2020, followed by Europe. Rise in prevalence of cystic fibrosis and increase in government initiatives to raise awareness about COPD, asthma, and other chronic respiratory illnesses contribute to the region's large market share. Moreover, presence of top players such as AstraZeneca and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. drives the market in the region.

• However, the market in Asia Pacific is expected to grow at a rapid pace during the forecast period. This is attributed to increase in patients with respiratory disorders and considerable improvement in the health care sector in the region.

Key Players in Long-acting Beta-agonists Market
• Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma
• Boehringer Ingelheim
• GlaxoSmithKline plc
• Merck KGaA
• Mylan N.V.
• Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
• AstraZeneca plc
• Pfizer, Inc.
• Sanofi

Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market: Research Scope

Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market, by Drug Type
• Tablet
• Liquid

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Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market, by Indication

• Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
• Asthma
• Others
Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market, by Route of Administration
• Oral
• Pulmonary
• Parenteral
Global Long-acting Beta-agonists Market, by Distribution Channel
• Hospital Pharmacies
• Retail Pharmacies
• Others

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Oxygen therapy is administered by use of oxygen gas as a medical intervention given acute or chronic patient care as it is essential for various cell metabolism whereas tissue oxygenation is essential for normal physiological function. Oxygen therapy is administered when the oxygen levels in blood is low.  It can be administered in various ways from nasal to hyperbaric oxygen in a closed chamber.To understand how oxygen therapy is implemented in use, we need to understand the respiratory system. The respiratory system is a group of organs and tissues that help in breathing. The lungs and the nasal tract along with the wind pipe together form the respiratory system.Get Free Sample Copy of this Report@ www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/11959

The air enters the body through nose or mouth through the wind pipe to the lungs via bronchi. The bronchi branches out into several tubes called bronchioles, which further branch out into tiny air sacs known as alveoli. These tiny air sacs are covered with a mesh of blood vessels called capillaries, which are connected to several arteries and veins which transfer oxygen throughout the body.

Certain acute or chronic disease conditions, which affect the transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood, such a pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, asthma, dysplasia, heart failure, sleep apnea, lung disorders, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Oxygen therapy is administered on the basis of arterial blood gas test and a pulse oximetry test.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), total deaths due to COPD is expected to rise approximately by 30% in the next decade, thereby driving the need to incorporate oxygen therapy as a treatment option. However it is estimated that COPD will be the third most fatal disease worldwide by 2024, thereby widening the consumer base for oxygen therapy market.

The growing demand for technologically advanced system, such as portable oxygen concentrator system has also boosted global oxygen therapy market growth. Some of the major advancements include pulse oximetry devices, and nasopharyngeal oxygen therapy.

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The global Oxygen Therapy market is segmented on basis of product type, disease, administration device, end user, and geography:

by Product type
  • Compressed oxygen
  • Liquid Oxygen
  • Oxygen Concentrates
by device
  • Hyperbaric oxygen chamber
  • Nasal Cannula
  • Face mask
  • Trans-tracheal therapy
by basis of disease
  • Respiratory Disorder:
    • Asthma
    • Dysplasia-Pacific
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Pneumonia
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Others
by end User
  • Hospitals
  • Clinics
  • Rehab Centers
  • Home Healthcare

Major benefits of oxygen therapy are decreasing shortness of breath and fatigue, it helps people with sleep disorders and increases the lifespan of individuals with COPD. Depending on the need, oxygen therapy devices can purchased through insurance companies.

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On the basis of regional presence, global oxygen therapy market is segmented into five key regions viz.  North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to lead the global Oxygen Therapy testing market due to high prevalence of respiratory related diseases, increase in number of product approval, increase in aging population, increase in vulnerability to respiratory conditions, innovation in portable oxygen concentrators, rise in number of untreated sleep apnea cases, growing demand for oxygen filling devices and high RnD investment are driving the growth of oxygen therapy market in the region.

European market is also closely competing in terms of revenue generation because of favorable government initiatives taken for respiratory care.

The oxygen therapy market in Asia-Pacific Pacific region is expected to witness a rise in growth opportunities due to an increase in geriatric population requiring home-based oxygen therapy, and rising healthcare expenditure.  The other major restraining factor for growth of oxygen therapy market have been strict regulatory approval policies and complicated reimbursement process.

Some key players involved in oxygen therapy market are Care Fusion Corp., GE Healthcare, Hersill, Philips Respironics, Inc., De-Vilbiss Healthcare, MAQUET Medical Systems, Smiths Medical, Allied Healthcare Products, Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited, Teleflex Incorporated, and Invacare Corporation.

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BOSTON--()--Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq: VRTX) today announced that five scientific abstracts on the company’s portfolio of cystic fibrosis (CF) medicines will be presented at the European Cystic Fibrosis Society's (ECFS) 45th European Cystic Fibrosis Conference held June 8-11, 2022, in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Vertex will present the first analysis of data collected in the U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) of over 16,000 people with CF treated with TRIKAFTA® (elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor and ivacaftor) for an average of nine months. This first interim analysis of an ongoing five-year post-authorization study (abstract WS22.05) showed that real-world treatment with TRIKAFTA® was associated with improved lung function and a 77% reduced risk of pulmonary exacerbations compared to pre-TRIKAFTA® baseline, as well as an 87% lower risk of lung transplant and a 74% lower risk of death, compared to the historical 2019 U.S. CFFPR population. No new safety concerns were identified.

Vertex will also present data comparing the annual rate of lung function change in people with CF ages 12 years and older with two F508del mutations (F/F) or one F508del mutation and one minimal function mutation (F/MF) treated with TRIKAFTA® in pivotal studies and an open-label extension study compared to propensity-score matched historical CFTR-modulator-untreated controls from the U.S. CFFPR (abstract WS22.04). Results show that TRIKAFTA® demonstrated on average no decrease in ppFEV1 over a two-year period in this population, in contrast to declines seen in the matched controls. The analysis indicates that treatment with TRIKAFTA® has a significant impact on the trajectory of CF lung disease.

Additionally, Vertex will present data from a long-term real-world study demonstrating that initiating KALYDECO® (ivacaftor) early in life (ages 6-10 years) preserves lung function to a greater extent than if KALYDECO® is initiated at an older age (abstract WS17.03). These results show the importance of early initiation of KALYDECO® for eligible patients.

These long-term and real-world studies show the potentially transformative benefits of treatment with CFTR modulators and add to the substantial body of evidence supporting treatment as early in life as possible,” said Carmen Bozic, M.D., Executive Vice President, Global Medicines Development and Medical Affairs, and Chief Medical Officer at Vertex. “We continue to make rapid progress in developing medicines that treat the underlying cause of CF, and today, we are closer to our goal of developing highly effective therapies for all patients with CF than ever before.”

Additional Presentations

In addition to the studies noted above, other Vertex presentations at the conference this year support the long-term and early use of CFTR modulators:

  • Abstract WS08.04 — Results of real-world study in people with CF with select residual function mutations, treated with KALYDECO® (ivacaftor)
  • Abstract WS17.02 — Results from an ORKAMBI® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) exploratory phase 2 open-label extension study in children with CF ages 2-5

About Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare, life-shortening genetic disease affecting more than 83,000 people globally. CF is a progressive, multi-organ disease that affects the lungs, liver, pancreas, GI tract, sinuses, sweat glands and reproductive tract. CF is caused by a defective and/or missing CFTR protein resulting from certain mutations in the CFTR gene. Children must inherit two defective CFTR genes — one from each parent — to have CF, and these mutations can be identified by a genetic test. While there are many different types of CFTR mutations that can cause the disease, the vast majority of people with CF have at least one F508del mutation. CFTR mutations lead to CF by causing the CFTR protein to be defective or by leading to a shortage or absence of CFTR protein at the cell surface. The defective function and/or absence of CFTR protein results in poor flow of salt and water into and out of the cells in a number of organs. In the lungs, this leads to the buildup of abnormally thick, sticky mucus, chronic lung infections and progressive lung damage that eventually leads to death for many patients. The median age of death is in the early 30s.

About TRIKAFTA® (elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor and ivacaftor)

In people with certain types of mutations in the CFTR gene, the CFTR protein is not processed or folded normally within the cell, and this can prevent the CFTR protein from reaching the cell surface and functioning properly. TRIKAFTA® (elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor and ivacaftor) is an oral medicine designed to increase the quantity and function of the CFTR protein at the cell surface. Elexacaftor and tezacaftor work together to increase the amount of mature protein at the cell surface by binding to different sites on the CFTR protein. Ivacaftor, which is known as a CFTR potentiator, is designed to facilitate the ability of CFTR proteins to transport salt and water across the cell membrane. The combined actions of elexacaftor, tezacaftor and ivacaftor help hydrate and clear mucus from the airways.

TRIKAFTA® is a prescription medicine used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients aged 6 years and older who have at least one copy of the F508del mutation, or another mutation responsive to TRIKAFTA®, in the CFTR gene. Patients should talk to their doctor to learn if they have an indicated CF gene mutation. It is not known if TRIKAFTA® is safe and effective in children under 6 years of age.

Please see Important Safety Information below and [click here] for full U.S. Prescribing Information.

About KALYDECO® (ivacaftor)

In people with certain types of mutations in the CFTR gene, the CFTR protein at the cell surface does not function properly. Known as a CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor is an oral medicine designed to facilitate the ability of CFTR proteins to transport salt and water across the cell membrane, which helps hydrate and clear mucus from the airways. KALYDECO® (ivacaftor) was the first medicine to treat the underlying cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) in people with specific mutations in the CFTR gene.

KALYDECO® is a prescription medicine used for the treatment of CF in patients aged 4 months and older who have at least one mutation in their CF gene that is responsive to KALYDECO®. Patients should talk to their doctor to learn if they have an indicated CF gene mutation. It is not known if KALYDECO® is safe and effective in children under 4 months of age.

Please see Important Safety Information below and [click here] for full U.S. Prescribing Information.

About ORKAMBI® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor)

In people with two copies of the F508del mutation, the CFTR protein is not processed and trafficked normally within the cell, resulting in little to no CFTR protein at the cell surface.

ORKAMBI® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) is an oral medicine that is a combination of lumacaftor and ivacaftor. Lumacaftor is designed to increase the amount of mature protein at the cell surface by targeting the processing and trafficking defect of the F508del-CFTR protein. Ivacaftor, which is known as a CFTR potentiator, is designed to facilitate the ability of CFTR proteins to transport salt and water across the cell membrane. The combined actions of lumacaftor and ivacaftor help hydrate and clear mucus from the airways.

ORKAMBI® is a prescription medicine used for the treatment of CF in patients age 2 years and older who have two copies of the F508del mutation (F508del/F508del) in their CFTR gene. ORKAMBI® should only be used in these patients. It is not known if ORKAMBI® is safe and effective in patients under 2 years of age.

Please see Important Safety Information below and [click here] for full U.S. Prescribing Information.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION for TRIKAFTA (elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor and ivacaftor), KALYDECO (ivacaftor), and ORKAMBI (lumacaftor/ivacaftor)

Patients should not take KALYDECO or TRIKAFTA if they take certain medicines or herbal supplements, such as: the antibiotics rifampin or rifabutin; seizure medicines such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, or phenytoin; or St. John’s wort.

Patients should not take ORKAMBI if they take certain medicines or herbal supplements, such as: the antibiotics rifampin or rifabutin; the seizure medicines phenobarbital, carbamazepine, or phenytoin; the sedatives and anti-anxiety medicines triazolam or midazolam; the immunosuppressant medicines cyclosporine, everolimus, sirolimus, or tacrolimus; or St. John’s wort.

Before taking KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA patients should tell their doctor about all of their medical conditions, including if they: have or have had liver problems; have kidney problems; are pregnant or plan to become pregnant because it is not known if KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA, will harm an unborn baby; or are breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed because it is not known if KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA passes into breast milk. Before taking ORKAMBI, patients should tell their doctor if they have had an organ transplant, or if they are using a hormonal contraceptive including oral, injectable, transdermal, or implantable form as this should not be used as a method of birth control when taking ORKAMBI.

KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA work. Therefore, the dose of KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA may need to be adjusted when taken with certain medications. Patients should especially tell their doctor if they take antifungal medications such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, or fluconazole; or antibiotics such as telithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin.

KALYDECO or TRIKAFTA can cause dizziness in some people who take it. Patients should not drive a car, use machinery, or do anything that needs them to be alert until they know how KALYDECO or TRIKAFTA affects them.

When taking ORKAMBI, patients should tell their doctor if they stop taking ORKAMBI for more than 1 week as their doctor may need to change the dose of ORKAMBI or other medicines the patient is taking.

Patients should avoid food or drink containing grapefruit while taking KALYDECO or TRIKAFTA.

KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, and TRIKAFTA can cause serious side effects, such as:

Liver damage and worsening of liver function in people taking TRIKAFTA with severe liver disease that can be serious and may require transplantation. Liver damage has also happened in people without liver disease.

High liver enzymes in the blood have been reported in patients receiving KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA. The patient's doctor will do blood tests to check their liver before starting treatment with KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA; every 3 months during the first year of treatment; and every year while on treatment. For patients who have had high liver enzymes in the past, the doctor may do blood tests to check the liver more often. Patients should call their doctor right away if they have any of the following symptoms of liver problems: pain or discomfort in the upper right stomach (abdominal) area; yellowing of their skin or the white part of their eyes; loss of appetite; nausea or vomiting; or dark, amber colored urine.

Worsening of liver function in people with severe liver disease taking ORKAMBI. The worsening of liver function can be serious or cause death. Talk to your doctor if you have been told you have liver disease as your doctor may need to adjust the dose of ORKAMBI.

Breathing problems such as shortness of breath or chest tightness in patients when starting ORKAMBI, especially in patients who have poor lung function. If a patient has poor lung function, their doctor may monitor them more closely when starting ORKAMBI.

An increase in blood pressure in some people receiving ORKAMBI. The patient’s doctor should monitor their blood pressure during treatment with ORKAMBI.

Abnormality of the eye lens (cataract) in some children and adolescents treated with KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA. If the patient is a child or adolescent, their doctor should perform eye examinations before and during treatment with KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA to look for cataracts.

The most common side effects of KALYDECO include headache; upper respiratory tract infection (common cold), which includes sore throat, nasal or sinus congestion, and runny nose; stomach (abdominal) pain; diarrhea; rash; nausea; and dizziness.

The most common side effects of ORKAMBI include breathing problems, such as shortness of breath and chest tightness; nausea; diarrhea; fatigue; increase in a certain blood enzyme called creatinine phosphokinase; rash; gas; common cold, including sore throat, stuffy or runny nose; flu or flu-like symptoms; and irregular, missed, or abnormal periods (menses) and increase in the amount of menstrual bleeding. Additional side effects seen in children include cough with sputum, stuffy nose, headache, stomach pain, and increase in sputum.

The most common side effects of TRIKAFTA include headache; diarrhea; upper respiratory tract infection (common cold), including stuffy and runny nose; stomach (abdominal) pain; inflamed sinuses; increase in liver enzymes; increase in a certain blood enzyme called creatine phosphokinase; rash; flu (influenza); and increase in blood bilirubin.

These are not all the possible side effects of KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA. Please click product link to see the full U.S. Prescribing Information for KALYDECO, ORKAMBI, or TRIKAFTA.

About Vertex

Vertex is a global biotechnology company that invests in scientific innovation to create transformative medicines for people with serious diseases. The company has multiple approved medicines that treat the underlying cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) — a rare, life-threatening genetic disease — and has several ongoing clinical and research programs in CF. Beyond CF, Vertex has a robust pipeline of investigational small molecule, cell and genetic therapies in other serious diseases where it has deep insight into causal human biology, including sickle cell disease, beta thalassemia, APOL1-mediated kidney disease, pain, type 1 diabetes, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Founded in 1989 in Cambridge, Mass., Vertex's global headquarters is now located in Boston's Innovation District and its international headquarters is in London. Additionally, the company has research and development sites and commercial offices in North America, Europe, Australia and Latin America. Vertex is consistently recognized as one of the industry's top places to work, including 12 consecutive years on Science magazine's Top Employers list and one of the 2021 Seramount (formerly Working Mother Media) 100 Best Companies. For company updates and to learn more about Vertex's history of innovation, visit www.vrtx.com or follow us on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube and Instagram.

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, including, without limitation, statements made by Dr. Bozic in this press release, statements regarding the potential benefits, safety and efficacy of our products, and our plans to present data about our portfolio of CF products at the ECFS European Cystic Fibrosis Conference, including an analysis of data from the ongoing five-year post-authorization safety study for TRIKAFTA®, data comparing the annual rate of lung function change in certain individuals with CF and our assessment of the impact of such data, data regarding the early initiation of KALYDECO® and our assessment of the impact of such data, and additional scientific presentations regarding our marketed CF products, including expectations regarding the abstracts that will be made available at the ECFS European Cystic Fibrosis Conference. While Vertex believes the forward-looking statements contained in this press release are accurate, these forward-looking statements represent the company's beliefs only as of the date of this press release and there are a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Those risks and uncertainties include, among other things, that data from the company's development programs may not support registration, approval or further development of its compounds due to safety, efficacy or other reasons, risks related to approval and commercialization of our medicines, and other risks listed under the heading “Risk Factors” in Vertex's most recent annual report and subsequent quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and available through the company's website at www.vrtx.com and on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. You should not place undue reliance on these statements or the scientific data presented. Vertex disclaims any obligation to update the information contained in this press release as new information becomes available.

(VRTX-GEN)

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1Department of Respiratory, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, Dongying, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Respiratory, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Shandong Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Jinan, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Liang Dong, Department of Respiratory, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Shandong Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Jinan, 250014, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86-13505401207, Email [email protected]

Background: Interleukin (IL)-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ belong to the IL-36 family and play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be correlated with IL-36; however, the specific role of IL-36 in COPD is unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether IL-36 could be an indicator for determining COPD severity and the specific nature of the pro-inflammatory effects of IL-36 in COPD.
Methods: A total of 70 patients with COPD and 20 control subjects were included in this study. We collected peripheral blood samples from both the groups, analyzed the blood cell fractions by routine blood examination, and measured the serum levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ by performing polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the correlation between the number of neutrophils and eosinophils and the level of IL-36 was also analyzed.
Results: We found that level of IL-36 in patients with COPD was positively correlated with the number of neutrophils but not with eosinophils, whereas the correlation was not found in the control group. Moreover, the level of IL-36 was negatively correlated with the level of lung function of patients with COPD, and the levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ increased with advancing disease severity.
Conclusion: In COPD, the pro-inflammatory effect of IL-36 is closely related to neutrophils, and hence, IL-36 might be considered a novel biomarker for determining COPD severity.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IL-36, neutrophils, inflammation

Introduction

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous, inflammatory-airway disease. As the disease is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, approximately 200 million people worldwide are affected and more than 3 million deaths occur each year.1,2 Unfortunately, epidemiological data could not adequately reflect the widespread impact and disease burden caused by COPD because, in many lagging regions, the diagnosis rate of COPD is much lower than the true picture.3 The most critical feature of COPD is irreversible airflow limitation, and its typical pathogenesis includes airway remodeling, emphysematous lung parenchymal destruction, and airway inflammatory response.4 Airway inflammation in COPD involves various cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells.5,6 Among these cells, the association of neutrophils with COPD has been widely studied; neutrophil levels are significantly higher in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD than those in healthy individuals.7–9 In addition, the number and distribution range of neutrophils were significantly increased in animal models of COPD.10,11 As neutrophils are closely associated with COPD, neutrophilic inflammation is undoubtedly an important part of the pathogenesis of COPD. Therefore, investigating the effect of related cytokines on neutrophilic inflammation will certainly enhance the understanding of COPD pathogenesis.

As a member of the interleukin (IL)-1 family, IL-36 has two classes of four isomers, namely IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ, and IL-36Ra.12 IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ belong to the group of agonists that promote many diseases such as psoriasis, arthritis, and allergic rhinitis.13–15 On the other hand, IL-36Ra belongs to the group that mainly plays a role in counteracting the effects of IL-36.16 IL-36 is widely distributed in several vital organs such as the heart, brain, and kidney.17–19 Different IL-36 isoforms play different roles in diseases, either synergistically or counteracting each other.20 For example, IL-36α could trigger the activation of the IL-23/IL-17A signaling axis and thus induce an inflammatory response leading to psoriasis,21 whereas IL-36Ra could suppress skin inflammation and provide protection.22 IL-36β could increase the expression of IL-6 and CXCL8 in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells,23 and IL-36γ could promote the recruitment of Th17 cells and the activation of fibroblasts.24 As a typical chronic airway disease, the association of COPD with IL-36 has been demonstrated in several studies. For example, some studies reported that IL-36α and IL-36γ levels in sputum were significantly increased in patients with COPD,25 whereas the level of IL-36 decreased in patients with COPD with eosinophilic phenotype.26 Combined with the importance of neutrophils in COPD pathogenesis, we inferred that IL-36 is correlated with neutrophils in COPD pathogenesis. To further elucidate the mechanism underlying COPD pathogenesis, the correlation between IL-36 and neutrophils should be investigated.

Hence, we hypothesized that IL-36 could promote COPD pathogenesis by promoting a neutrophilic inflammatory response, and the level of IL-36 is closely related to the severity of COPD. To verify this hypothesis, we performed a polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the correlation between the number of neutrophils and eosinophils and the level of IL-36 was also analyzed. This study is expected to bring a new perspective to the diagnosis and treatment of COPD.

Materials and Methods

Subjects

Between March and September 2021, we enrolled patients with COPD (n = 70) and control subjects (n = 20) from the Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital. The characteristics of patients with COPD and control subjects are shown in Table 1. The diagnosis of COPD was in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD, 2021 edition). According to the GOLD criteria for the severity of disease, we divided the patients with COPD into 4 subgroups: GOLD 1 (n = 6), GOLD 2 (n = 21), GOLD 3 (n = 33), and GOLD 4 (n = 10). For the enrolled patients with COPD, all the following conditions were excluded: (i) Pulmonary disease other than COPD such as lung cancer, nodular disease, active tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis; (ii) Previous acute exacerbation of COPD within 4 weeks; (iii) Inflammatory diseases other than COPD such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease; (iv) Lung surgery or recently diagnosed malignant tumor; (v) Unable to walk; (vi) Received blood transfusion within 4 weeks; (vii) Receiving systemic hormone therapy; (viii) Participating in any double-blind drug clinical trial. The subjects in the control group showed normal lung function and had no airflow limitation. For the enrolled control subjects, the following conditions were excluded: asthma, bronchiectasis, pulmonary abscess, interstitial lung disease, tuberculosis, central lung mass, systematic disease such as congestive heart failure, autoimmune disease, and infection. All patients voluntarily entered the study and signed the written informed consent. The study was conducted in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital.

Table 1 Characteristics of COPD Patients and Control Subjects

Peripheral Venous Blood Processing

We collected peripheral blood samples from all the enrolled individuals. The amount of blood samples was generally 5–10 mL due to the different cooperation of each person. One portion of the blood sample was centrifuged for 10 min at 1500 g at 4°C for basal experiments, and the remaining was used for routine blood examination. After separating the upper serum layer, we performed density-gradient centrifugation to collect the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

Reverse Transcription and Quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)

All steps for the qPCR were performed according to the instructions provided with the kit. Total RNA from PBMCs was extracted using the RNAfast200 kit (Fastagen, Shanghai, China). The Evo M-MLV RT kit was used to synthesize cDNA (AG, Hunan, China). The SYBR® Green Premix Pro Taq HS qPCR kit (AG, Hunan, China) was used to quantify mRNA. GAPDH served as the internal reference for this experiment. The 2−ΔΔCT method was used to calculate the experimental results. The primer sequences used in this study are listed in Table 2.

Table 2 Primers for qRT-PCR

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Blood samples were obtained from every participant, and serum was obtained and stored at −80°C until use. The serum levels of IL-36α (Solarbio, Beijing, China), IL-36β (Solarbio, Beijing, China), and IL-36γ (Abcam, Cambridge, UK) were measured using the corresponding ELISA kits following the manufacturers’ protocols.

Statistical Analyses

The patient characteristics were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) or the median (IQR). Count data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, and the measurement data were based on the distribution using the unpaired t-test for normal distribution and the Mann–Whitney test for skewed distribution. Correlations were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation analyses. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 25 (Abbott Laboratories, USA). The differences were considered to be statistically significant at the two-sided p-value of <0.05.

Results

Patient Characteristics

No significant differences were found between the COPD and control groups in terms of gender, age, BMI, and smoking status. Lung function was significantly worse in the COPD group than in the control group, which is not surprising (Table 1).

Peripheral Venous Blood Cell Counts

To determine the association of neutrophils and eosinophils with COPD, we compared the differences between the COPD and control groups in terms of neutrophil count and eosinophil count obtained by routine blood examination. The results showed that the COPD group had a higher number and proportion of neutrophils but lower eosinophil content compared with the control group. This result indicated the possible association of neutrophils and eosinophils with COPD (Table 1).

IL-36 Could Promote COPD Development and is an Indicator for Determining COPD Severity

To clarify the association between IL-36 and COPD, we measured the levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ in the serum of patients and control subjects by performing ELISA. The results showed that the levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ were higher in patients than in control subjects, and the levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ increased with the progression of the disease (Figure 1).

Figure 1 IL-36 was highly expressed in patients with COPD and was related to the severity of COPD. The levels of the IL-36α (A), IL-36β (B), and IL-36γ (C) in the serum of patients with COPD were measured using the ELISA kit. The number of samples in each group was as follows, GOLD 1 (n = 6), GOLD 2 (n = 20), GOLD 3 (n = 20), GOLD 4 (n=9), Control (n = 15). Data were pooled from at least 3 independent experiments and are presented as the mean ±SD. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

To further confirm the association between IL-36 and COPD, PBMCs from both groups were analyzed by performing PCR. The PCR results are consistent with the ELISA results. The results of PCR showed that the mRNA level of IL-36 increased with the GOLD grading. The mRNA levels of IL-36 were statistically different in COPD patients with different GOLD grading. Thus, IL-36 could promote the development of COPD and the level of IL-36 might be considered an indicator for determining COPD severity (Figure 2).

Figure 2 IL-36 was highly expressed in patients with COPD and was related to the severity of COPD. The mRNA levels and significant differences in IL-36α (A), IL-36β (B), and IL-36γ (C) in PBMCs of patients with COPD were determined by PCR. The number of samples in each group was as follows, GOLD 1 (n = 6), GOLD 2 (n = 20), GOLD 3 (n = 20), GOLD 4 (n=9), Control (n = 15). Data were pooled from at least 3 independent experiments and are presented as the mean ±SD. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.

COPD, IL-36 is Closely Associated with Neutrophils

As IL-36 is a pro-inflammatory factor, the association between IL-36 and COPD is most likely based on neutrophils or eosinophils. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the pro-inflammatory effect of IL-36 in COPD, we analyzed the correlation between the levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ and the number of neutrophils and eosinophils. The results showed that the levels of IL-36α (r = 0.5578, p < 0.0001), IL-36β (r = 0.4511, p < 0.01), and IL-36γ (r = 0.6908, p < 0.0001) in serum were positively correlated with the number of neutrophils, but not with the number of eosinophils in patients with COPD (Figure 3). In addition, IL-36 levels in patients with COPD were negatively correlated with their lung function levels. For control subjects, no significant association was found between IL-36 level and the number of neutrophils or eosinophils (Figure 4). To conclude, the pro-inflammatory factors IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ could promote neutrophilic inflammatory responses in COPD and hence might be considered novel, potential targets for determining COPD severity.

Figure 3 In COPD, IL-36 was closely related to neutrophils. (A–C) Correlation analysis of IL-36 and neutrophils in the COPD group. (D–F) Correlation analysis of IL-36 and eosinophils in the COPD group. (G–I) Correlation analysis of IL-36 and the lung functions in the COPD group.

Figure 4 For control subjects, the IL-36 levels were not related to the number of inflammatory cells. (A–C) Correlation analysis of IL-36 and neutrophils in the control group. (D–F) Correlation analysis of IL-36 and eosinophils in the control group.

Discussion

COPD is a chronic airway disease with high rates of morbidity, disability, and mortality. Despite its low diagnosis rate in economically disadvantaged regions, an epidemiological survey conducted in 2015 showed that COPD ranked third in age-standardized mortality rates for men and women worldwide, after ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease.27 To reduce the heavy disease burden associated with COPD, studies on the pathogenesis of COPD are required. Several important factors have been identified that trigger COPD, such as smoking, air pollution, and the presence of susceptibility genes.28,29 However, the identification of these factors has not facilitated substantial progress in COPD treatment because each factor has its limitations, such as the presence of several nonsmokers among patients with COPD and the difficulty of implementing effective interventions at the genetic level. Hence, COPD is difficult to treat, and even though some studies have shown that inhaling glucocorticoids combined with dual bronchodilators can reduce the incidence of acute exacerbations in COPD, the effect is less pronounced than that in the treatment of other diseases such as asthma.30,31 To improve the efficiency of COPD diagnosis and treatment, exploring its pathogenesis and identifying new targets are crucial.

As a member of the IL-1 superfamily, IL-36 contains two classes of mutually antagonistic factors.12 IL-36Ra belongs to one class, which plays an anti-inflammatory protective role in many tissues such as epithelial tissues.32,33 IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ belong to another class, and many studies have demonstrated the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic functions of this class of molecules. For example, IL-36α activates the IL-23/IL-17A signaling pathway in psoriasis;21 IL-36γ promotes eosinophil activation and migration in allergic rhinitis;34 IL-36β plays a pro-inflammatory role in arthritis.35 A study has shown that IL-36 agonist molecules (IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ) exert their effects mainly via myeloid differentiation factor 88, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor kappa-B signaling pathways.36 The association of COPD with IL-36 agonist molecules has been demonstrated in a few studies;37,38 however, it is unclear. In this study, we attempted to explore the pro-inflammatory role of IL-36 agonist molecules in COPD and to determine whether an association exists between IL-36 levels and COPD severity.

To verify the association between IL-36 and COPD, the COPD and control groups with no difference in the baseline status (age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) were included in the study. We then collected serum samples from both the groups and measured IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ levels by performing ELISA. The results showed that the levels of IL-36 agonist molecules were significantly higher in the COPD group than in the control group, and the levels of IL-36 increased with the aggravation of the disease. To further confirm this association, PBMCs were extracted from peripheral blood obtained from both the groups, and PCR was performed. The PCR results and the ELISA results are consistent. These results suggested that the levels of IL-36 agonist molecules are correlated with COPD pathogenesis and hence might be considered as indicators for determining COPD severity.

Neutrophils and eosinophils are two critical types of cells in the airway inflammatory response.39 As IL-36 agonist molecules can exert their pro-inflammatory effects in COPD, we determined which cells among the two types are responsible for these pro-inflammatory effects. We analyzed the correlation between IL-36 levels and peripheral blood neutrophil and eosinophil counts in the two groups. The results demonstrated that levels of IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ correlated with the number of neutrophils but not with eosinophils in patients with COPD. The levels of IL-36 in control subjects were not correlated with the number of either cell type. Thus, IL-36 could induce COPD mainly by promoting neutrophilic inflammation.

Conclusion

Although the study is not complex and has some limitations such as the relatively small number of participants, the use of only serological experiments, and the absence of a wider variety of samples, the originality and value of this study are pronounced. This study is the first to report the possible association between il-36 and COPD at the circulating level. This study not only demonstrated that IL-36 induces COPD by promoting neutrophilic inflammation but also indicated the possibility of IL-36 as a novel predictor of COPD severity. Although this study focuses more on clinical findings than on the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, further research is expected to bring new breakthroughs in the treatment of COPD.

Data Sharing Statement

Experimental data related to this study can be obtained from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Ethical Approval

All studies involving human participants were conducted in accordance with the standards specified by the Ethics Committee of Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital. This study is in line with the Declaration of Helsinki.

Funding

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81770029).

Disclosure

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.

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Introduction

Lung cancer is a common malignant tumour threatening human health, and is also the primary cause of cancer-related death in China and worldwide (1). According to the latest data released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization, by 2020, lung cancer will rank 2nd in the global new cancer incidence rate and 1st in the worldwide cancer mortality rate (2). An epidemiological investigation illustrated that the 5-year survival rate of lung cancer was only about 13% (3). Cancer places a heavy disease burden on patients.

Surgery is commonly used in the clinical treatment of lung cancer patients. However, due to the effects of various factors during surgery and the characteristics of patients, the risk of postoperative complications is increased and the postoperative rehabilitation of patients is affected. Under current surgical technology and nursing approaches, about 20–30% of patients experience postoperative pulmonary complications (4), which result in prolonged hospitalization and increased hospitalization expenses and also seriously affects the quality of life of patients after operation.

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a meaningful intervention for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other chronic respiratory diseases. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society defines lung rehabilitation as a “comprehensive intervention based on a thorough evaluation of patients, and [a] tailor-made treatment for patients, including but not limited to exercise training, education and behaviour changes, [which is] aimed at improving the physical and psychological status of patients with chronic respiratory diseases and promoting long-term adherence to promote healthy behaviour” (5-7). Among them, exercise training is the core content of pulmonary rehabilitation. Thus, lung rehabilitation programs often include exercise training, drug treatment, smoking cessation, nutritional support, behavioural changes, and health education (6). However, the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training for patients after lung cancer resection has been controversial. A study pointed out that pulmonary rehabilitation can improve the quality of life of patients and reduce the mortality of patients (8). Therefore, we believe that a meta-analysis is necessary. However, some studies suggest that pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training does not affect the survival of patients after lung cancer resection (9). The aim of this study was to further investigate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training on the incidence of complications and mortality in patients after lung cancer resection through literature search and meta-analysis. We present the following article in accordance with the PRISMA and MOOSE reporting checklists (available at tcr.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/tcr-22-978/rc).


Methods

Article retrieval

The English databases for retrieval are PubMed, EMBASE, Medline. The search method used medical subject words combined with free words. The English search subject words included “lung OR pulmonary” AND “operation OR resection OR surgery” AND “rehabilitation OR exercise”.

Literature screening

To be eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis studies had to meet the following inclusion criteria: (I) comprise subjects who were lung cancer patients who had undergone lung cancer resection; (II) the study consisted of the rehabilitation and the control groups.; (III) The interventions in the rehabilitation group included pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training; (IV) include at least 1 of the following outcome measures: postoperative complications, postoperative pulmonary complications, and mortality; and (V) be prospective cohort study or randomized controlled trial. Articles were excluded from the meta-analysis if they met any of the following exclusion criteria: (I) some or all patients in the study did not receive surgical treatment; (II) the article was a news report, expert opinion, critical literature, or abstract; (III) the data had been published previously; and/or (IV) the article data was unavailable.

Document data extraction

According to the above inclusion and exclusion criteria, 2 professional researchers independently screened the articles, determined the final included articles, and extracted the data according to a pre-determined data extraction table. If questions or differences in opinion arose in the process of the literature screening and extraction, a 3rd researcher was asked to resolve the issue or the issue was decided via discussion at a meeting if necessary.

Literature quality evaluation

The quality of the included articles was evaluated according to the Cochrane risk bias assessment. Prospective cohort studies were assessed using the NOS assessment criteria for cohort studies on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The quality of each included article was assessed independently by the 2 researchers and then cross-checked. If any differences in opinion arose, the 2 researchers discussed the issue until an agreement was reached or a 3rd researcher was consulted.

Statistical method

This study used Cochrane software RevMan5.4 for the statistical analysis of all the data. The efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation on the postoperative complication and mortality rates were statistically described by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant in the fixed-effects model or random-effects model. A Chi-square test was used to test the heterogeneity between among studies. When the I2 results corrected by degrees of freedom was >50%, the results were considered heterogeneous, and a random-effects model was used. When the I2 results corrected by degrees of freedom was ≤50%, the results were considered non-heterogeneous, and a fixed-effects model was used. The potential publication bias was estimated by Deeks’ funnel plots and Egger test.


Results

Literature search results

A total of 351 relevant articles were retrieved following the database search. After retrieving and collecting the articles, EndNote X9 management software was used to remove duplicate articles. The pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a preliminarily screening in which the titles and abstracts of the articles were read, and the remaining articles then underwent a re-screening in which the full texts of the articles were read. Ultimately, 9 articles (7-15) (comprising 1,338 patients) met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis, The specific screening process and results are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Literature screening process and results.

Basic characteristics and quality evaluation of articles

The 9 included studies were all English-language articles, and comprised 5 randomized controlled studies and 4 prospective cohort studies. The basic information of the included articles are set out in Table 1. In 6 studies, the rehabilitation exercise training plan was implemented before surgery. In 1 study, the rehabilitation exercise training plan was implemented after surgery. In 2 studies, the rehabilitation exercise training plan was implemented both before and after surgery. Of the 9 studies, 5 examined complication outcome indicators, 6 examined pulmonary complication outcome indicators, and 4 examined mortality indicators.

Table 1

Basic characteristics of the included articles

Author Type of study Preoperative/postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation Sample size Complications Pulmonary complications Mortality NOS Cochrane
Pulmonary rehabilitation group Control group Pulmonary rehabilitation group Control group Pulmonary rehabilitation group Control group Pulmonary rehabilitation group Control group
Benzo 2011 (7) Randomized controlled trial Preoperative 9 8 3 5 Low risk of bias
Pehlivan 2011 (15) Randomized controlled trial Preoperative 30 30 1 5 Low risk of bias
Bradley 2013 (8) Prospective cohort study Preoperative + Postoperative 58 305 5 49 2 6 7
Arbane 2014 (9) Randomized controlled trial Postoperative 67 68 20 22 10 16 Low risk of bias
Gao 2015 (10) Prospective cohort study Preoperative 71 71 12 59 5 25 6
Glogowska 2017 (12) Prospective cohort study Preoperative + Postoperative 215 187 32 37 7
Chesterfield-Thomas 2016 (11) Prospective cohort study Preoperative 33 9 0 1 7
Licker 2017 (13) Randomized controlled trial Preoperative 74 77 27 39 17 33 2 2 Low risk of bias
Laurent 2020 (14) Randomized controlled trial Preoperative 14 12 2 10 0 1 Low risk of bias

The Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the 5 randomized controlled studies, and the 4 prospective cohort studies were evaluated using the evaluation criteria of the NOS. The scores were shown in Table 1.

Meta-analysis results

Postoperative complications

The outcome indicators of the postoperative complications were examined in 5 studies (9,10,12,13,15), comprising 890 patients. The results of the heterogeneity test for these 5 studies were as follows: χ2=36.05, P<0.00001, I2=89%. Thus, the results indicated that there was heterogeneity among the 5 included studies, and a random-effects model was used to combine the outcome indicators for the postoperative complications. The meta-analysis results showed that the OR value for postoperative complications between the rehabilitation group and the control group was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.11–0.96), and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (z=2.04; P=0.04). The results are shown in Figure 2. There was obvious heterogeneity among the 5 literatures, and we used sensitivity analysis to find the source of heterogeneity. The heterogeneity mainly comes from the study of Gao et al. (10). There is no heterogeneity among the documents after removal. The OR value of postoperative complications between the rehabilitation group and the control group was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.47–0.94), and there was a statistical difference between the two groups, Z=2.30 (P=0.02). The sensitivity analysis results were consistent with the previous results, and the results were stable, as shown in Figure 3. Additionally, as the funnel chart shows, most of the points fell within the confidence interval, and the funnel type was inverted (see Figure 4). Egger’s test P>0.05, there is no publication bias.

Figure 2 Forest chart of the postoperative complication rates between the rehabilitation group and control group.

Figure 3 Comparison of postoperative complication rates between the rehabilitation group and the control group after sensitivity analysis.

Figure 4 Funnel chart of the postoperative complication rates between the rehabilitation group and control group.

Postoperative pulmonary complications

The outcome indicators of postoperative pulmonary complications were examined in 6 studies (7-10,13,14), comprising 834 patients. The results of the heterogeneity test were as follows: χ2=9.56, P=0.09, I2=48%. Thus, the results indicated that there was heterogeneity among the 6 included studies, and the fixed-effects model was adopted, and the data were combined. The meta-analysis results indicated that the OR value of postoperative pulmonary complications between the lung rehabilitation and control groups was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22–0.50), and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (z=5.33; P<0.00001). Thus, the implementation of lung rehabilitation programs appeared to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in lung cancer patients. The results are set out in Figure 5. Additionally, as the funnel chart shows, most of the points fell within the confidence interval, and the funnel type was inverted (see Figure 6). Egger’s test P>0.05, there is no publication bias.

Figure 5 Forest chart of the postoperative pulmonary complications in the rehabilitation group and control group.

Figure 6 Funnel chart of the postoperative pulmonary complications in the rehabilitation group and control group.

Postoperative mortality

The outcome indicators of postoperative mortality were examined in 4 studies (8,11,13,14), comprising 582 patients. The results of the heterogeneity test were as follows: χ2=3.24, P=0.36, I2=8%. Thus, there appeared to be no heterogeneity among the 4 included studies, and the fixed-effects model was adopted, and the data were combined. The meta-analysis results illustrated that the OR value of postoperative pulmonary complications between the lung rehabilitation and control groups was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.26–2.30), and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (Z=0.46, P=0.65). Thus, compared to the control group, implementing a rehabilitation program for lung cancer patients who underwent resections did not change the postoperative mortality. The results are set out in Figure 7. Additionally, as the funnel chart shows, most of the points fell within the confidence interval, and the funnel type was inverted (see Figure 8). Egger’s test P>0.05, there is no publication bias.

Figure 7 Forest chart of postoperative mortality in the rehabilitation group and control group.

Figure 8 Funnel chart of postoperative mortality in the rehabilitation group and control group.


Discussion

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is the 2nd most common cancer among men and women, and accounts for about 15% of all new cancer cases (16). Approximately 80% of all lung cancer cases are non-small cell lung cancer (17). Surgical resection is the first choice for patients with stage I–IIIa lung cancer. Lung cancer resection provides the highest survival potential for patients. However, patients often experience postoperative complications, pulmonary complications, cancer recurrence, and severe and even life-threatening risks. A previous study shown that the incidence of postoperative complications among lung cancer patients is about 38–58%, of which 15–25% are directly related to respiratory health, such as pulmonary infection and pneumonia, which lead to prolonged hospitalization, impaired functional performance, reductions in patients’ quality of life, and increased cancer recurrence, readmission, and mortality rates (18).

As a therapeutic intervention, pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training is usually used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also recommended for other chronic lung diseases, interstitial lung diseases, cystic fibrosis, and lung cancer. Pulmonary rehabilitation measures include exercise training, drug treatment, smoking cessation, nutritional support, behaviour change, and health education. Research has shown that (7) rehabilitation exercise training positively affects muscle strength, exercise endurance, wellbeing, and health status. Various surgical specialties, including cardiothoracic surgery, have also advocated for the use of lung rehabilitation exercise training in recent years. Several studies have reported on the clinical value of lung rehabilitation exercise training in lung cancer resection (10,13,14). For patients who must undergo lung surgery, a lung rehabilitation exercise training plan can be implemented before and/or after surgery.

Many systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted to examine the effects of lung rehabilitation exercise training on postoperative lung cancer patients, including its effects on hospital stay, functional status, health-related quality of life, postoperative complications, and mortality. Notably, Gravier et al. (19) reviewed the effects of pre-pneumonectomy exercise training on patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and found that exercise training improved patients’ exercise ability, lung function, quality of life, and depression levels. Mao et al. (1) reviewed prospective and retrospective studies on the effects of lung rehabilitation exercise training on complications and mortality after lung cancer resection before 2020. Additionally, Pu et al. (18) reviewed the effects of preoperative respiratory movement on the postoperative outcomes of lung cancer patients undergoing radical pneumonectomy. Xu et al. (20) examined the effects of preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation exercise training programs on postoperative pulmonary complications and hospital stay among lung cancer patients. The present study sought to update these findings using the data of the latest prospective studies to analyze the efficacy of lung rehabilitation exercise training programs on the postoperative complication and mortality rates of lung cancer patients.

A total of 1,338 patients were included in 9 prospective studies, of which 254/890 patients reported postoperative complications. A total of 180/834 patients reported postoperative pulmonary complications, and 14/582 patients reported mortality. The results demonstrated that implementing pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training programs reduced the risk of postoperative complications and pulmonary complications by 67%. However, in terms of mortality, there was no significant difference between the pulmonary rehabilitation group and the control group.

This study had some limitations. The efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training on patients after the operation was multifaceted; for example, it affected the length of hospitalization, and patients’ functional status and health-related quality of life. This study only sought to analyze the incidence of complications, but other aspects also deserve attention. Future research should seek to analyze other key postoperative factors based on more clinical trial data.

In sum, the implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and pulmonary complications in lung cancer patients. However, it had no significant effect on mortality. Our findings suggest that surgical experts should formulate preoperative or postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training plans for patients according to their actual situations to improve their postoperative clinical efficacy.


Acknowledgments

Funding: The project was supported by Hainan Province Clinical Medical Center.


Reporting Checklist: The authors have completed the PRISMA and MOOSE reporting checklists. Available at tcr.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/tcr-22-978/rc

Conflicts of Interest: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form (available at tcr.amegroups.com/article/view/10.21037/tcr-22-978/coif). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Ethical Statement: The authors are accountable for all aspects of the work, including ensuring that any questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work have been appropriately investigated and resolved.

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References

  1. Mao X, Ni Y, Niu Y, et al. The Clinical Value of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Reducing Postoperative Complications and Mortality of Lung Cancer Resection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Surg 2021;8:685485. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2021;71:209-49. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Yang Z, Lin X, Zhang X. Effect of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training on postoperative rehabilitation of lung cancer patients. Journal of Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2021;37:1407-10.
  4. Thomas PA, Berbis J, Falcoz PE, et al. National perioperative outcomes of pulmonary lobectomy for cancer: the influence of nutritional status. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2014;45:652-9; discussion 659. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Rochester CL, Vogiatzis I, Holland AE, et al. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Policy Statement: Enhancing Implementation, Use, and Delivery of Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015;192:1373-86. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Spruit MA, Singh SJ, Garvey C, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: key concepts and advances in pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;188:e13-64. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Benzo R, Wigle D, Novotny P, et al. Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation before lung cancer resection: results from two randomized studies. Lung Cancer 2011;74:441-5. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Bradley A, Marshall A, Stonehewer L, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation programme for patients undergoing curative lung cancer surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013;44:e266-71. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Arbane G, Douiri A, Hart N, et al. Effect of postoperative physical training on activity after curative surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy 2014;100:100-7. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Gao K, Yu PM, Su JH, et al. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing screening and pre-operative pulmonary rehabilitation reduce postoperative complications and improve fast-track recovery after lung cancer surgery: A study for 342 cases. Thorac Cancer 2015;6:443-9. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Chesterfield-Thomas G, Goldsmith I. Impact of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation on the Thoracoscore of patients undergoing lung resection. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2016;23:729-32. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Glogowska O, Glogowski M, Szmit S. Intensive rehabilitation as an independent determinant of better outcome in patients with lung tumors treated by thoracic surgery. Arch Med Sci 2017;13:1442-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Licker M, Karenovics W, Diaper J, et al. Short-Term Preoperative High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients Awaiting Lung Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Thorac Oncol 2017;12:323-33. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Laurent H, Aubreton S, Galvaing G, et al. Preoperative respiratory muscle endurance training improves ventilatory capacity and prevents pulmonary postoperative complications after lung surgery. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020;56:73-81. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Pehlivan E, Turna A, Gurses A, et al. The effects of preoperative short-term intense physical therapy in lung cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;17:461-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2018. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:7-30. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Herbst RS, Heymach JV, Lippman SM. Lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1367-80. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Pu CY, Batarseh H, Zafron ML, et al. Effects of Preoperative Breathing Exercise on Postoperative Outcomes for Patients With Lung Cancer Undergoing Curative Intent Lung Resection: A Meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021;102:2416-27.e4. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Gravier FE, Smondack P, Prieur G, et al. Effects of exercise training in people with non-small cell lung cancer before lung resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax 2021; [Epub ahead of print]. [PubMed]
  20. Xu X, Cheung DST, Smith R, et al. The effectiveness of pre- and post-operative rehabilitation for lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis on postoperative pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay. Clin Rehabil 2022;36:172-89. [Crossref] [PubMed]

(English Language Editor: L. Huleatt)

Cite this article as: Chen Z, Cai R, Liao X, Huang X, Zhao C, Chen M. The efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation exercise training on complications and mortality after lung cancer resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Transl Cancer Res 2022;11(5):1321-1329. doi: 10.21037/tcr-22-978

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For small coverage air cleaning, such as in a room or at home, an air purifier would be beneficial to manage indoor air quality and get rid of pollutants.

Americans spend 90% of their time indoors on average, where pollutants are concentrated and could be much higher than outside. They may be invisible, but air pollutants like mold spores and dust can worsen the symptoms of many respiratory conditions, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer.

According to LiveScience, there are a lot of benefits an air purifier can offer that makes it worth investing in. For starters, knowing the air quality in your local area can help you understand the air quality problem where you live. Community pharmacist and Co-founder of PillSorted, Zeinab Ardeshir, says "improving indoor air quality greatly impacts our quality of life as more than 90% of modern life is spent indoors. Better quality of air indoors reduces the risk of transmission of pathogens and improves allergy symptoms and breathing conditions. An air purifier works by filtering the air through microscopic filters and trapping the allergens."

Why Air Purifiers are Heaven-Sent

1. Reduces medication use for those struggling with allergies

Studies find that air purifiers help control environmental triggers for allergies. If you have allergies, keeping an air purifier in your room helps keep the allergen level in your room low, reducing the symptoms, a controlled study published in the Yonsei Medical Journal suggests. It also works best in rooms with limited size and may not be as effective in large areas.

2. Filters harmful chemicals

Another study published in Environmental Health Perspectives indicates that pollutants in highly polluted areas are linked with respiratory problems and infectious diseases, which can be dealt with using air purifiers as it filters and releases the now clean air back into the room.

3. Helps with dust

Air purifiers can also brush off microbial contaminants like dust particles which are leading triggers for asthma attack.

4. Removes Mold Spores

Good news! Air purifiers can also remove mold fungi known as spores. Having an air purification system also traps the spores before they land and develop into more mold, always keeping them at bay.

5. Relieves symptoms of Asthma

As air purifiers help manage air quality in your home, exposure to contaminants are limited, thus relieves symptoms of asthma.

6. Reduction of airborne disease

Now more than ever, it is important to tackle ways of purifying the air we breathe with the ongoing outbreaks of airborne diseases such as SARS-CoV-2.

"According to recent research conducted by Addenbrookes hospital in Cambridge, use of HEPA filter air filtration machines removed almost all traces of airborne SARS-CoV-2 on the Covid wards as well significantly reducing the levels of bacterial, fungal and other viral bioaerosols," Ardeshir told Live Science.

However, it should be noted that an air purifier may only reduce the risk of developing airborne infectious diseases, but won't completely prevent it.

Also read: Harmful Bacteria Survive on Wet Wipes Washed up on Beaches, New Study Finds

Keeping Your Indoor Air Clean

Ardeshir emphasized that air purifiers are only tools to keep the air clean, and is not the sole measure to keep your house have a good air quality.

"To improve indoor air quality at home, a house needs to be well ventilated in order for an air purifier to work properly," she says. "Keeping the indoor environment well ventilated, keeping the doors and windows shut during hay fever season and regularly vacuuming with a HEPA filter, are more important steps in improving the air quality at home."

Related article: Millions of Tons of Extremely Reactive Chemicals Found Lingering in the Earth's Atmosphere


© 2022 NatureWorldNews.com All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.



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ELLICOTTVILLE, N.Y. — Bradley Poole of Ellicottville has embarked on hundreds of miles in running challenges not once, but twice. It's year three and this time, he's adding a strength component.

"[People] all think I'm crazy, but the ones that really know me know my story, know why I'm doing it and love why I'm doing it," said Poole, who was diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis at six days old.

Each day is a test of his endurance as his normal routine includes taking more than 50 pills and several rounds of breathing treatments. On June 3, he's testing his fitness endurance with a 24-hour challenge.

Here's what he'll do:

  • 50 miles running
  • 3,000 push-ups
  • 3,000 sit-ups
  • 3,000 squats
  • 1,000 tire flips (250-lb tire)
  • 15 mile bike ride

He's not sure when he'll sleep, but he's going to attack it five miles at a time and 300 push-ups, sit-ups and squats each session. He's most worried about the tire flips, but there's one thing that helps him push through.

"I think about the ones who are very sick with CF or the ones that I know personally who have passed on already. I want to help find a cure for everybody with the disease," said Poole.

Of the babies who are born in 2019, half are predicted to live to be 48 years or older, according to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Poole is 34.

"I want to help find a cure for everybody with the disease," said Poole.

You can join Poole at Warrior Fitness in Ellicottville at 11am on June 3 and do your own variation of his workout or donate to help him reach his $25,000 goal, click here.

There will be a party and chicken barbecue on Saturday, June 4 at 11am.



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New York, June 01, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Insight Partners published latest research study on Respiratory Care Devices Market Forecast to 2028 – COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis – by Product {Therapeutic Devices [Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Devices (CPAP Devices, APAP Devices, and BiPAP Devices), Oxygen Concentrators (Fixed Oxygen Concentrators and Portable Oxygen Concentrators), Ventilators, Inhalers (Metered Dose Inhalers and Dry Powder Inhalers), Nebulizers, Humidifiers, and Others], Monitoring Devices (Pulse Oximeters, Capnography, and Gas Analyzers), Diagnostic Devices (Spirometers, Polysomnography Devices, Peak Flow Meters, and Other Diagnostic Devices), and Consumables & Accessories (Masks, Disposable Resuscitators, Tracheostomy Tubes, Breathing Circuits, and Other Consumables & Accessories)}, Indication [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), Sleep Apnea, Asthma, Infectious Diseases, and Others], End User (Hospitals, Home Care, and Ambulatory Care) The respiratory care devices market report highlights trends prevailing in the market and factors driving its growth. The respiratory care devices market growth is attributed to increasing prevalence of infectious respiratory diseases, rapidly increasing cases of asthma and COPD, rising number of product launches and approvals, and growing R&D investment for respiratory care devices. However, cutthroat competition among market players and unfavorable reimbursement scenarios hinder the market growth.

The Sample Pages Showcases Content Structure and Nature of Information Included in This Research Study Which Presents A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis: www.theinsightpartners.com/sample/TIPHE100001120/

Report Coverage Details
Market Size Value in $18.11 billion in 2021
Market Size Value by $32.7 billion by 2028
Growth rate CAGR of 8.9% from 2021 to 2028
Forecast Period 2021-2028
Base Year 2021
No. of Pages 347
No. Tables 274
No. of Charts & Figures 105
Historical data available Yes
Segments covered Product, Indication, and End User
Regional scope North America; Europe; Asia Pacific; Latin America; MEA
Country scope US, UK, Canada, Germany, France, Italy, Australia, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Argentina
Report coverage Revenue forecast, company ranking, competitive landscape, growth factors, and trends

Respiratory Care Devices Market: Competitive Landscape and Key Developments

Koninklijke Philips N.V.; ResMed Inc.; Medtronic; Masimo; Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.; Dragerwerk AG & Co., KGaA; Invacare Corporation; Getinge AB.; Nihon Kohden Corporation; Air Liquide; and Teleflex Corporation; are among the leading companies in the respiratory care devices market.

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The market is anticipated to flourish with the development of new innovative products by market players.

  • In December 2021, Medtronic's Covidien unit initiated a recall of Puritan Bennet 980 series ventilators due to a manufacturing error, marking the third Class I recall of the product since 2015. The recall was initiated due to a "manufacturing assembly error where a capacitor within the ventilator was assembled incorrectly, which may cause the device to become inoperable during use," according to an entry in the FDA recall database. The recall, which was initiated on November 4, 2021, affected 278 units.
  • In November 2020, Masimo announced that Radius VSM, a wearable, tetherless vital signs monitor, had received CE marking and was being released in limited European markets. The versatile, expandable Radius VSM provides the ability to monitor a wide variety of physiological measurements, including continuous SET pulse oximetry, noninvasive blood pressure, body temperature, respiration rate, and electrocardiography (ECG).

North America is the largest market for respiratory care devices, and the US holds the largest share of the regional market, followed by Canada. The respiratory care devices market growth in the US is ascribed to the increasing adoption of advanced technologies, coupled with the rising population and the enactment of favorable government regulations. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of adults diagnosed with bronchitis was 9 million in 2018, out of which 3.8% suffered severe symptoms. The CDC also stated that the number of adults diagnosed with emphysema was 3.8 million in 2018. Thus, the rising number of patients suffering from respiratory disorders and COPD will generate the need for supplemental oxygen, thereby inducing the growth of the respiratory care devices market.

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Increasing Prevalence of Infectious Respiratory Diseases Fueling Respiratory Care Devices Market Growth

Infectious respiratory diseases are creating a rising burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Infectious respiratory disease can be induced due to several factors associated with immune deficiency. Most infectious respiratory diseases are spread from person to person through mucus and saliva and are caused by microorganisms that can infect the respiratory system. The severity of contagious respiratory diseases ranges from mild to severe. Infectious respiratory diseases consist of an exhaustive list of diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), COVID-19, influenza, diphtheria, measles, pneumonia, pertussis, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). According to the CDC data, TB incidence (cases per 100,000 population) among the people from the U.S. increased from 0.71 in 2020 to 0.79 in 2021, and among non-Americans, it increased from 11.71 in 2020 to 12.16 in 2021. Also, overall TB incidence in the US increased by 9.4% in 2021, following a significant decrease in 2020. As per the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 30 countries have a high TB rate, accounting for 86% of new TB cases. Among those 30, 8 countries account for 2/3rd of the total, with India leading the count, followed by China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and South Africa. Due to the high usage of nebulizers in these infectious respiratory diseases, the demand for nebulizers has rapidly grown in the last few years, eventually propelling the growth of the respiratory care devices market. Many pharmaceuticals focus on developing effective therapies which can be administered via nebulizers. For instance, in May 2021, Vectura and Inspira Pharmaceutical announced a collaboration to establish a potential COVID-19 therapy. Vectura would test IPX formulation to lungs through Vectura's FOX vibrating mesh nebulizer. FOX vibrating mesh nebulizer has boosted the respiratory care devices market growth in the preceding years.

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Respiratory Care Devices Market: Segmental Overview

Based on product, the respiratory care devices market has been categorized into therapeutic devices, monitoring devices, diagnostic devices, and consumables & accessories. The therapeutic devices segment held the largest market share in 2021. The segment is expected to register the highest CAGR during 2021–2028.

In terms of indication type, the respiratory care device market is segmented into chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, sleep apnea, infectious diseases, and others. The COPD segment held the largest market share in 2021 and is anticipated to continue to be the largest shareholder by 2028.

Based on end user, the respiratory care device market is segmented into hospitals, home care, and ambulatory care. In 2021, the hospitals segment held the largest share of the market. However, the home care segment is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR during 2021–2028.

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Browse Adjoining Reports:

Respiratory Monitoring Devices Market Forecast to 2028 - Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - By Product (Spirometer, Pulse Oximeter, Peak Flow Meter, and Capnographs), End User (Hospitals, and Home Care) and Geography

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Devices Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis by Type (Automatic, Manual); End User (Emergency Health Departments, Hospitals); and Geography

Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Devices Market to 2027 - Global Analysis and Forecasts By Product (Automatic Positive Airway Pressure (APAP) Devices, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Devices, Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BPAP) Devices); End User (Sleep Laboratories & Hospitals, Home Care/Individuals) and Geography

Breathing Circuits Market Forecast to 2028 - Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - by Type (Open, Semi-open, Semi-Closed, Closed); Application (Anesthesia, Respiratory Dysfunction, Others); End User (Hospitals, Surgical Centers, Clinics, Others)

Therapeutic Respiratory Devices Market Forecast to 2028 - Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - By Product (Nebulizers, Humidifiers, Inhalers, Oxygen Concentrators, Positive Airway Pressure Devices, Ventilators, Capnographs, Gas Analyzers, and Others); Technology (Electrostatic Filtration, HEPA Filter Technology, Hollow Fiber Filtration, and Microsphere Separation), Filters (Nebulizer Filters, Humidifier Filters, Positive Airway Pressure Devices Filters, Oxygen Concentrator Filters, and Ventilator Filters), and Geography

Portable Oxygen Concentrators Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis by Product (Continuous Flow, Pulse Flow), Application (COPD, Asthma, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Others), End User (Hospitals, Homecare Settings, Others), and Geography

Spirometers Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Type(Handheld Spirometers, Table Top Spirometers and Desktop Spirometers); Technology(Volume, Flow and Peak Flow); Application(Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Fibrosis and Others); End users(Hospitals , Home healthcare, Clinical Laboratories, Others)

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Nebulizers Market: Introduction

According to the report, the global nebulizers market was valued at US$ Bn in 2020 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 6.6% from 2021 to 2028. A nebulizer is a medical device used for the treatment of respiratory disorders (asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis) that converts liquid medication into mist or aerosol. Hence, the medicine can easily reach into the lungs of a patient when inhaled through the mouth or a face mask.

North America was the largest market for nebulizers in 2020. The region dominated the global market due to substantial investments, strong economic growth, and increase in incidence of asthma and COPD. Moreover, technological advancements, surge in access to healthcare services, and entry of new manufacturers are other factors expected to fuel the growth of the market in North America during the forecast period.

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Asia Pacific is projected to be a highly lucrative market for nebulizers during the forecast period. The market in the region is anticipated to expand at a high CAGR during the forecast period. Rapid expansion of the market in the region can be attributed to increase in number of asthma and COPD cases, which require rapid treatment.

Increase in Number of Respiratory Diseases to Drive Market

Respiratory diseases are increasing among individuals due to which they are highly dependent on various inhaling devices such as nebulizers to provide them an ease in breathing. Asthma and COPD become quite crucial and problematic after 65 years of age and hence, requires treatment with the use of nebulizers.

Nebulizers are the preferred choice, as these can convert liquid medication into aerosol or mist. Patients can easily inhale the aerosol through a mouthpiece or facemask (connected to the nebulizer) without feeling uncomfortable.

Pneumatic Nebulizers Segment to Dominate Global Market

In terms of product type, the global nebulizers market has been classified into pneumatic nebulizer, ultrasonic nebulizer, and mesh nebulizer. The pneumatic nebulizers segment accounted for a leading share of the global market in 2020. The demand for pneumatic nebulizer is high due to its cost-effectiveness compared to ultrasonic and mesh nebulizers.

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North America to Dominate Global Market

In terms of region, the global nebulizers market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominated the global nebulizers market in 2020, followed by Europe. The region’s dominance can be attributed to highest number of asthma and COPD cases diagnosed in the world.

The market in North America is driven by rise in prevalence of various respiratory disorders such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Other factors such as large geriatric population and rise in demand for personalized medicines are expected to augment the market in the region.

Emerging markets in Asia Pacific hold immense growth potential due to rise in prevalence of asthma and bronchitis. Moreover, improving purchasing power, consumer awareness about health issues, and better disease management are likely to fuel the growth of the nebulizers market in Asia Pacific.

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Competition Landscape

The global nebulizers market is fragmented in terms of number of players. Key players in the nebulizers global market include Agilent Technologies, Inc., Allied Healthcare Products, Inc., CareFusion Corporation, Covidien plc, GE Healthcare Ltd., GF Health Products, Inc., Omron Healthcare, Inc., PARI Respiratory Equipment, Inc., and Philips Healthcare.

Global Nebulizers Market: Segmentation

Nebulizers Market, by Product Type

  • Pneumatic Nebulizer
    • Vented Pneumatic Nebulizers
    • Breath-actuated Pneumatic Nebulizers
  • Ultrasonic Nebulizers
    • Standalone Ultrasonic Nebulizers
    • Portable Ultrasonic Nebulizers
  • Mesh Nebulizers
    • Vibrating Mesh Nebulizers

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Ashlee Butler has cystic fibrosis and on Friday got the opportunity to ask Deputy Prime Minister Grant Robertson some hard questions during his visit to New Plymouth.

VANESSA LAURIE/Stuff

Ashlee Butler has cystic fibrosis and on Friday got the opportunity to ask Deputy Prime Minister Grant Robertson some hard questions during his visit to New Plymouth.

As a Taranaki 27-year-old asked the Deputy Prime Minister why a life-changing drug was still not funded, she apologised for her heavy breathing – she only has 38 per cent of her lung function.

Ashlee Butler has cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disorder that affects breathing and digestion, and was one of many people affected by the disorder who came to listen to Grant Robertson speak in New Plymouth on Friday.

She asked Robertson why Trikafta, a drug which can turn CF into a manageable illness, was funded in other countries, but not New Zealand.

Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Minister Grant Robertson visited the New Plymouth as part of his budget roadshow.

VANESSA LAURIE/Stuff

Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Minister Grant Robertson visited the New Plymouth as part of his budget roadshow.

He admitted it was a “challenge” due to Pharmac’s funding model, but said the Government was undertaking a review, looking into how it could fund drugs for rare illnesses.

READ MORE:
* Kiwis with cystic fibrosis feel forced to move overseas for affordable treatment
* Budget 2022: Pharmac boost leaves patients cold: 'It won't be enough'
* The life-changing drug that could help Brett, 11, live long enough to fulfil his dream
* Cystic fibrosis advocates hand over petition for 'life-changing' drug
* These lives can’t wait; New Zealand needs to fund this drug now

Robertson, who is also Minister of Finance, was in town to speak at two events as part of his budget roadshow.

The first was for the region’s not-for-profit sector, and the second was a Taranaki Chamber of Commerce lunch.

Shelley Gruchy, Joan Tuffery, Joy Fabish, Ashlee Butler and Joelle and Kayne Dunlop have all been affected by CF in some way.

VANESSA LAURIE/Stuff

Shelley Gruchy, Joan Tuffery, Joy Fabish, Ashlee Butler and Joelle and Kayne Dunlop have all been affected by CF in some way.

Speaking to the not-for-profit sector, he highlighted how Pharmac would get a $191 million boost through the Budget, but admitted that Trikafta might be one of those that still missed on funding.

“I recognise it’s a real difficulty,” Robertson said.

He explained he had asked officials to look into how Australia was funding Trikafta.

Robertson addressed the group after his speech.

VANESSA LAURIE/Stuff

Robertson addressed the group after his speech.

Butler was standing at a table with CF Taranaki chairperson Shelley Gruchy, who has a daughter with CF, Joy Fabish, who has two children with CF, Joan Tuffery, who lost two children to CF, and Joelle and Kayne Dunlop, whose nearly-3-year-old son Lincoln has CF.

Robertson addressed the group after his speech, and while they said it was good to hear the drug was on the Government’s radar, they said they wouldn't get their hopes up until the drug was actually funded.

“It’s good to know that he knows what it is and seems to understand,” Butler said.

ROSS GIBLIN/STUFF

Hamish Mountfort, who has the degenerative condition cystic fibrosis, is unlikely to live beyond his 30s without access to the drug Trikafta. He and his mum, Emma Brewerton, are urging the Government to fund the drug. (First published April 28, 2022)

Should Trikafta be funded, she would go from “from surviving to living”.

“It would completely change my life.”

New Plymouth MP Glenn Bennett hosted MPs James Shaw, Adrian Rurawhe and Megan Woods on Friday.

VANESSA LAURIE/Stuff

New Plymouth MP Glenn Bennett hosted MPs James Shaw, Adrian Rurawhe and Megan Woods on Friday.

Meanwhile, Housing Minister Megan Woods and Minister of Climate Change James Shaw were also in the region on Friday, visiting Ara Ake, the country's future energy centre, with MPs Glen Bennett and Adrian Rurawhe.

The centre, which was created using $27 million in Government funding announced in May 2019, was launched in July 2020 and is designed to identify opportunities and technology with change-making potential.

During their time at the centre, the MPs heard from several organisations working with Ara Ake.

These include tertiary provider Witt, which has become a testing bed for the technology of the future, Vertus Energy, which transforms waste into biogas using bacteria, and Emrod, a startup testing the beaming of wireless electricity at a site in Taranaki.

Also speaking were Vortex Power Systems, which is working to transform wasted heat into electricity using a vortex, Azure Wave Energy, which uses the power of waves to create electricity and salt-free water, as well as Our Energy which matches electricity producers with local consumers.

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Scott Johnson Crossing for Cystic Fibrosis

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Some of you may not have noticed this guy cross the finish line at the 2022 Carolina Cup 13.2 mile Graveyard race, but Scott Johnson’s finish may have been the greatest highlight to an already stellar day of racing in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina.

You see, Scott Johnson is a double lung transplant survivor.  Scott was diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis at an early age and the fact that he completed 13.2 miles of paddling on the Graveyard course tells a story unto itself.

Scott Johnson finish Crossing for Cystic Fibrosis Carolina Cup Graveyard
Scott walks across the finish line after completing the 13.2 mile Graveyard course at this year’s Carolina Cup.

“Double or Nothing”: Upcoming Film About Resilience & Hope

Scott Johnson’s story is not ‘usual’. Most people diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis, a genetic degenerative lung disease, are not able to compete on the level that Scott Johnson just represented at the Carolina Cup. Neither are most able to do what he is preparing for in the near future which is paddle 80 non-stop miles from Bimini to the Florida coastline in this year’s Crossing for Cystic Fibrosis event.

Read about the Crossing for CF’s 2021
1st Place Finisher

HERE

Scott Johnson is, quite simply, a walking, breathing, paddling symbol of HOPE for all of us.  His journey is not an easy one. You can read a recent interview we did with Scott in the FALL 2021 issue of Standup Journal.

The resilience of this CF warrior is something we can all tap into. The singular strength to beat the odds of this disease, survive double lung transplants and then come back to compete in multiple Iron Man events, the Graveyard course at the 2022 Carolina Cup and, next, to paddle across the Florida Strait as part of this year’s Crossing for Cystic Fibrosis are all extra-ordinary achievements.  In fact, we – at Standup Journal – are riveted by them.

Support the Film:  Kickstarter Campaign

Scott Johnson’s story includes his wish to give hope to his community. Therefore, he has agreed to film his life story.  Double or Nothing, the title of this film echoes the miracle of Scott’s successful double lung transplant and his 20-year anniversary since the operation. It is also the name of this fundraising team for this year’s 80-mile paddle. The upcoming nighttime paddle on June 25-26th, open ocean hardship and Scott’s efforts will all be captured moment-by-moment for the upcoming film.

Be a part of this extraordinary telling of a story of hope and resilience by offering support to the KICKSTARTER CAMPAIGN for the film HERE.  Watch the trailer in link provided and be inspired by one man’s courage and commitment to live his life against the odds.

Scott Johnson Crossing for Cystic Fibrosis
Against all odds, Scott Johnson is competing on an elite level as a CF warrior. Photo by David Scarolo

 

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one of the common need for the elders at home is this nebulizer. nebulizer is also a part of a home care services especially during the winter season where any age group who are affected with the respiratory problems are relieved with the help of nebulization. hence we shall know about the nebulizer in detail. nebulizer is a machine which helps to convert the liquid medicine into a mist which will be inhaled by the people for their treatment. it is one of a less expensive way, easy adaptable and commonly used for the respiratory problems like asthma, chest congestion etc.

what is a nebulizer?
a nebulizer is a type of a breathing machine used to treat the lung conditions such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and other respiratory illnesses. medications can be administered in the form of a mist which is inhaled into the lungs and are often used in situations where the use of an inhaler is difficult or ineffective. these nebulizers will limit the side effects of medications for example like steroids since the medicines are directly delivered into the respiratory system.

a nebulizer will push the compressed air through the liquid medication, which will form as a mist. the mist will then be inhaled with the help of a face mask or a mouthpiece. usual timing will be 10-15 minutes. the nebulizer can be used as relievers or preventers. because many old people especially during the winter season will find the difficulty in breathing which can be resolved with the nebulizer. there are some old people will take the nebulizer as routine by which they feel they will have an uninterrupted sleep. for some people those who have poor oxygen saturation will use the oxygen support along with the nebulizer.

the infection starts when the bacteria enter the body and releases the poison in the intestines that causes severe diarrhea.

who needs nebulizer?

people who have respiratory diseases like asthma
such patients who are not able to use inhalers
such patients who cannot use their hands due to nervous problems/poor co-ordination
people who have excessive lung secretions
how do i assemble my nebulizer?
before assembling the machine first we need to know the components and the accessories of the nubulizer unit.
you should have an air compressor, medication cup, mask or the mouthpiece, tubing and measuring device if the medication needs to be measured medication ampule, syringe.
place your nebulizer (air compressor unit) on a table or on a stable surface.
make sure all the accessories and components have been cleaned and dried according to the instructions.
wash hands thoroughly.
measure the medication as per the suggested quantity as per the prescription/ the instructions given by the physician.
top of the cup can be opened and dispense the medicine in front of the cup. close the cup.
once when the cup is attached to the mouthpiece or face mask the tubings can be connected to the compressor and the cup.
once when we switch on the compressor then we can begin the treatment.
every nebulizer comes with some specific instructions. we should always refer the instructions before using for the first time
to maintain this device:
all the parts to be cleaned after each use

every 3 months the tubing, mask or the mouth piece must be replaced or if there is any damage it has to replaced immediately

the filters in the nebulizer must be checked, cleaned and replaced regularly

the pump in the machine should be serviced every 6 months so that it will work effectively

if we do not maintain it the person may not receive the necessary dosage of medication which will increase the risk of getting infection as well as the deterioration of their illness.

Buy from Tag Itela Medical Limited today and have your Orders delivered freely at your Doorstep.

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New York, May 27, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Respiratory Devices And Equipment (Diagnostic) Global Market Report 2022" - www.reportlinker.com/p06277193/?utm_source=GNW

The global respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market is expected to grow from $6.36 billion in 2021 to $6.93 billion in 2022 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.0%. The market is expected to grow to $9.35 billion in 2026 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8%.

The respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market consists of sales of diagnostic respiratory devices and equipment and related services by entities (organizations, sole traders, and partnerships) that manufacture respiratory devices and equipment.Respiratory devices and equipment are used in the diagnosis of respiratory disorders such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Only goods and services traded between entities or sold to end consumers are included.

The main products of the respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market are instruments and devices, assays, and reagents.The respiratory instruments and devices are used to diagnose respiratory disorders.

The test type included is traditional diagnostic tests, mechanical tests, imaging tests, and molecular diagnostic tests that are used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis, and other diseases. These are used in hospital/clinical laboratories, physician offices, reference laboratories, and other end users.

Asia Pacific was the largest region in the respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market in 2021.North America was the second largest region in the respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market.

Eastern Europe was the smallest region in the respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market. The regions covered in this report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East, and Africa.

The increasing prevalence of various respiratory diseases contributed to the global respiratory devices and equipment market growth by increasing the use of diagnostic devices and equipment for diagnosis and treatment.Diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are more prevalent in the geriatric population.

COPD is a type of obstructive lung disease that results in long-term breathing problems.For instance, in June 2021, according to the world health organization data, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third disease on the list of causing death in the world.

There are about 3.23 million deaths that are caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 2019. . Thus, the increased number of such cases has surged the demand for diagnostic devices and equipment, therefore driving the market’s growth.

Stringent regulatory practices are expected to negatively impact the growth of diagnostic respiratory devices in the forecast period.In the USA, respiratory devices undergo a strict approval process as they come under Class III devices (that pose a significant risk to patients) as per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classification of medical devices.

These devices require clinical evidence that supports their intended use unlike, Class I and II devices, to receive marketing approval.In countries such as China, the approval process for medical devices, especially for devices used for support or sustenance, is strict and time-consuming.

Such a process has slowed the entry of medical devices into the market, thus restraining the growth.

Companies in the market are increasingly investing in portable and wireless diagnostic respiratory devices.The trend is being driven by the ease of handling, cost-effectiveness, advanced features of these devices, and their suitability for use at home care organizations.

Innovative technology-enabled portable respiratory devices are being launched into the market, which, unlike traditional devices, can be used for immediate diagnosis of vital signs, for example, the patients’ respiratory rate and the pulse rate. For instance, in 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration approved MediPines Corporation’s non-invasive portable medical device, which provides clinicians with real-time pulmonary parameters and insights to support rapid triage and treatment decisions for respiratory conditions.

In June 2020, AireHealth acquired BreathResearch for an undisclosed amount.The deal comprises the acquisition of IP, research, and patents, which include work on machine learning analytics for respiratory condition tracking.

BreathResearch is a US-based company engaged in converting the airwaves of breathing into sound waves producing new respiratory analytics which improve health, fitness, and performance.

The countries covered in the respiratory devices and equipment (diagnostic) market are Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, and USA.

Read the full report: www.reportlinker.com/p06277193/?utm_source=GNW

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Wa Xian and Frank McKeon in the Department of Biology and Biochemistry and Stem Cell Center at University of Houston

image: Wa Xian and Frank McKeon in the Department of Biology and Biochemistry and the Stem Cell Center at University of Houston, are examining pro-inflammatory stem cell variants in cystic fibrosis and developing therapeutic combinations that selectively target them in the CF lung, while sparing the normal cells needed for regenerative repair.
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Credit: University of Houston

Two nationally recognized experts in cloning and stem cell science from the University of Houston are taking the first step toward limiting the consequences of chronic inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) by identifying the source of this persistent and enigmatic inflammation in CF lungs.  

Frank McKeon and Wa Xian in the Department of Biology and Biochemistry and the Stem Cell Center at UH have received a $2.7 million grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to examine pro-inflammatory stem cell variants in cystic fibrosis.  

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited and progressive disease that causes long-lasting lung infections and limits the ability to breathe. It is caused by a defect in a gene called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and affects more than 30,000 people in the United States. That defect instructs the body to produce abnormally sticky and thick mucus that clogs organs, particularly lungs, causing chronic lung disease marked by infections and inflammation.  

While inflammation in the CF lung was always assumed to be a normal response to bacterial infections, recent studies have cast doubt on that link and rendered the source of this inflammation a mystery.  

“That raised the possibility that inflammation, and perhaps other pathogenic features of CF, are maintained by elements that emerge in the disease that are entirely independent of CFTR activity,” said McKeon.  

Interestingly, the same situation may be operating in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where inflammation and disease progression continues despite smoking cessation. In COPD, recent studies reported from the Xian-McKeon lab have shown a strong correlation between the emergence of pro-inflammatory stem cell variants and the disease itself. 

Using technology that clones stem cells from normal lungs, the Xian-McKeon lab found that the COPD lung was dominated by three stem cell variants that drive all the pathology of COPD including inflammation, fibrosis and mucin hypersecretion.    

“Given the known pathological similarities between COPD and cystic fibrosis, we asked whether the cystic fibrosis lung is also dominated by pathogenic stem cells,” said Xian.   “We generated stem cell libraries from four CF lungs that showed not only the three variants seen in COPD but two additional, proinflammatory variants.” 

The team hypothesizes that these CF stem cell variants play key roles in the progression of CF and represent pathogenic elements of this disease triggered by, and yet independent of, the CFTR gene.  

To identify key inflammatory drivers in the three variants, McKeon and Xian will use CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, which allows them to quickly create cell models.  

“CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, coupled with our xenograft models, offers a powerful and feasible means of assessing the hierarchy of factors secreted by these three pro-inflammatory stem cell variants found in the CF lung,” said Xian. 

The Xian-McKeon studies come on the cusp of a new class of cystic fibrosis drugs that restore CFTR activity in these patients.   

"The clinical studies suggest the early application of the CFTR modulators will be game-changers for CF, though their impact on advanced lung disease may be more modest,” noted McKeon. 

Foreseeing the need for companion drugs for advanced CF, the Xian-McKeon laboratory is developing small molecule combinations that selectively target the pathogenic stem cell variants in the CF lung, while sparing the normal cells needed for regenerative repair.  

"This is a race against time for patients with CF and other chronic lung diseases, and the targets are now clear," said Xian. 


Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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CUMBERLAND, Md., May 23, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- RS BioTherapeutics, whose mission is to harness its strong and thorough understanding of the endocannabinoid system to research, develop and commercialize interventions to address chronic and acute pulmonary (lung) inflammation-based diseases, is pleased to announce that is has entered into a license agreement with Synthonics, Inc. for the exclusive, worldwide right to use Synthonics’ metal coordinated cannabinoid in nebulized form for the treatment of pulmonary inflammatory disorders. RS BioTherapeutics is developing its lead compound, RSBT-001, as both an alternative and a complement to corticosteroids for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

COPD is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs and includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma and more. According to the American Lung Association, 156,045 people died from COPD in 2018, making it the third highest disease-related cause of death behind heart disease and cancer. It is estimated that more than 250 million people globally may have the condition and more than 65 million people around the world have moderate or severe COPD. Experts predict that this number will continue to rise worldwide over the next 50 years. The CDC estimates that 16 million Americans suffer from COPD. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, and a variety of other conditions. If chronic pulmonary inflammation is untreated, it can lead to fibrosis, organ damage, and loss of organ function.

Commenting on the potential benefits of this first investigational compound, RSBT-001, Justin Molignoni, CRNP, Chief Strategy Officer and Co-Founder of RS BioTherapeutics, said, “Alternatives to corticosteroids are needed for people with chronic inflammatory diseases. We believe RSBT-001 has the clinical potential to address exacerbation and prevent progression of both acute and chronic pulmonary inflammation related to respiratory diseases including COPD, SARS-COV-2, Cystic Fibrosis, Asthma, Bronchitis, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.”

John Tinkham, CEO and Co-Founder of Synthonics, added, “We believe that metal coordination can significantly enhance the effectiveness of cannabinoid-based pharmaceuticals and are delighted to partner with RS BioTherapeutics on this project. We look forward to working closely with RS BioTherapeutics to assist on the development of RSBT-001.”

Various sources estimate the global pulmonary drug delivery systems market was approximately $51 billion in 2021, and it is expected to be worth around $92 billion by 2030, with a compound annual growth rate of 6.6 percent within in next 10 years.

About RS BioTherapeutics Founded by experts in pulmonary diseases and the endocannabinoid system, RS BioTherapeutics is a wholly owned subsidiary of Real Science Holdco LLC. The company’s mission is to harness its strong and thorough understanding of the Endocannabinoid System in the research, development, and commercialization of forward-thinking interventions to address chronic and acute pulmonary inflammation-based diseases.   More information on RS Biotherapeutics can be found at www.rsbiotherapeutics.com.

About SynthonicsSynthonics, Inc. is a privately-held specialty pharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of patentable drugs that incorporate its proprietary metal coordination chemistry. It binds metals to known pharmaceutical agents to create new products that are better absorbed and thus have greater therapeutic benefits than their predecessors. More information on Synthonics can be found at www.synthonicsinc.com.

Media Contact: David Gutierrez, Dresner Corporate Services, (312) 780-7204, [email protected]

 

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Source: RS BioTherapeutics



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The oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices market is expected to grow from US$ 125. 66 million in 2021 to US$ 179. 34 million by 2028; it is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 5. 2% from 2021 to 2028.

New York, May 20, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure Devices Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Product, Indication , and Distribution Channel" - www.reportlinker.com/p06279456/?utm_source=GNW
The report highlights the key factors driving the market and prominent players with their developments. The growth of the oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices market is primarily attributed to the growing prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, and advancements in medical technologies. However, low awareness and limited access to OPEP devices hinder the growth of the market.

Oscillatory positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been in use as a supplement to traditional chest physiotherapy (CPT) to aid the clearing of respiratory secretions in people who can’t cough, especially those with chronic conditions.The use of OPEP devices is still limited in chronic airway disorders such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and primary ciliary dyskinesia syndrome.

In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices help with sputum clearance.OPEP devices are used to remove mucus from the airways. These devices aid in the relaxation of the lungs’ walls, allowing for easier breathing. The rising prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis is driving the demand for mucous clearing devices.

The oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices market, based on product, is segmented into mouthpiece PEP devices, face mask PEP devices, and bottle PEP devices.The mouthpiece PEP devices segment held the largest share of the market in 2021.

Moreover, it is anticipated to register a CAGR of 5.3% in the market during the forecast period. Mouthpiece PEP helps to remove mucus from the lungs. It can also prevent lung collapse or open up areas that have collapsed. One of the key factors driving the market for mouthpiece PEP devices is the growing elderly population, coupled with higher rates of chronic illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ~9 million persons will be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by 2020, thereby driving the need for mouthpiece devices.

Based on indication, the global oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices market is segmented into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and others.Based on distribution channel, the market is segmented into hospital pharmacies, online pharmacies, and retail pharmacies.

The hospital pharmacies segment held the largest share of the market in 2021. According to research published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2020, a rise in the prevalence of chronic diseases is the primary factor contributing to the proliferation of hospital pharmacies.

A few of the major primary and secondary sources referred to while preparing the report on the oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices market are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention, Social Welfare’s National Health Survey, World Heart Federation, Australian Bureau of Statistics, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and World Health Organization (WHO).
Read the full report: www.reportlinker.com/p06279456/?utm_source=GNW

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ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place.

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CONTACT: Clare: clare@reportlinker.com US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001

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Pulmonology devices are used by pulmonologists to treat Respiratory Problems. Pulmonology is a medical specialty that deals with issues concerning the respiratory system. Chest medicine is a medical specialty that treats illnesses including asthma, lung cancer, occupational lung disease, and lung cancer. Pulmonologists use pulmonology instruments to effectively diagnose these diseases and provide adequate care to patients. The increasing occurrence of pulmonary disorders such as acute bronchitis, COPD, lung cancer, asthma, and other associated respiratory disorders is expected to benefit the pulmonology devices industry. Furthermore, the adoption of pulmonology devices with advanced technical and safety features is expected to rise in the industry. Furthermore, increased public understanding of the dangers of lung cancer and the benefits of early detection has resulted in significantly higher acceptance rates. Asthma and COPD patients are more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection, which is expected to drive growth in the pulmonology devices industry.

The latest study released on the Global Pulmonology Device Market by AMA Research evaluates market size, trend, and forecast to 2027. The Pulmonology Device market study covers significant research data and proofs to be a handy resource document for managers, analysts, industry experts and other key people to have ready-to-access and self-analyzed study to help understand market trends, growth drivers, opportunities and upcoming challenges and about the competitors.

Key Players in This Report Include:

Masimo (United States), Boston Scientific Corporation (United States), CONMED Corporation (United States), Olympus Corporation (Japan), Cook Medical Incorporated (United States), Ambu A/S (Denmark), Zydus Cadila (India), Nihon Kohedon Corporation (Japan), Micro-Tech (Nanjing) Co., Ltd (China), Merit Medical Systems (United States)

Download Sample Report PDF (Including Full TOC, Table & Figures) @ www.advancemarketanalytics.com/sample-report/169322-global-pulmonology-device-market

Market Trends:

  • Advancement in the Healthcare Devices

Market Drivers:

  • Rising Prevalence of Respiratory Diseases such as lung cancers, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPD) and cystic fibrosis
  • Rapid Growth in the Global Geriatric Population

Market Opportunities:

  • Growing Investment in Healthcare Industry

The Global Pulmonology Device Market segments and Market Data Break Down are illuminated below:

by Type (Pulmonary Biopsy Devices (Single- Use Biopsy Forceps, Brushes, Microbiology Brushes), Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) Needles (Biopsy Needles, Transbronchial Aspiration Needles), Airway Stents (Silicon, Nitinol, Stainless Steel), Airway Extraction Baskets, Single-Use Bronchoscopes), Application (Lung Cancer, COPD, Tracheal and Bronchial Stenosis, Others), Distribution Channel (Online, Offline), End-Use (Hospitals, Pulmonology Clinics, Ambulatory Surgical Centers)

Global Pulmonology Device market report highlights information regarding the current and future industry trends, growth patterns, as well as it offers business strategies to helps the stakeholders in making sound decisions that may help to ensure the profit trajectory over the forecast years.

Have a query? Market an enquiry before purchase @ www.advancemarketanalytics.com/enquiry-before-buy/169322-global-pulmonology-device-market

Geographically, the detailed analysis of consumption, revenue, market share, and growth rate of the following regions:

  • The Middle East and Africa(South Africa, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Israel, Egypt, etc.)
  • North America(United States, Mexico & Canada)
  • South America(Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, etc.)
  • Europe(Turkey, Spain, Turkey, Netherlands Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
  • Asia-Pacific(Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia).

Objectives of the Report

  • -To carefully analyze and forecast the size of the Pulmonology Devicemarket by value and volume.
  • -To estimate the market shares of major segments of the Pulmonology Device
  • -To showcase the development of the Pulmonology Devicemarket in different parts of the world.
  • -To analyze and study micro-markets in terms of their contributions to the Pulmonology Devicemarket, their prospects, and individual growth trends.
  • -To offer precise and useful details about factors affecting the growth of the Pulmonology Device
  • -To provide a meticulous assessment of crucial business strategies used by leading companies operating in the Pulmonology Devicemarket, which include research and development, collaborations, agreements, partnerships, acquisitions, mergers, new developments, and product launches.

Buy Complete Assessment of Pulmonology Device market Now @ www.advancemarketanalytics.com/buy-now?format=1&report=169322

Points Covered in Table of Content of Global Pulmonology Device Market:

Chapter 01 – Pulmonology Device Executive Summary

Chapter 02 – Market Overview

Chapter 03 – Key Success Factors

Chapter 04 – Covid-19 Crisis Analysis on Global Pulmonology Device Market

Chapter 05 – Global Pulmonology Device Market – Pricing Analysis

Chapter 06 – Global Pulmonology Device Market Background

Chapter 07 — Global Pulmonology Device Market Segmentation

Chapter 08 – Key and Emerging Countries Analysis in Global Pulmonology Device Market

Chapter 09 – Global Pulmonology Device Market Structure Analysis

Chapter 10 – Global Pulmonology Device Market Competitive Analysis

Chapter 11 – Assumptions and Acronyms

Chapter 12 – Pulmonology Device Market Research Methodology

Browse Complete Summary and Table of Content @ www.advancemarketanalytics.com/reports/169322-global-pulmonology-device-market

Key questions answered

  • How feasible is Pulmonology Devicemarket for long-term investment?
  • What are influencing factors driving the demand for Pulmonology Devicenear future?
  • What is the impact analysis of various factors in the Global Pulmonology Devicemarket growth?
  • What are the recent trends in the regional market and how successful they are?

Thanks for reading this article; you can also get individual chapter wise section or region wise report version like North America, Middle East, Africa, Europe or LATAM, Asia.

Contact US:

Craig Francis (PR & Marketing Manager)
AMA Research & Media LLP
Unit No. 429, Parsonage Road Edison, NJ
New Jersey USA – 08837
Phone: +1 (206) 317 1218
[email protected]

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