Moroccan snake-charmer Youssef watched as long-absent tourists again thronged Marrakesh's famous Jamaa El-Fna square, ending a long pause forced by the Covid pandemic.

"We're breathing again," he said.

The ancient southern city, famous for its views of graceful red buildings set against palm trees and snow-capped mountains, has long drawn visitors including celebrities from Madonna to Yves Saint Laurent.

But it was particularly hard hit by a two-year collapse in tourism that saw arrivals to the North African kingdom plummet to just a third last year from 2019.

For Youssef, taking a break from playing his oboe-like "ghaita" pipe before the seemingly mesmerised serpent, "it's such a pleasure to be back here after these slow, painful months".

Tourism -- which accounts for some seven percent of Morocco's economy and creates hundreds of thousands of formal and informal jobs -- was battered by Morocco's tight restrictions during the pandemic.

Today, Marrakesh residents see signs of hope again as tourists have returned to the UNESCO-listed old city's narrow alleys.

Cafe terraces are full and foreigners browse shops and market stalls for traditional clothing, furniture and souvenirs.

"We're not back to pre-pandemic levels but the situation has been improving over the past month," said salesman Abdellah Bouazri, after serving an Argentinian customer in a Boca Juniors football top.

Bouazri, 35, said the coronavirus had forced him to temporarily abandon his shop and find alternative work as a security guard.

The father of two was one of many in the beleaguered industry forced to find an alternative income -- including many informal workers without contracts or social security.

But he said he was optimistic about the future: "It has been hard, but today I'm delighted to be going back to my real job."

- 'Recovery incomplete' -

Morocco this week reopened land borders with the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, two years after they were shut due to Covid and a major diplomatic row.

That was the latest step in a slow recovery for the tourism sector, backed by the government which has launched a two billion dirham (190 million euro) support fund, on top of 95 million euros it released to prop up hotels.

"The recovery might be underway, but it's incomplete," said the FNIH national hotels federation's chief Lahcen Zelmat.

According to the tourism ministry, Morocco last year earned some 3.2 billion euros in tourism revenue -- less than half the figure for the year before the pandemic.

But revenue in the first quarter was up by 80 percent on last year, according to official figures, and the finance ministry predicts a "more favourable outlook for 2022".

That was reflected in the steady flow of tourists outside the Medersa Ben Youssef, a 16th-century Koranic school in Marrakesh.

"This place is magical -- I'm impressed by all the detail," said Nick, a 29-year-old Londoner visiting for the first time. "Since Covid I've been missing exploring new cultures."

Nearby, other visitors queued up to the Yves Saint Laurent museum, one of the city's top tourist spots.

"The museum was a must," said Coco, a Chinese student living in Germany. "We consider ourselves very lucky to be able to travel again, and we're really charmed."



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Researchers have finally unravelled why those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at higher risk of developing severe coronavirus, an advance that could lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to reduce the infection in patients with the lung condition.

They have observed that in inflammatory lung condition, COPD causes airway blockage following difficulty in breathing. It may affect nearly 400 million people worldwide.

The researchers from the Centenary Institute and the University of Technology Sydney in Australia have discovered that the COPD airway cells had 24-fold greater infection with SARS-CoV-2 than the healthy cells.

In the study, published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the researchers infected differentiated airway cells from COPD patients and healthy people with SARS-CoV-2.

"We examined the genetic information of infected cells through advanced single cell RNA-sequencing analysis," said study lead author Matt Johansen, from the Centenary UTS Centre for Inflammation.

"Seven days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was a 24-fold increase of viral load in the COPD patient airway cells compared to the cells taken from healthy individuals," Johansen said.

The team found that the infected COPD cells had increased levels of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Both are enzymes that SARS-CoV-2 uses to enter into the host cell.

"These two enzymes are increased in COPD patients and favour greater SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to healthy people. Simply put, easier and increased cell infection makes it far more likely that individuals with COPD will have more severe disease outcomes," said Johansen.

Other results from the study showed additional reasons for COPD patient susceptibility to severe COVID-19. Key anti-viral proteins (interferons) that protect against infection were largely blunted in the COPD patient airway cells.

This was a likely trigger in causing increased viral production in COPD patients, the researchers said.

Johansen said that infected COPD patient airway cells also had higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are linked to more severe COVID-19 and COPD outcomes.

"COPD is an inflammatory disease with patients having increased inflammation at baseline compared to healthy people. It is highly likely that SARS-CoV-2 exacerbates this existing high inflammation level which leads to even poorer outcomes," he said.

Initial laboratory drug testing by the researchers, to inhibit the enzymes TMPRSS2 and CTSB, and to target the high inflammation levels, successfully and substantially reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral levels in COPD patient cells, ultimately confirming the study's results.

"Collectively, these findings have allowed us to understand the mechanisms of increased COVID-19 susceptibility in COPD patients," said Professor Phil Hansbro, the study's senior author and Director of the Centenary UTS Centre for Inflammation.

"We believe that new drug treatments targeting relevant enzymes and pro-inflammatory responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection could have excellent therapeutic potential in reducing the severity of COVID-19 in patients with COPD," Hansbro said.

The researchers said that the finding was critical with hundreds of millions of people affected by COPD globally and with COVID-19 likely to be around for many years to come.

Meanwhile, India on Wednesday recorded a single-day rise of 1,829 new coronavirus infections, raising the tally to 4,31,27,199, while the active cases have declined to 15,647.

The death toll due to the pandemic has climbed to 5,24,293 with 33 fresh fatalities, the data updated by the ministry at 8 am stated.

The active cases comprised 0.04 per cent of the total infections, while the national COVID-19 recovery rate was 98.75 per cent, the health ministry said.

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Better ventilation is key to fighting Covid and other diseases, writes the author. Photo: James Stent

If you live in a city, you spend 90% of your time indoors. And 100% of that time breathing. Unless you bring scuba gear, you share the air with everyone else, and you have an interest in that air being clean.

As South Africa officially enters its fifth wave of Covid, dominated by the highly infectious omicron subvariants, the primary threat to health from shared indoor air - but not the only one - is its contamination with the airborne coronavirus.

Covid joins tuberculosis (TB), influenza and many common colds as airborne diseases acquired mainly by breathing the air in crowded indoor settings such as offices, factories, schools, restaurants, clinics and public transport. Not from surfaces.

Covid resulted in 300,000 deaths over the last 24 months, TB caused the death of nearly 60,000 people in 2018, influenza about 10,000. Colds and other viruses lead to less severe illness in most people but the two or three colds we experience each year still cause disruption (millions of days off work) and kill those who are vulnerable (young children, the elderly and those with HIV and other forms of immune suppression). Many of these illnesses and deaths are preventable.

Most South Africans are now protected from severe acute Covid illness or death through previous infection or vaccination. But while omicron is not an inherently less severe version of the coronavirus, it is much more infectious than previous variants. The idea that viruses inevitably progress to more benign incarnations of themselves is a myth. Meanwhile, chronic Covid illness is accumulating, affecting 5 to 10% of those infected, and could cause significant disability and damage a health care system already under severe strain.

The deadliest effects of Covid are hugely reduced by vaccination. But only 40% of South Africans have had the jab, less than 10% get an annual flu shot, and effective TB and cold vaccinations aren’t yet available. Properly worn, high quality masks (such as N95, KN95, KF94) are effective in reducing transmission of airborne disease. But many people are not willing to continue wearing masks at this phase of the pandemic and not enough people are coming forward to get vaccinated.

Outdoor air may be significantly polluted. But outdoor exposure is not, in most cases, how you get Covid or the other airborne diseases, unless you spend prolonged periods up close to someone infected.

Prevention measures should therefore focus on cleaning indoor air. Dirty air is invisible, but a real threat to health, also to the economy. (In South Africa the extent to which shared air contributes to tuberculosis infection has been studied.)

Stale air affects cognition and work performance. In contrast, clean fresh air is a boon to productivity. According to Harvard University’s Healthy Building Program, investment in better air quality yields a 100-fold return on your money .

Clean air is therefore a worthy objective, but for building owners and occupiers two other factors are critical: maintaining thermal comfort, and conserving energy - keeping electricity costs low. Clean, comfort, conservation: we call these the 3 Cs. How can they simultaneously be achieved?

A first step is measurement. The amount of shared air you breathe depends on the number of people in your space and the extent of ventilation. The more crowded an indoor space, the more shared air you breathe. The amount of each other’s air we breathe can be quite easily measured using a handheld or wall-mounted carbon dioxide meter. In Germany, Japan and Belgium these devices are becoming ubiquitous and their use is supported by public health regulations.

In the United States and other countries that routinely experience cold winters and/or hot summers, building standards have focused on sealing off leaks and improving insulation. An airtight, well insulated building is energy-efficient in hot summers or cold winters, reducing the cost of air conditioning or heating.

But an airtight room or building is by definition not well ventilated. HVAC (heating ventilation air conditioning) systems have to provide ventilation and thermal comfort, adjusting the intake of outdoor air, filtering it and the recirculated air as it passes through ducts, heating or cooling it. But these systems consume lots of energy.

Most of South Africa is blessed with a mild climate. During much of the year, good ventilation can be achieved by opening windows and doors to create a flow of outside air through an indoor space (building or vehicle) that dilutes contaminants like coronaviruses, TB bacteria, or your neighbour’s breath. But on a cold highveld morning this is a challenge. The windows of taxis holding 14 occupants on their 6am commute to work are closed to block the cold air and rain.

We can use awareness of local conditions to improve natural ventilation. Where there are prevailing breezes (in Gqeberha or Cape Town for example), meeting near open windows will provide plenty of fresh air. As temperatures change in the morning and evenings, temperature differences encourage air flow through open windows.

We can place window openings to catch and encourage air flow. We can also add simple elements to walls and roofs to catch and amplify air flow, such as galvanised turbines which turn and draw air with the breeze, no energy or maintenance needed.

Perhaps our public transportation can add the solar vents that are used to get additional air flow to ship cabins without letting rain in. All these strategies, and more, can create healthy spaces where we can be together.

The challenge of achieving all three objectives – all three Cs – measurably clean air, comfort and conserving energy – can also be met by new building technologies and designs:

  • Sensors can detect occupancy and activity, using signals like CO2, movement and sound. They can regulate heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, turning them on and adjusting their activity up as occupancy rises, turning them off when the indoor space is empty.
  • Because buildings in cold climates are built “tight” to conserve heat, they need systems that ensure indoor air is fresh and clean. Mechanical systems can use and conserve the heat in exhausted air and return it, clean, to the indoor space.
  • Filters are old and simple yet remarkably effective technologies. In personal masks, such as N95 ones, and in building systems, filters ensure the air that passes through them is almost completely free of virus and other contaminants, at relatively low cost. Fancy high-tech air purifiers add little other than expense, can generate dangerous by-products and are generally to be avoided.
  • Some forms of UV light can kill viruses and bacteria. Newer UV technologies which limit the light to a narrow wavelength do not damage human tissues and could be installed in high risk spaces, perhaps even our taxis.

The 2022 White House Correspondents Dinner was the perfect setting for Covid super-spreading. A poorly ventilated and very crowded indoor space with over 2,000 closely spaced, unmasked guests – including the president of the United States. Several attendees, including Anthony Blinken, the Secretary of State, contracted Covid. Better ventilation – to maintain a CO2 level below 800 parts per million, as opposed to over the 2,300 that was recorded – and the installation of ultraviolet light, offered to the organisers, but rejected – might have averted this.

The failure to take adequate precautions at a high profile event like this one is part of the remarkable failure of authorities throughout this pandemic to use science and technology.

Better outcomes were - and still are - possible by targeting the air through which Covid and other diseases are spread.

Kantor is an anaesthetist and health systems expert with an interest in ventilation.

Stearns is a professor who specialises in design at the New School, a university in New York city.

© 2022 GroundUp. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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Marrakesh (Morocco) (AFP) – Moroccan snake-charmer Youssef watched as long-absent tourists again thronged Marrakesh's famous Jamaa El-Fna square, ending a long pause forced by the Covid pandemic.

"We're breathing again," he said.

The ancient southern city, famous for its views of graceful red buildings set against palm trees and snow-capped mountains, has long drawn visitors including celebrities from Madonna to Yves Saint Laurent.

But it was particularly hard hit by a two-year collapse in tourism that saw arrivals to the North African kingdom plummet to just a third last year from 2019.

For Youssef, taking a break from playing his oboe-like "ghaita" pipe before the seemingly mesmerised serpent, "it's such a pleasure to be back here after these slow, painful months".

Tourism -- which accounts for some seven percent of Morocco's economy and creates hundreds of thousands of formal and informal jobs -- was battered by Morocco's tight restrictions during the pandemic.

Today, Marrakesh residents see signs of hope again as tourists have returned to the UNESCO-listed old city's narrow alleys.

Cafe terraces are full and foreigners browse shops and market stalls for traditional clothing, furniture and souvenirs.

Tourists ride in a horse-drawn carriage in Jemaa el-Fnaa square in Morocco's Marrakesh
Tourists ride in a horse-drawn carriage in Jemaa el-Fnaa square in Morocco's Marrakesh FADEL SENNA AFP

"We're not back to pre-pandemic levels but the situation has been improving over the past month," said salesman Abdellah Bouazri, after serving an Argentinian customer in a Boca Juniors football top.

Bouazri, 35, said the coronavirus had forced him to temporarily abandon his shop and find alternative work as a security guard.

The father of two was one of many in the beleaguered industry forced to find an alternative income -- including many informal workers without contracts or social security.

But he said he was optimistic about the future: "It has been hard, but today I'm delighted to be going back to my real job."

'Recovery incomplete'

Morocco this week reopened land borders with the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, two years after they were shut due to Covid and a major diplomatic row.

That was the latest step in a slow recovery for the tourism sector, backed by the government which has launched a two billion dirham (190 million euro) support fund, on top of 95 million euros it released to prop up hotels.

A henna tattoo artist draws on a tourist's arm in Jemaa el-Fnaa square in Marrakesh
A henna tattoo artist draws on a tourist's arm in Jemaa el-Fnaa square in Marrakesh FADEL SENNA AFP

"The recovery might be underway, but it's incomplete," said the FNIH national hotels federation's chief Lahcen Zelmat.

According to the tourism ministry, Morocco last year earned some 3.2 billion euros in tourism revenue -- less than half the figure for the year before the pandemic.

But revenue in the first quarter was up by 80 percent on last year, according to official figures, and the finance ministry predicts a "more favourable outlook for 2022".

That was reflected in the steady flow of tourists outside the Medersa Ben Youssef, a 16th-century Koranic school in Marrakesh.

Morocco tourism is gradually recovering from two years of Covid restrictions which devastated the sector that usually accounts for nearly seven percent of GDP
Morocco tourism is gradually recovering from two years of Covid restrictions which devastated the sector that usually accounts for nearly seven percent of GDP FADEL SENNA AFP

"This place is magical -- I'm impressed by all the detail," said Nick, a 29-year-old Londoner visiting for the first time. "Since Covid I've been missing exploring new cultures."

Nearby, other visitors queued up to the Yves Saint Laurent museum, one of the city's top tourist spots.

"The museum was a must," said Coco, a Chinese student living in Germany. "We consider ourselves very lucky to be able to travel again, and we're really charmed."

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We are in yet another wave of COVID-19. While the current variant of Omicron is reportedly less severe, it is also much more contagious — and as one study suggests, it is also more strongly linked to severe cases of laryngotracheobronchitis, or croup, in younger children than previous variants.

The small study, published in peer-reviewed medical journal Pediatrics, focused on croup cases at one hospital in Massachusetts during the pandemic. The findings, however, back up anecdotal evidence from around the world that this coronavirus variant is tied to the upper respiratory infection in children.

Croup is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract that typically causes a barking cough, fever, and labored breathing, more often in children than adults. If left untreated, severe cases can become fatal.

Between March 1, 2020, and January 15, 2022, the researchers looked at 75 children diagnosed with COVID-19-associated croup, 81% of which occurred during the Omicron period.

While the exact reason this variant tends to lead to croup is not exactly known, medical experts believe it is because other variants, like Delta, tended to target the lower respiratory tract and lungs, while Omicron typically targets the upper respiratory tract.

The researchers also noted that “the observed rates of hospitalization [due to COVID-19-associated croup] and redosing of croup-directed therapies may indicate a more severe phenotype compared to other viral etiologies.”

“Most cases of croup can be treated in the ED or pediatrician’s office with the steroid dexamethasone and supportive care,” Dr. Ryan Brewster, one of the study’s leads, told Boston’s Children Hospital.

“Our relatively high rate of hospitalization and the number of treatments hospitalized kids needed — an average of six doses of dexamethasone and eight treatments with nebulized epinephrine — suggests that COVID-19 might cause more severe croup than other viruses. We need more research to determine the best treatment options for these children.”

Due to the study’s small size, more research still needs to be done to discover croup’s exact ties to the Omicron variant. It’s also important to note that if your child has croup, it doesn’t automatically mean they also have Covid, but it is worth checking.

While many viruses can cause croup, you should also consider the possibility that your child has COVID-19,” Dr. Jonathan Mansbach, the chief of Hospital Medicine at Boston Children’s who oversaw the study, said. “Consider getting testing them and other family members tested, especially if there’s reason to think they’ve been exposed.”

In the mean time, it’s important to stay up-to-date on boosters, make sure eligible children are getting vaccinated, and test regularly to keep complications like COVID-19-associated croup out of the picture.

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Vaishanavi Kumbalwar, Senior Associate Content Writer, Allied Market Research gives an insight on how partnerships, innovations are key for therapeutic respiratory devices development

Breathing difficulties are an issue that affects millions of people every day, all around the world. It might be short-term, such as asthma, or long-term, including COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). Severe lung problems can make it difficult for an individual to enjoy their daily activities. Recent advancements in technology and the latest respiratory therapy devices have made it possible for physicians to treat patients with breathing issues.

 

Home respiratory therapy remains highly in demand amid the covid-19 pandemic. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic-induced lockdown, demand for home respiratory care services increased. Due to a shortage of ventilators and oxygen cylinders in hospitals, patients preferred ventilators and oxygen therapy at home. However, the requirement for oxygen therapy and monitoring devices was unfulfilled due to imposed lockdown in numerous parts of the world. As a result, there was a demand-supply gap, which impeded the expansion of the home respiratory therapy industry. During the initial days of the pandemic, a surge in demand pushed major companies to upgrade their production operations. 

 

The growing occurrence of respiratory disorders and chronic conditions with respiratory dysfunction, recent technical advancements, and an aging population drive the growth of the global therapeutic respiratory devices. Furthermore, the growing use of respiratory function regulators, including humidifiers, nebulizers, and oxygen concentrators in critical hospital environments, is expected to aid the demand for these devices in the market. According to Allied Market Research, the global therapeutic respiratory devices market is anticipated to grow at a significant CAGR from 2022 to 2029.

 

Meeting the growing demand in Indian market

 

Following the market demand, market players were developing innovative products. At the end of last year, Cipla launched Spirofy in India, a portable, wireless device that is capable of conducting lung function tests outdoors and in distant locations, with the vision of better diagnosing those patients suffering from COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and asthma. According to the company, this device is the first of its kind in India and is built to help diagnose lung problems easier.

Cipla has been focussed consistently on solving the world's increasing load of respiratory diseases, and the company is steadily progressing to fight chronic respiratory ailments like COPD with this launch. This Spirofy launch intends to assist doctors around the country in providing accurate and affordable diagnoses to their patients.

 

The rising number of COVID-19 cases overburdened the medical industry, specifically during the first and second waves of the pandemic. Leading players adopted strategic partnerships to develop effective medical devices to serve covid patients. Max Ventilator has joined forces with Amptron Medical Healthcare to develop a high-performance High Flow Oxygen Therapy (HFOT) device for Covid patients. Max ventilator has entered into a technical partnership contract with Amptron Medical, a respiratory technology firm based in the US, in an effort to grow globally. This strategic alliance demonstrates India's top ventilator company's commitment to developing world-class life-saving breathing machines and a few other medical products that meet international requirements and certifications.

 

Another couple of Indian firms are launching new respiratory devices to aid patients with breathing difficulties. Alkem Laboratories, based in Mumbai, has recently launched Innohaler, a DPI gadget designed to make Asthma and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) patients' lives easier. Alkem is preparing to address the gap in access to respiratory disease treatment in India and has taken a giant step forward in the pulmonology vertical with the launch of innohaler. 

 

Another eye-catching invention in the Indian market is the single-inhaler triple therapy (SITT), Trelegy Ellipta, launched by GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals for COPD patients. Compared to multi-inhaler triple therapy, single-inhaler Trelegy Ellipta treatment results in significantly more patients with improved health status and more lung benefits in standard clinical care with similar safety profiles. Trelegy is given via the unique Ellipta inhaler, which provides precise dosing with its consistent dose delivery mechanism and requires less inhaler training than other regularly used inhalers.

 

COVID-19 impact

Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of pharmaceutical, healthcare, and biotechnology companies have focussed on treatment therapies, diagnostic kits, face shields, PPE kits and masks, novel coronavirus treatment methods, and drugs. R&D labs were working to develop a breakthrough vaccine against the novel coronavirus. In addition, medical practitioners were engaged in providing COVID-19-related services, resulting in negligence in other healthcare segments. 

 

Furthermore, patients with bronchitis or other respiratory disorders must take extra precautions because bronchitis is one of the conditions listed under COPD and has a significant risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2, making the situation worse. Patients with respiratory problems and other chronic illnesses were becoming more vulnerable, resulting in an increase in demand for breathing devices as a result of the ongoing epidemic.

 

 

 

 



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“<img src=https://scientect.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Market-research-port-1

Global Analysis on Physiotherapy Instrument Market with Industry Driving Factors, Size, Share, Trends, Competitive Landscape and Forecast by 2026.

The report will help the reader completely understand the global Physiotherapy Instrument market. Therefore, we have covered aspects like products & services, future products & services, upcoming inventions & innovations, profits, and projected profits. There’s also risk analysis that will help you understand and make investments in the market. The data can also be used for competitor analysis, so you can enter the market with your own products and services based on sound data from the report. You can learn about the strategies being used by successful companies, the competitive landscape, and adapt them to enter the market or invest in the market successfully.

This market research report also has data of all the important players in the industry. From their market share in the industry, to their growth plans, important information has been compiled in the report to let you get an insightful look at the leading players operating in the industry and what their strategies are. The functioning of the leading companies in the global Physiotherapy Instrument market has a huge impact on how the market behaves. Therefore, data on these companies can also help you understand and predict how the market behaves. The competitor analysis in the report will give you a complete breakdown of all the important information you need about these top market players.

Get The Sample Report PDF with Detail TOC & List of [email protected]marketresearchport.com/request-sample/65714

Top Companies Covered:

Patterson Medical Holdings, US Physical Therapy, Kindred Healthcare, DJO Global, Concentra Operating, Enraf-Nonius, Isokinetic, BTL Industries, Select Medical, EMS Physio

In the global Physiotherapy Instrument market report, there is solid in-depth data on various segments as well. These segments give a deeper look into the products, applications and what impact they are going to have on the market. The report also looks at new products and innovation that can be real game-changers.

The Report is Segmented into The Following Types:

Market Segmentation by Product Types:
CPM, Ultrasound, Electric Stimulation, Heat Therapy, Therapeutic Exercise, Others

Market Segmentation by Applications:
Neurology, Musculoskeletal, Pediatric, Cardiovascular & Pulmonary, Others

Regions Covered in the Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market:

• The Middle East and Africa
• North America
• South America
• Europe
• Asia-Pacific
• Middle East
• Oceania
• Rest of the World

In the report, you will find statistics, facts and figures, and projections regarding the Physiotherapy Instrument market. This data has been collected, studied, and compiled by the best minds in the industry. They are highly experienced and qualified, and you can trust the authenticity of the market research report. All the facts & figures stated have been checked and re-checked for accuracy. The report also contains personal comments by industry experts which further add credibility and understanding to the report.

Browse The [email protected]www.marketresearchport.com/reports/global-physiotherapy-instrument-market-research-report-2026-industry-analysis-by-product-type-applications-k/65714

Table of Content:
1 Report Overview
1.1 Study Scope
1.2 Key Market Segments
1.3 Players Covered: Ranking by Physiotherapy Instrument Revenue
1.4 Market Analysis by Type
1.4.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size Growth Rate by Type: 2020 VS 2026
1.4.2 CPM
1.4.3 Ultrasound
1.4.4 Electric Stimulation
1.4.5 Heat Therapy
1.4.6 Therapeutic Exercise
1.4.7 Others
1.5 Market by Application
1.5.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market Share by Application: 2021-2026
1.5.2 Neurology
1.5.3 Musculoskeletal
1.5.4 Pediatric
1.5.5 Cardiovascular & Pulmonary
1.5.6 Others
1.6 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Impact Will Have a Severe Impact on Global Growth
1.6.1 Covid-19 Impact: Global GDP Growth, 2019, 2020 and 2021 Projections
1.6.2 Covid-19 Impact: Commodity Prices Indices
1.6.3 Covid-19 Impact: Global Major Government Policy
1.7 Study Objectives
1.8 Years Considered

2 Global Growth Trends
2.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Market Perspective (2021-2026)
2.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Growth Trends by Regions
2.2.1 Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Regions: 2015 VS 2021 VS 2026
2.2.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Historic Market Size by Regions (2015-2020)
2.2.3 Physiotherapy Instrument Forecasted Market Size by Regions (2021-2026)

3 Market Competition by Manufacturers
3.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
3.2 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
3.3 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Average Price by Manufacturers (2015-2020)
4 Physiotherapy Instrument Production by Regions
4.1 North America
4.1.1 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.1.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in North America (2015-2020)
4.1.3 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.1.4 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.2 East Asia
4.2.1 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.2.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in East Asia (2015-2020)
4.2.3 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.2.4 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.3 Europe
4.3.1 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.3.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Europe (2015-2020)
4.3.3 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.3.4 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.4 South Asia
4.4.1 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.4.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in South Asia (2015-2020)
4.4.3 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.4.4 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.5 Southeast Asia
4.5.1 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.5.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Southeast Asia (2015-2020)
4.5.3 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.5.4 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.6 Middle East
4.6.1 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.6.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Middle East (2015-2020)
4.6.3 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.6.4 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.7 Africa
4.7.1 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.7.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Africa (2015-2020)
4.7.3 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.7.4 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.8 Oceania
4.8.1 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.8.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Oceania (2015-2020)
4.8.3 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.8.4 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.9 South America
4.9.1 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.9.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in South America (2015-2020)
4.9.3 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.9.4 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
4.10 Rest of the World
4.10.1 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size (2015-2026)
4.10.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Key Players in Rest of the World (2015-2020)
4.10.3 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
4.10.4 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
5 Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Region
5.1 North America
5.1.1 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.1.2 United States
5.1.3 Canada
5.1.4 Mexico
5.2 East Asia
5.2.1 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.2.2 China
5.2.3 Japan
5.2.4 South Korea
5.3 Europe
5.3.1 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.3.2 Germany
5.3.3 United Kingdom
5.3.4 France
5.3.5 Italy
5.3.6 Russia
5.3.7 Spain
5.3.8 Netherlands
5.3.9 Switzerland
5.3.10 Poland
5.4 South Asia
5.4.1 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.4.2 India
5.4.3 Pakistan
5.4.4 Bangladesh
5.5 Southeast Asia
5.5.1 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.5.2 Indonesia
5.5.3 Thailand
5.5.4 Singapore
5.5.5 Malaysia
5.5.6 Philippines
5.5.7 Vietnam
5.5.8 Myanmar
5.6 Middle East
5.6.1 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.6.2 Turkey
5.6.3 Saudi Arabia
5.6.4 Iran
5.6.5 United Arab Emirates
5.6.6 Israel
5.6.7 Iraq
5.6.8 Qatar
5.6.9 Kuwait
5.6.10 Oman
5.7 Africa
5.7.1 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.7.2 Nigeria
5.7.3 South Africa
5.7.4 Egypt
5.7.5 Algeria
5.7.6 Morocco
5.8 Oceania
5.8.1 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.8.2 Australia
5.8.3 New Zealand
5.9 South America
5.9.1 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.9.2 Brazil
5.9.3 Argentina
5.9.4 Columbia
5.9.5 Chile
5.9.6 Venezuela
5.9.7 Peru
5.9.8 Puerto Rico
5.9.9 Ecuador
5.10 Rest of the World
5.10.1 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption by Countries
5.10.2 Kazakhstan
6 Physiotherapy Instrument Sales Market by Type (2015-2026)
6.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Historic Market Size by Type (2015-2020)
6.2 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Forecasted Market Size by Type (2021-2026)
7 Physiotherapy Instrument Consumption Market by Application(2015-2026)
7.1 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Historic Market Size by Application (2015-2020)
7.2 Global Physiotherapy Instrument Forecasted Market Size by Application (2021-2026)

8 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Physiotherapy Instrument Business
8.1 Patterson Medical Holdings
8.1.1 Patterson Medical Holdings Company Profile
8.1.2 Patterson Medical Holdings Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.1.3 Patterson Medical Holdings Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.2 US Physical Therapy
8.2.1 US Physical Therapy Company Profile
8.2.2 US Physical Therapy Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.2.3 US Physical Therapy Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.3 Kindred Healthcare
8.3.1 Kindred Healthcare Company Profile
8.3.2 Kindred Healthcare Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.3.3 Kindred Healthcare Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.4 DJO Global
8.4.1 DJO Global Company Profile
8.4.2 DJO Global Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.4.3 DJO Global Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.5 Concentra Operating
8.5.1 Concentra Operating Company Profile
8.5.2 Concentra Operating Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.5.3 Concentra Operating Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.6 Enraf-Nonius
8.6.1 Enraf-Nonius Company Profile
8.6.2 Enraf-Nonius Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.6.3 Enraf-Nonius Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.7 Isokinetic
8.7.1 Isokinetic Company Profile
8.7.2 Isokinetic Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.7.3 Isokinetic Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.8 BTL Industries
8.8.1 BTL Industries Company Profile
8.8.2 BTL Industries Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.8.3 BTL Industries Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.9 Select Medical
8.9.1 Select Medical Company Profile
8.9.2 Select Medical Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.9.3 Select Medical Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)
8.10 EMS Physio
8.10.1 EMS Physio Company Profile
8.10.2 EMS Physio Physiotherapy Instrument Product Specification
8.10.3 EMS Physio Physiotherapy Instrument Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2015-2020)

9 Production and Supply Forecast
9.1 Global Forecasted Production of Physiotherapy Instrument (2021-2026)
9.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of Physiotherapy Instrument (2021-2026)
9.3 Global Forecasted Price of Physiotherapy Instrument (2015-2026)
9.4 Global Forecasted Production of Physiotherapy Instrument by Region (2021-2026)
9.4.1 North America Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.2 East Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.3 Europe Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.4 South Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.5 Southeast Asia Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.6 Middle East Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.7 Africa Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.8 Oceania Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.9 South America Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.4.10 Rest of the World Physiotherapy Instrument Production, Revenue Forecast (2021-2026)
9.5 Forecast by Type and by Application (2021-2026)
9.5.1 Global Sales Volume, Sales Revenue and Sales Price Forecast by Type (2021-2026)
9.5.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Application (2021-2026)

10 Consumption and Demand Forecast
10.1 North America Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.2 East Asia Market Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Countriy
10.4 South Asia Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.5 Southeast Asia Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.6 Middle East Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.7 Africa Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.8 Oceania Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.9 South America Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country
10.10 Rest of the world Forecasted Consumption of Physiotherapy Instrument by Country

11 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
11.1 Marketing Channel
11.2 Physiotherapy Instrument Distributors List
11.3 Physiotherapy Instrument Customers

12 Industry Trends and Growth Strategy
12.1 Market Top Trends
12.2 Market Drivers
12.3 Market Challenges
12.4 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
12.5 Physiotherapy Instrument Market Growth Strategy
13 Analyst’s Viewpoints/Conclusions
14 Appendix
14.1 Research Methodology
14.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
14.1.2 Data Source
14.2 Disclaimer

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Parents look after their son, age 5, who is being treated for croup and asthma in an emergency room at a California hospital March 24, 2010.
Enlarge / Parents look after their son, age 5, who is being treated for croup and asthma in an emergency room at a California hospital March 24, 2010.

The omicron coronavirus variant caused a spike in cases of a potentially severe breathing condition in babies and toddlers, according to a hospital study recently published in the journal Pediatrics.

The study is small, focusing only on COVID-19-associated cases at one large children's hospital in Massachusetts during the pandemic. But, it provides some of the initial data on the subject and backs up anecdotes from health care providers that the latest pandemic variant causes more cases of laryngotracheobronchitis—aka croup—in younger children than earlier variants.

Generally, croup is a common upper-respiratory tract condition in which significant inflammation and swelling develop in the larynx and trachea, imperiling breathing. Some viral infection usually triggers swelling, but allergies and other irritants can also be culprits. Croup can occur at any age but mostly strikes the tiny upper airways of infants and young children, ages 3 months to 5 years.

Croup gets its name from the characteristic "croupy" cough it causes, which is sometimes described as a seal-like barking cough. Other hallmarks of the condition are a harsh, grating sound when a patient breathes in—inspiratory stridor—and respiratory distress.

Before the omicron wave, COVID-19 was associated with croup in some children, but it didn’t appear to be a common outcome of the pandemic infection. That changed during the omicron wave when healthcare providers reported they saw more COVID-19 associated croup cases in young patients.

While data remains sparse on why that might be the case, experts speculate that early variants and the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 tended to target the lower respiratory tract, leading to more severe disease in older age groups. Meanwhile, Omicron seems to have a predilection for the upper-respiratory tract, which may partly explain why it's both more transmissible and associated with relatively milder illnesses in older age groups.

But, in very young children—who have tiny airways and are still ineligible for COVID-19 vaccination—omicron appears to pose a new risk.

Croup cases

In the new study, researchers, led by pediatrician Ryan Brewster at Boston Children's Hospital, scanned the hospital's records for COVID-19 associated croup cases from March 2020 to January 15, 2022. They only found 75 cases—but 61 of the cases (81 percent) occurred during the roughly month-and-a-half time frame of the omicron wave, from December 4, 2021, to January 15, 2022.

Prior to omicron, only 14 COVID-19-associated croup cases appeared from March 2020 to the start of December 2021, usually with no more than one case in a week. Of those cases, 12 went to the emergency department, and two were hospitalized. But at the height of Massachusetts' omicron surge at the start of 2022, COVID-19-associated croup peaked at around two dozen cases in one week. Of the 61 omicron-period croup cases, 54 went to the emergency department, and seven were hospitalized.

No other COVID-19 peak was linked to a spike in croup cases. And in the cases where doctors tested children for possible coinfections, all the children tested negative, except for one who tested positive for rhinovirus (common cold).

The researchers also noted that the cases of COVID-19-associated croup, largely seen in the omicron period, appeared to skew to more severe croup than what's seen in cases caused by other viral infections. The COVID-19-associated croup caused more hospitalizations and required more re-dosing of treatments than expected, the researchers report. Four cases required intensive care, though none led to invasive ventilation or death.

For non-COVID-19-associated cases, croup is often considered mild and can sometimes be managed at home with simple treatments and over-the-counter medicines, like acetaminophen (Tylenol). Most importantly, experts recommend bringing a baby or toddler with croup into moist or cold air—a steamy bathroom or outside on a winter night (croup is often worst at night). The cold and moisture help alleviate the inflammation and loosen mucus. But, in cases where a young child is struggling to breathe, a trip to the emergency department can provide quick relief with a steroid, such as the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, to decrease inflammation.

Although the Massachusetts study is limited by its small size and single location, the authors argue that it offers compelling preliminary evidence that omicron infections cause croup, sometimes severe croup, and the study warrants further research.

"Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, the pathogenicity, infectivity, and manifestations of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been dynamic and unique," they write. "Croup may represent yet another such novel presentation."

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(WXYZ) — It’s not just COVID-19 cases that are on the rise. Many Michiganders are surprised to learn they’re sick with the flu and not COVID-19.

I know many patients who were convinced that they had COVID-19 when they were actually sick with the flu. I get that there are similarities when it comes to COVID-19 and the flu because they are both upper respiratory infections.

For instance, both can cause symptoms like runny nose, sore throat, fever, cough, difficulty breathing and body aches.

So how can you tell them apart?

Well, a loss of taste or smell was once a telltale sign you had COVID-19 as this rarely happened with the flu. But those symptoms are not as prominent anymore.

Another indicator was to look at how fast symptoms appeared. Symptoms tend to come on faster with the flu, whereas it can take longer for a person who has COVID-19.

But here’s the bottom line. The only real way to really know if you have the flu or COVID19 is to get tested. Otherwise, it’s very difficult to tell the difference between the two viruses just by looking at symptoms alone as they are nearly identical.

Both the flu and COVID-19 can be asymptomatic, mild or severe. Both can lead to complications like pneumonia, respiratory failure, sepsis, fluid in the lungs, cardiac injury, multiple organ failure and inflammation of the heart, brain, or muscle tissues. Also, both the flu and COVID-19 can be fatal.

Is one virus deadlier than the other? The answer is: yes. COVID-19 appears to cause more serious illnesses, which can lead to hospitalization and death. While the people most at risk are older adults, pregnant women and people with certain underlying medical conditions, we know that severe illness and death can happen even to healthy people.

Also, some people can develop post-COVID-19 symptoms that last weeks or months. And long COVID can happen to anyone, even if their symptoms were mild or asymptomatic.

The good news is that we have vaccines for both COVID-19 and the flu that can help prevent serious illness and death. It is never too late to get either vaccine, especially as we’re seeing the flu season drag on a bit longer than usual and rising cases for both viruses.

Additional Coronavirus information and resources:

View a global coronavirus tracker with data from Johns Hopkins University.

See complete coverage on our Coronavirus Continuing Coverage page.



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There are several ways one can spot long COVID. Here's the step by step guide on how to know if you have long COVID:

1. You might not be feeling right even weeks after recovering from COVID infection. You would still be as listless as you were during the COVID infection.

2. There is no medical test to diagnose long COVID. Keep a track of symptoms and signs three months after the COVID infection. These symptoms persist in an individual for a minimum of two months. If you notice a symptom which has been there for weeks it is advisable to contact a doctor.

The WHO says, "Post COVID-19 condition is usually diagnosed three months after COVID-19. This allows the healthcare provider to rule out the normal recovery process after illness. The symptoms and effects last for at least two months."

3. Symptoms like fatigue, shortness of breath are commonly seen in long COVID patients. These signs are likely to interfere in the ability to perform daily activities such as work or household chores. If you are unable to carry out low intensity work even months after recovering from the COVID infection, you should check yourself for long COVID.

4. Do not ignore the signs if you have had mild COVID. Experts have said that there is no relationship between the severity of the COVID infection and the occurrence of long COVID conditions.

5. It is likely that the long COVID symptoms will fluctuate and relapse over time. "Symptoms may be new onset following initial recovery from an acute COVID-19 episode or persist from the initial illness. Symptoms may also fluctuate or relapse over time," the WHO says.

In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, people also experience signs which are difficult to explain.

Any such condition which starts 3 months after the COVID infection should not be ignored.

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The latest COVID-19 variant – dubbed BA.2.12.1 – has been linked to 43% of total coronavirus cases in the U.S., a jump from 7% in April.

And, as more data about the variant becomes known, a pattern in early symptoms is emerging. BA.2.12.1 is a descendant of the BA.2 virus, a subvariant of the omicron strain of COVID. It has the ability transmit easier than its predecessors and expect it to become the dominant strain of COVID-19 within a few weeks.

Like previous COVID omicron strains, BA.2.12.1 often presents with upper respiratory symptoms that can appear like the flu. Experts said BA.2.12.1 is triggering mild breakthrough cases in vaccinated individuals with people feeling like they are suffering from a cold or seasonal allergies.

These early symptoms include scratchy or sore throat, sneezing or runny nose.

These symptoms can remain mild or expand to include more traditional COVID symptoms, including:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing
  • Fever or chills
  • Fatigue or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion, runny nose
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

READ MORE:

COVID cases rising slightly in Alabama, most counties now ‘moderate’ risk or higher

25 Alabama counties with highest COVID-19 infections rates

Alabama investigator who spent 7 months on ventilator with COVID comes home: ‘He’s Superman’

Because the symptoms of BA.2.12.1 can be similar to seasonal allergies, people could be reluctant to test, allowing the highly contagious virus to spread quickly. Experts said BA.2.12.1 is about 25% more transmissible than the original Omicron that caused a sharp rise in cases in winter 2021.

The severity of COVID symptoms can be impacted by a person’s vaccination status, according to the Centers for Disease Control. You can see more on vaccinations here.

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NEW DELHI :

Covid-19 cases are seeing a steady decline in the past few weeks in the Indian sub-continent. 

India's Covid-19 caseload increased to 43,121,599 on Sunday with 2,487 fresh infections, while the number of active cases came down to 17,692, according to Union health ministry data.

However, experts have been insistent on every beneficiary getting completely vaccinated against the deadly novel coronavirus. There have been reports that majorly cases of severe illness stemmed from unvaccinated patients. 

Having said that, there has also been reports of completely vaccinated people contracting the SARs-CoV-2 infection. Although such people run lower risks of serious complications and hospitalization from the virus.  

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fully vaccinated adults aged 65 and older are 94% less likely to be hospitalized with Covid-19 than people who are yet to receive their vaccines. Comparatively, those who are partially vaccinated are 64% less likely to be hospitalized.

A recent study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal has found that unvaccinated people increase the risk of Covid-19 for vaccinated individuals even when Covid vaccination rates are high.

The findings were said to be important since it emphasizes on how the choices of a view to remain unvaccinated affects others in the community.

Symptoms of Covid-19 in vaccinated patients

Many researchers have noted that symptoms of Covid-19 in fully vaccinated people may be milder and more manageable.

According to a study published in infectious disease and epidemiology journal, Eurosurveillance, 8 symptoms were most commonly reported in patients who were fully vaccinated. The symptoms include:

- Cough

- Runny nose

- Fatigue

- Sore throat

- Headache

- Muscle pain

- Fever

- Sneezing

The study further highlighted that symptoms such as cough, runny nose and fatigue were the most common, whereas sneezing and fever were least reported symptoms.

Symptoms of Covid-19 in unvaccinated patients

Experts believe Covid symptoms in unvaccinated individuals can be more severe.

As per a 2021 report by the University of Iowa healthcare system, 97% of the people with severe disease from the delta variant were unvaccinated.

“That gives you an idea of how effective these vaccines are. I think that number is a point that cannot be overemphasized," Claudia Corwin, MD, MPH, Associate Director of the University Employee Health Clinic says.

Although the new emerging variants have been mild so far, during the Delta wave across countries, symptoms such as fever, fatigue, headache, cough, shortness of breath were extremely common in unvaccinated individuals. Some even suffered from low oxygen levels in the body, leading to difficulty in breathing.

Does Long Covid occur in vaccinated people?

A recent review of studies by the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), those who have been vaccinated tend to have more protection against Long Covid as compared to people who are unvaccinated.

"It may not eradicate the symptoms of Long Covid, but the protective effect seems to be very strong," says professor Michael Edelstein of Bar-Ilan University in Israel, whose study was one of those included in a recent analysis.

According to a report by Nature, vaccinations also reduce the incidence of long Covid by preventing infection in the first place. It also alters and minimizes the length of time a person feels sick during a breakthrough infection. Hence, reducing the risk of long Covid in fully vaccinated. However, experts are still studying the impact of Covid vaccines on long Covid and have not reached any final conclusion.

 

 

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Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE, “Pfizer”) and BioNTech SE (Nasdaq: BNTX, “BioNTech”) today announced they have reached an agreement with the European Commission (EC) to amend their originally agreed contractual delivery schedules for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. This amendment rephases planned deliveries to help support the European Commission and Member States’ ongoing immunization programs, and is aligned to the companies’ commitment to working collaboratively to identify pragmatic solutions to address the evolving pandemic needs. Doses scheduled for delivery in June through August 2022, will now be delivered in September through fourth quarter 2022. This change of delivery schedule does not impact the companies’ full-year 2022 revenue guidance or the full-year commitment of doses to be delivered to EC Member States in 2022.

Pfizer and BioNTech continue to evaluate potential adapted vaccines, including variant-based vaccines, and expect to share these data in the coming months.

U.S. Indication & Authorized Use

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is FDA authorized under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for active immunization to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals 5 years of age and older.

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is FDA authorized to provide:

Primary Series

• a 2-dose primary series to individuals 5 years of age and older

• a third primary series dose to individuals 5 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise

Booster Series

• a first booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older who have completed a primary series with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA)

• a first booster dose to individuals 18 years of age and older who have completed primary vaccination with a different authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine. The booster schedule is based on the labeling information of the vaccine used for the primary series

• a second booster dose to individuals 50 years of age and older who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine

• a second booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise and who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine

COMIRNATY® INDICATION

COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) is a vaccine approved for active immunization to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals 16 years of age and older.

• COMIRNATY® is administered as a 2-dose primary series

COMIRNATY® AUTHORIZED USES

COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) is FDA authorized under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to provide:

Primary Series

• a 2-dose primary series to individuals 12 through 15 years of age

• a third primary series dose to individuals 12 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise

Booster Dose

• a first booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older who have completed a primary series with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY®

• a first booster dose to individuals 18 years of age and older who have completed primary vaccination with another authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine. The booster schedule is based on the labeling information of the vaccine used for the primary series

• a second booster dose to individuals 50 years of age and older who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine

• a second booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise and who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine

Emergency Use Authorization

Emergency uses of the vaccine have not been approved or licensed by FDA, but have been authorized by FDA, under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) in either individuals 12 years of age and older, or in individuals 5 through 11 years of age, as appropriate. The emergency uses are only authorized for the duration of the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of the medical product under Section 564(b)(1) of the FD&C Act unless the declaration is terminated or authorization revoked sooner.

INTERCHANGEABILITY

FDA-approved COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine FDA-authorized for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for individuals 12 years of age and older can be used interchangeably by a vaccination provider when prepared according to their respective instructions for use.

The formulation of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine authorized for use in children 5 through 11 years of age differs from the formulations authorized for individuals 12 years of age and older and should therefore not be used interchangeably. The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine authorized for use in children 5 through 11 years of age should not be used interchangeably with COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA).

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Tell your vaccination provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

· have any allergies

· have had myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) or pericarditis (inflammation of the lining outside the heart)

· have a fever

· have a bleeding disorder or are on a blood thinner

· are immunocompromised or are on a medicine that affects the immune system

· are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding

· have received another COVID-19 vaccine

· have ever fainted in association with an injection

• Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) may not protect all vaccine recipients

• You should not receive Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) if you have had a severe allergic reaction to any of its ingredients or had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY®

• There is a remote chance that Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) could cause a severe allergic reaction. A severe allergic reaction would usually occur within a few minutes to 1 hour after getting a dose of the vaccine. For this reason, your vaccination provider may ask you to stay at the place where you received the vaccine for monitoring after vaccination. If you experience a severe allergic reaction, call 9-1-1 or go to the nearest hospital

Seek medical attention right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

• difficulty breathing, swelling of the face and throat, a fast heartbeat, a bad rash all over the body, dizziness, and weakness

• Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and pericarditis (inflammation of the lining outside the heart) have occurred in some people who have received the vaccine, more commonly in males under 40 years of age than among females and older males. In most of these people, symptoms began within a few days following receipt of the second dose of the vaccine. The chance of having this occur is very low

Seek medical attention right away if you have any of the following symptoms after receiving the vaccine:

• chest pain

• shortness of breath

• feelings of having a fast-beating, fluttering, or pounding heart

• Fainting can happen after getting injectable vaccines, including Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA). Sometimes people who faint can fall and hurt themselves. For this reason, your vaccination provider may ask you to sit or lie down for 15 minutes after receiving the vaccine

• Some people with weakened immune systems may have reduced immune responses to Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA)

• Additional side effects include injection site pain; tiredness; headache; muscle pain; chills; joint pain; fever; injection site swelling; injection site redness; nausea; feeling unwell; swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy); decreased appetite; diarrhea; vomiting; arm pain; and fainting in association with injection of the vaccine

These may not be all the possible side effects of the vaccine. Call the vaccination provider or healthcare provider about bothersome side effects or side effects that do not go away.

• You should always ask your healthcare providers for medical advice about adverse events. Report vaccine side effects to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). The VAERS toll-free number is 1‐800‐822‐7967 or report online to www.vaers.hhs.gov/reportevent.html. You can also report side effects to Pfizer Inc. at www.pfizersafetyreporting.com or by calling 1-800-438-1985

Click for Fact Sheets and Prescribing Information for individuals 5 years of age and older:

Recipients and Caregivers Fact Sheet (5 through 11 years of age)

Recipients and Caregivers Fact Sheet (12 years of age and older)

COMIRNATY® Full Prescribing Information (16 years of age and older), DILUTE BEFORE USE, Purple Cap

COMIRNATY® Full Prescribing Information (16 years of age and older), DO NOT DILUTE, Gray Cap

EUA Fact Sheet for Vaccination Providers (5 through 11 years of age), DILUTE BEFORE USE, Orange Cap

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A charity has seen a doubling in the number of people seeking help for long Covid as it warned that NHS services are failing to meet demand.

Asthma and Lung UK said around half a million people have visited its long Covid advice web pages or called its helpline for support in the last six months.

The number of people viewing the web pages nearly doubled from September to March, as cases of Omicron rose across the UK, it said.

Latest figures from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) show that an estimated 1.8 million people in UK households (2.8% of the population) were experiencing long Covid as of April 3 – the most recent data available.

In these self-reported cases, 382,000 (21%) first had (or suspected they had) Covid less than 12 weeks previously, 1.3 million people (73%) at least 12 weeks previously, 791,000 (44%) at least one year previously and 235,000 (13%) at least two years before.

Fatigue is the most common symptom reported (51% of those with long Covid), followed by shortness of breath (33%), loss of sense of smell (26%) and difficulty concentrating (23%).

Some 1.2 million people (67% of those with long Covid) say symptoms stop them doing some or all of their normal activities.

According to Asthma and Lung UK, many callers to its helpline are at crisis point, with some asking for advice on buying oxygen to manage their long Covid breathlessness. This can be dangerous if it is not issued on prescription.

The helpline has also taken calls from people wanting information on private healthcare providers because they are struggling to get help from the NHS.

The latest data from NHS long Covid clinics in England shows 30% of people waited more than 15 weeks for an initial appointment as of March/April.

Data on the overall number of people still waiting for first appointments is not published by the NHS.

Asthma and Lung UK said many more thousands of people could be waiting to access care.

Sarah Woolnough, its chief executive, said: “As we near the grim milestone of two million people living with long Covid, there is still a dismal lack of treatments for this disabling condition, which is leaving people fighting for breath and devastating every aspect of their life, health, work and relationships.

“Coupled with a lack of support and long wait times for specialist care, hundreds of thousands of people are turning to charities like Asthma and Lung UK, desperate for vital advice and support.

“With cases only rising, the problem is not going to go away.

“The Government must invest in more research into possible treatments and staffing for long Covid clinics to help people with this new and unpredictable condition to get their lives back on track.”

A NHS spokeswoman said: “Since the pandemic began, the NHS has invested over £220 million and opened 90 specialist clinics and 14 hubs for children and young people to help people with long Covid, so we urge anyone who is concerned about long-lasting symptoms after having coronavirus to get in touch with their GP practice or visit the NHS ‘Your Covid Recovery’ website for further advice on the support available.”

A Department of Health and Social Care spokeswoman said: “Long Covid is a new challenge for healthcare systems all over the world and the UK is leading the way on research, treatment, care and guidance.

“We are backing our world-leading scientists with over £50 million to better understand the long-term debilitating effects of Covid so we can ensure the right help and the right treatments are available.”



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    Best Covid 19 Self Test Kit For Travelers

    “A Convenient Covid 19 Self Test Kit for Travel”

    Covid-19 has had a lasting impact on society regarding travel. As travel resumes there are options for best self test kits to take with you as you travel. Easy to use and convenient travel kits are key for travellers and makes re-entry into a country much easier. These are the best options for Covid 19 self test kits and how to best use them.

    The COVID-19 outbreak remains an unprecedented disaster in most countries. It has become the biggest global health emergency since the influenza pandemic of 1918. The pandemic has been catastrophic for every single industry. Travel, in particular, has been one of the most affected, and the economy built around it has seen a decline since the very beginning of the crisis. Those infected by the COVID-19 virus may suffer both short and long-term health problems, financial distress, and even long-term mental health issues. The uncertainty of what is happening to the world today has caused a chain-reaction that makes travel seem like an unusually dangerous and problematic endeavor.

    What is Covid-19? How does it affect travelers?

    Coronavirus disease, known as COVID-19, is a highly transmittable disease caused by intense acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2. It had a devastating impact on the world demographics resulting in more than 5.3 million deaths worldwide. The first case of this predominant respiratory viral infection was reported first in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; in late December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread across the globe in a short time, forcing the World Health Organization (WHO) to proclaim it a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.

    Covid 19 has numerous signs and symptoms that go beyond respiratory issues. In the beginning, it was thought that many of those infected had no symptoms at all. Individuals with Covid 19 developed mild to moderate symptoms, though the illness would become severe if not effectively treated. Now it’s understood that some of those with no visible symptoms of the disease, may have had other complications that were simply thought as not related to COVID-19. The most known symptoms of coronavirus are:

    • Respiratory distress
    • Fever
    • Breathing difficulties
    • Tiredness
    • Irritated throat
    • Coughing

    Some individuals present other more severe symptoms that require hospitalization. Some severe signs of covid 19 are pneumonia, Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, and septic shock. Some Covid 19 emergency warning signs that require immediate medical attention include:

    • Problem breathing or shortness of breath
    • Persistent chest pain or pressure
    • Confusion
    • Bluish face or lips

    Travel Restrictions and their effect on travelers

    There are numerous ways in which the pandemic has affected travel. Due to the pandemic, different countries had travel restrictions in place to contain the spread of the deadly virus. These restrictions became bans and bans caused certain areas of tourism to be forced to shut down entirely. Though the world is recovering from the damage caused by the pandemic, travelers can still feel its effects. Here are some of the ways the COVID-19 is still affecting individual travelers and the tourism industry in general:

    RISK MANAGEMENT PERCEPTION: 

    We all like to have a certain amount of safety when traveling, be it for business or leisure travel. As humans, we mentally assign a threshold as to how much we’re willing to risk in achieving our goals. That is often referred to as risk management. Whether it’s touring famous destinations or traveling to a meeting in Florida, we assess our risk before we jump into a plane, cruise, or other method of transportation. Because of the Covid 19 pandemic, there’s an inherent risk of catching a disease that may directly or indirectly impact us, our work, and worst of all—our loved ones. This has changed our behavior as a social species. Before the pandemic, crowded destinations where acceptable and posed no major risk in our collective psyche. Nowadays, to prevent the spread of the virus, we’ve seen how individuals and families have opted to spend their time in less crowded places. This is due largely in part to the combined efforts of various institutions, such as the CDC, to reduce the spread of this deadly virus.

    MENTAL HEALTH AND TRAVELERS ANXIETY: 

    Travelers now experience an abnormal amount of stress and anxiety over what seems to be a never-ending stream of ever-changing travel restrictions. Everyone has a different threshold when it comes to their travel risk management. To some, facing flight cancellations due to the travel restrictions and other requirements for visitors, could possibly be the biggest deterrent of all. To others, it could be the lack of access to public transportation, or the temporary or permanent closure of businesses and attractions we they wanted to visit. This all leads to negative emotions, such as anxiety, and dismay – which we naturally never want associated with our travels.

    ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS: 

    The consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic have antagonistic effects on the tourism sector and the world economy. A few countries imposed strict travel bans to contain the pandemic spread. Countries such as Barcelona, Rome, and Bali are tourist attractions that have suffered an economic breakdown. The United Nations World Tourism Organization announced that the global predicament caused by COVID-19 in the tourism industry led to the loss of US$300–450 billion.

    How to safely go back to traveling?

    As a traveler, you also have a role to play in reducing the spread of Covid 19, so the world will not face another lockdown. You do not have to be a health practitioner to know the effects of the disease and its impact on our lives and our quality of life. By testing for COVID-19 you can detect the virus early and report yourself to health workers for adequate treatment. This action can help prevent the spread of the virus and ensure that we can keep the pandemic under control for long enough to see the restrictions lifted and our ability to travel (and enjoy traveling!) restored.

    The good news is that every traveler can now perform their own Covid 19 Rapid Test at their convenience and the comfort of their own home. Remember when we all had to travel to COVID testing locations? some near you, some way too far away—(and, oh the lines!); well, those days are gone. The introduction and FDA approval of At-Home Self-Test Kits has changed everything. They became the go-to for those wanting to travel and the method of choice accepted by airlines, cruises, restaurants, and tourist destinations.

    Which COVID 19 self test kit is the best for Travelers?

    Two of the most popular kits highly recommended for their accuracy are the BinaxNOW COVID 19 At-Home Antigen Self Test Kit and IHealth® Covid-19 Self Test Kit. Both kits have been approved by the FDA and guarantee same-day results. These kits efficiently detect covid virus infection with the accuracy expected from a lab, without the uncomfortable feeling of getting your nostrils swabbed by a 3rd party. You can test all covid 19 variants with the kits in under 15 minutes.

    Convenience and Comfort: 

    Both of these Covid 19 self-tests require no prescription, and they come with an instruction card you can easily follow, with the option to download an app to watch their instructional videos. They promise zero discomfort, and you can do the test any time of the day.

    Accuracy: 

    Each Covid 19 self-test box comes with 2 test kits for repeat testing. You only must test yourself twice within three days or at least after 36 hours. Frequent testing is one of the best ways to stop the virus from spreading and increase the accuracy of your results. Human error still plays a big part in the accuracy of these tests, which means that you should always exercise caution when performing and reading the test results to avoid false negatives or false positives. Taking your time and thoroughly reading the instructions included will improve the chances of an accurate test result significantly.

    Covid 19 Variant Detection: 

    BinaxNow and iHealth covid self-test kits can detect numerous COVID-19 strains, including the latest Delta and Omicron variants.

    Where to buy BINAXNOW and IHealth® COVID 19 AT-HOME Antigen Self-Test Kits?

    Since these test kits do not require a prescription, you can get them over the counter or you can purchase them from the comfort of your home by ordering it online from a trusted and authorized online supplier.

    Early detection of the virus prevents the spread and keeps you from developing more severe symptoms. It means you will receive early effective intervention to keep you and your loved ones safe and healthy. It’s a small action that can have such a big impact in recovering from the pandemic so we can embark on travel adventures once again.

    Media Contact
    Company Name: Peach Medical Labs
    Contact Person: Andriy Tkach
    Email: Send Email
    Country: Canada
    Website: peachmedicallabs.com/

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    Scientists are discovering a surprising bright side for some people with asthma: They are less susceptible to COVID-19.

    The very same immune system proteins that trigger excess mucus production and closing of airways in people with allergic asthma may erect a shield around vulnerable airway cells, researchers report in the April 19 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The finding helps explain why people with allergic asthma seem to be less susceptible to COVID-19 than those with related lung ailments, and could eventually lead to new treatments for the coronavirus.    

    Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by airway inflammation. The result is coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. About 8% of people in the United States have asthma, with about 60% of them having allergic asthma. Allergic asthma symptoms are triggered by allergens such as pollen or pet dander. Other types of asthma can be set off by exercise, weather or breathing in irritants such as strong perfumes, cleaning fumes or air pollution.

    Usually, asthma is bad news when it comes to colds and flu. At the start of the pandemic, most experts predicted that coronavirus infections and asthma would be a dangerous mix, says Luke Bonser, a cell biologist at the University of California, San Francisco, who was not involved in the study. And that is true for people whose asthma is not triggered by allergies and those with related lung disorders like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. Those conditions put people at high risk for severe COVID-19.

    But as the pandemic progressed, researchers noticed that people with allergic asthma weren’t developing severe COVID-19 as often as expected. Here’s a look at why that may be.

    Protein protection

    What sets allergic asthma apart from other types of asthma and COPD is a protein called interleukin-13, or IL-13.

    Usually, IL-13 helps the body fight off parasites such as worms. Certain T cells pump out the protein, and the body responds by churning out sticky mucus and constricting airways. This traps the worms, holding them in place until other immune system cells can come in for the kill.

    “In the case of [allergic] asthma, the body is making a mistake. It’s mistaking a harmless substance, like pollen, for a worm,” says Burton Dickey, a pulmonologist at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston who was not involved in the study.  

    But it wasn’t clear how IL-13 was protecting people with allergic asthma from SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. To find out, pathophysiologist Camille Ehre of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill and colleagues grew cells from the lining of the airways from six lung donors. Some of the cells were treated with IL-13 to mimic allergic asthma. Then the researchers infected some of the cells with SARS-CoV-2.

    Lawn trouble

    Next on the list of to-dos was to compare how cells that haven’t been treated with IL-13 behave when healthy and when infected with the coronavirus.

    Uninfected cells grew in lawns resembling lush grasslands, where the tufts of waving fronds are actually hairlike protrusions called cilia, which grow from the tops of airway-lining cells, the team confirmed. Cilia’s motions help move mucus, and anything stuck in the mucus, out of the lungs.

    Healthy human cells (labeled pink) from the lining of airways grow in “lawns” laced with some mucus (green) in this colorized electron micrograph.

    Healthy human cells (labeled pink) from the lining of airways grow in “lawns” laced with some mucus (green) in this colorized

    electron micrograph.

    Cells infected with the coronavirus looked much different. The lush lawn was now slathered in mucus, and bald spots appeared as infected cells died. The doomed cells get squeezed out of the lawn of cilia and inflate like a balloon. The inflation happens partly because chambers called vacuoles inside the infected cells get clogged with viruses. “It’s just filled with viruses, and then it gets kicked out of the club and it blows up and releases all these viruses,” Dickey says.

    During a coronavirus infection, dying airway-lining cells (labeled blue) are ejected from areas of healthy cells (pink) slathered in mucus (green) in this colorized electron micrograph.

    During a coronavirus infection, dying airway-lining cells (labeled blue) are ejected from areas of healthy cells (pink) slathered

    in mucus (green) in this colorized electron micrograph.

    But not all the cells in the infected lawn were affected equally. Looking at the cells from the side, researchers could see that cells sporting cilia were infected with the coronavirus. But mucus-producing cells called goblet cells, which don’t have cilia, were rarely infected. That may be because a protein called ACE2 decorates the surface of ciliated cells far more often than it does goblet cells. ACE2 is the protein that the coronavirus uses as a door into cells.

    Airway cells topped by hairlike cilia (seen from the side) are more likely to be infected with the coronavirus (viral RNA labeled blue) than cells that don’t have cilia.

    Airway cells topped by hairlike cilia (seen from the side) are more likely to be infected with the coronavirus (viral RNA labeled

    blue) than cells that don’t have cilia.

    A sticky solution

    When researchers doused the cells with IL-13 before adding the coronavirus, the results were strikingly different.

    The lawn of waving cilia atop the treated cells was mostly intact, with far fewer balloons of dying cells rising above the surface. But the fronds didn’t wave as vigorously as in untreated cells. That’s because IL-13 reduces cilia beating, the researchers found.  Less active cilia could mean that virus-laden mucus sticks around longer. “That can be a double-edged sword inside the lungs because you want to clear the mucus, but you don’t want to spread it around,” Ehre says.

    Left: Untreated airway cells, 96 hours after a coronavirus infection. Right: Airway cells treated with the immune system protein interleukin-13, 96 hours after a coronavirus infection.

    Left: Untreated airway cells, 96 hours after a coronavirus infection. Right: Airway cells treated with the immune system protein interleukin-13, 96 hours after a coronavirus infection.

    Counting cells under the microscope, the researchers saw that far fewer of the infected cells treated with IL-3 got the heave-ho. Whereas the untreated cells had ejected about 700 of their own by about four days after infection, only about 100 treated cells had gotten kicked out. The images showed that IL-13 really was protecting cells from infection. But how was still an unanswered question.

    One thing that IL-13 does is stimulate airway-lining cells to churn out a type of sticky mucus that can trap viruses before they can infect cells. The team found that untreated cells released a burst of the mucus shortly after being infected with the coronavirus, depleting stores of the sticky stuff. But cells treated with IL-13 were still well-stocked with mucus.

    Left: Side view of untreated airway cells (DNA labeled blue) infected with SARS-CoV-2 (green), which quickly deplete stores of mucus (red). Right: Side view of airway cells (DNA labeled blue) treated with the immune system protein interleukin-13. These cells make lots of mucus (red) and are rarely infected by SARS-CoV-2 (green).

    Left: Side view of untreated airway cells (DNA labeled blue) infected with SARS-CoV-2 (green), which quickly deplete stores of mucus (red). Right: Side view of airway cells (DNA labeled blue) treated with the immune system protein interleukin-13. These cells make lots of mucus (red) and are rarely infected by SARS-CoV-2 (green).

    All that extra mucus from the treated cells could ensnare viruses and expel them from the lungs before much damage is done. But people with nonallergic asthma and COPD make plenty of mucus too, and they aren’t protected from the virus. So Ehre and colleagues stripped away the mucus to see how the airway cells fared without this phlegmy trap.

    Even without the mucus, IL-13 was still protective.

    Barricading the doors

    Examining patterns of gene activity, the team found that IL-13 was also causing cells to make less ACE2, the protein that SARS-CoV-2 commandeers as a gateway into cells. “It makes it much harder for the virus to find its door to enter the cells,” Ehre says.

    That result agrees with previous findings from Bonser and colleagues. “Being able to replicate the same data in several different studies, that’s great,” he says. And the new study looks more closely into IL-13’s protective mechanism than previous research did.

    Cells treated with IL-13 also turn down the activity of genes involved in making protein-producing factories called ribosomes, the researchers discovered. That may limit viral replication in cells. But some genes’ activity was also turned way up. That includes several genes involved in making keratan sulfate, a long, sugar-studded protein that is found in cartilage and the eyes’ corneas. “It’s there in the body to make a shield,” Ehre says.

    That seems to be what it is doing for airway cells too. A thick layer of keratan sulfate developed on top of cells treated with IL-13, armoring them against a coronavirus infection.

    Left: Side view of untreated airway cells (DNA labeled blue). These cells make little keratan sulfate (pink) and are easily infected by SARS-CoV-2 (green). Right: Side view of airway cells treated with IL-13 (DNA labeled blue), which shield themselves from the coronavirus (green) with a thick layer of keratan sulfate (pink).

    Left: Side view of untreated airway cells (DNA labeled blue). These cells make little keratan sulfate (pink) and are easily infected by SARS-CoV-2 (green). Right: Side view of airway cells treated with IL-13 (DNA labeled blue), which shield themselves from the coronavirus (green) with a thick layer of keratan sulfate (pink).

    Which of these protective mechanisms is most important, or if it’s a combination of all of them, is one of the many things left to explore, Ehre says. “This paper is not the final paper that figures everything out. There is way more work to do.”

    Knowing even more details about how IL-13 works to protect against the coronavirus could lead to new treatments, Bonser says. But IL-13 itself probably will not be used as a drug because of the inflammation, excess mucus, cough and shortness of breath it triggers.

    Unfortunately, the extra protection doesn’t mean that people with allergic asthma don’t have to be concerned about getting COVID-19, Dickey says. “People with asthma have had very bad outcomes. This is not a virus you want to take chances with,” he says. But it’s OK to bask on the bright side a little. “It’s not fun to have asthma, so you have to be grateful for every rare occasion where it does something useful.”

    This story was originally published by Science News, a nonprofit independent news organization.

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    Headaches with or without a fever can be a long-haul symptom of COVID-19. As per experts, headaches in the case of Omicron can be the body's inflammatory reaction as it fights off the virus. Headaches caused due to the Omicron variant also lasts for three days, even if you take painkillers regularly. More people seem to develop headaches as a long-haul symptom than fevers.

    In an August 2021 review, researchers identified 55 long-term symptoms of COVID-19. They defined a long-term symptom as one persisting between 14 to 110 days after infection. Among the people in the 15 studies included in the review, more than 80 percent developed at least one long-term symptom, the most common being: fatigue (58 percent); headache (44 percent); poor concentration (27 percent); hair loss (25 percent); and shortness of breath (24 percent). Intermittent fever was reported in 11 percent of people.

    Read more: Coronavirus: Severe COVID-19 patients can report symptoms for at least 2 years, finds Lancet study

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    NEW YORK AND MAINZ, GERMANY, May 13, 2022Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE, “Pfizer”) and BioNTech SE (Nasdaq: BNTX, “BioNTech”) today announced they have reached an agreement with the European Commission (EC) to amend their originally agreed contractual delivery schedules for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. This amendment rephases planned deliveries to help support the European Commission and Member States' ongoing immunization programs, and is aligned to the companies’ commitment to working collaboratively to identify pragmatic solutions to address the evolving pandemic needs. Doses scheduled for delivery in June through August 2022, will now be delivered in September through fourth quarter 2022. This change of delivery schedule does not impact the companies’ full-year 2022 revenue guidance or the full-year commitment of doses to be delivered to EC Member States in 2022.

    Pfizer and BioNTech continue to evaluate potential adapted vaccines, including variant-based vaccines, and expect to share these data in the coming months.

    U.S. Indication & Authorized Use

    Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is FDA authorized under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for active immunization to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals 5 years of age and older.  
    Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is FDA authorized to provide:

    Primary Series

    • a 2-dose primary series to individuals 5 years of age and older
    • a third primary series dose to individuals 5 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise

    Booster Series

    • a first booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older who have completed a primary series with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA)
    • a first booster dose to individuals 18 years of age and older who have completed primary vaccination with a different authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine. The booster schedule is based on the labeling information of the vaccine used for the primary series
    • a second booster dose to individuals 50 years of age and older who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine
    • a second booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise and who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine

    COMIRNATY® INDICATION
    COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) is a vaccine approved for active immunization to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals 16 years of age and older. 

    • COMIRNATY® is administered as a 2-dose primary series 

    COMIRNATY® AUTHORIZED USES
    COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) is FDA authorized under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to provide:

    Primary Series

    • a 2-dose primary series to individuals 12 through 15 years of age
    • a third primary series dose to individuals 12 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise

    Booster Dose 

    • a first booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older who have completed a primary series with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® 
    • a first booster dose to individuals 18 years of age and older who have completed primary vaccination with another authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine. The booster schedule is based on the labeling information of the vaccine used for the primary series
    • a second booster dose to individuals 50 years of age and older who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine
    • a second booster dose to individuals 12 years of age and older with certain kinds of immunocompromise and who have received a first booster dose of any authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine

    Emergency Use Authorization 
    Emergency uses of the vaccine have not been approved or licensed by FDA, but have been authorized by FDA, under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) in either individuals 12 years of age and older, or in individuals 5 through 11 years of age, as appropriate. The emergency uses are only authorized for the duration of the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of the medical product under Section 564(b)(1) of the FD&C Act unless the declaration is terminated or authorization revoked sooner. 

    INTERCHANGEABILITY
    FDA-approved COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine FDA-authorized for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for individuals 12 years of age and older can be used interchangeably by a vaccination provider when prepared according to their respective instructions for use. 

    The formulation of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine authorized for use in children 5 through 11 years of age differs from the formulations authorized for individuals 12 years of age and older and should therefore not be used interchangeably. The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine authorized for use in children 5 through 11 years of age should not be used interchangeably with COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA).

    IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION 

    Tell your vaccination provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

    • have any allergies
    • have had myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) or pericarditis (inflammation of the lining outside the heart)
    • have a fever
    • have a bleeding disorder or are on a blood thinner
    • are immunocompromised or are on a medicine that affects the immune system
    • are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding
    • have received another COVID-19 vaccine
    • have ever fainted in association with an injection

    •    Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) may not protect all vaccine recipients

    •    You should not receive Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) if you have had a severe allergic reaction to any of its ingredients or had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® 

    •    There is a remote chance that Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) could cause a severe allergic reaction. A severe allergic reaction would usually occur within a few minutes to 1 hour after getting a dose of the vaccine. For this reason, your vaccination provider may ask you to stay at the place where you received the vaccine for monitoring after vaccination. If you experience a severe allergic reaction, call 9-1-1 or go to the nearest hospital

    Seek medical attention right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

    • difficulty breathing, swelling of the face and throat, a fast heartbeat, a bad rash all over the body, dizziness, and weakness

    •    Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and pericarditis (inflammation of the lining outside the heart) have occurred in some people who have received the vaccine, more commonly in males under 40 years of age than among females and older males. In most of these people, symptoms began within a few days following receipt of the second dose of the vaccine. The chance of having this occur is very low 

    Seek medical attention right away if you have any of the following symptoms after receiving the vaccine:

    • chest pain
    • shortness of breath
    • feelings of having a fast-beating, fluttering, or pounding heart

    •    Fainting can happen after getting injectable vaccines, including Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA). Sometimes people who faint can fall and hurt themselves. For this reason, your vaccination provider may ask you to sit or lie down for 15 minutes after receiving the vaccine

    •    Some people with weakened immune systems may have reduced immune responses to Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine or COMIRNATY® (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA)

    •    Additional side effects include injection site pain; tiredness; headache; muscle pain; chills; joint pain; fever; injection site swelling; injection site redness; nausea; feeling unwell; swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy); decreased appetite; diarrhea; vomiting; arm pain; and fainting in association with injection of the vaccine

    These may not be all the possible side effects of the vaccine. Call the vaccination provider or healthcare provider about bothersome side effects or side effects that do not go away.

    •    You should always ask your healthcare providers for medical advice about adverse events. Report vaccine side effects to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). The VAERS toll-free number is 1‐800‐822‐7967 or report online to www.vaers.hhs.gov/reportevent.html. You can also report side effects to Pfizer Inc. at www.pfizersafetyreporting.com or by calling 1-800-438-1985

    Click for Fact Sheets and Prescribing Information for individuals 5 years of age and older:

    Recipients and Caregivers Fact Sheet (5 through 11 years of age)
    Recipients and Caregivers Fact Sheet (12 years of age and older)
    COMIRNATY® Full Prescribing Information (16 years of age and older), DILUTE BEFORE USE, Purple Cap
    COMIRNATY® Full Prescribing Information (16 years of age and older), DO NOT DILUTE, Gray Cap
    EUA Fact Sheet for Vaccination Providers (5 through 11 years of age), DILUTE BEFORE USE, Orange Cap
    EUA Fact Sheet for Vaccination Providers (12 years of age and older), DILUTE BEFORE USE, Purple Cap
    EUA Fact Sheet for Vaccination Providers (12 years of age and older), DO NOT DILUTE, Gray Cap

    About Pfizer: Breakthroughs That Change Patients’ Lives
    At Pfizer, we apply science and our global resources to bring therapies to people that extend and significantly improve their lives. We strive to set the standard for quality, safety and value in the discovery, development and manufacture of health care products, including innovative medicines and vaccines. Every day, Pfizer colleagues work across developed and emerging markets to advance wellness, prevention, treatments and cures that challenge the most feared diseases of our time. Consistent with our responsibility as one of the world’s premier innovative biopharmaceutical companies, we collaborate with health care providers, governments and local communities to support and expand access to reliable, affordable health care around the world. For more than 170 years, we have worked to make a difference for all who rely on us. We routinely post information that may be important to investors on our website at www.Pfizer.com. In addition, to learn more, please visit us on www.Pfizer.com and follow us on Twitter at @Pfizer and @Pfizer News, LinkedIn, YouTube and like us on Facebook at Facebook.com/Pfizer.

    Pfizer Disclosure Notice
    The information contained in this release is as of May 13, 2022. Pfizer assumes no obligation to update forward-looking statements contained in this release as the result of new information or future events or developments.
    This release contains forward-looking information about Pfizer’s efforts to combat COVID-19, the collaboration between BioNTech and Pfizer to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine program, and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, also known as COMIRNATY (COVID-19 Vaccine, mRNA) (BNT162b2) (including an agreement with the European Commission to amend their originally agreed contractual delivery schedules, revenue guidance, potential adapted vaccines, including variant-based vaccines, qualitative assessments of available data, potential benefits, expectations for clinical trials, potential regulatory submissions, the anticipated timing of data readouts, regulatory submissions, regulatory approvals or authorizations and anticipated manufacturing, distribution and supply) involving substantial risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. Risks and uncertainties include, among other things, the uncertainties inherent in research and development, including the ability to meet anticipated clinical endpoints, commencement and/or completion dates for clinical trials, regulatory submission dates, regulatory approval dates and/or launch dates, as well as risks associated with preclinical and clinical data (including Phase 1/2/3 or Phase 4 data) for BNT162b2 or any other vaccine candidate in the BNT162 program in any of our studies in pediatrics, adolescents or adults or real world evidence, including the possibility of unfavorable new preclinical, clinical or safety data and further analyses of existing preclinical, clinical or safety data; the ability to produce comparable clinical or other results, including the rate of vaccine effectiveness and safety and tolerability profile observed to date, in additional analyses of the Phase 3 trial and additional studies, in real world data studies or in larger, more diverse populations following commercialization; the ability of BNT162b2 or any future vaccine to prevent COVID-19 caused by emerging virus variants; the risk that more widespread use of the vaccine will lead to new information about efficacy, safety, or other developments, including the risk of additional adverse reactions, some of which may be serious; the risk that preclinical and clinical trial data are subject to differing interpretations and assessments, including during the peer review/publication process, in the scientific community generally, and by regulatory authorities; whether and when additional data from the BNT162 mRNA vaccine program will be published in scientific journal publications and, if so, when and with what modifications and interpretations; whether regulatory authorities will be satisfied with the design of and results from these and any future preclinical and clinical studies; whether and when submissions to request emergency use or conditional marketing authorizations for BNT162b2 in additional populations, for a potential booster dose for BNT162b2 or any potential future vaccines (including potential future annual boosters or re-vaccinations) and/or other biologics license and/or emergency use authorization applications or amendments to any such applications may be filed in particular jurisdictions for BNT162b2 or any other potential vaccines that may arise from the BNT162 program, including a potential adapted, variant based, higher dose, or bivalent vaccine, and if obtained, whether or when such emergency use authorizations or licenses will expire or terminate; whether and when any applications that may be pending or filed for BNT162b2 (including any requested amendments to the emergency use or conditional marketing authorizations) or other vaccines that may result from the BNT162 program may be approved by particular regulatory authorities, which will depend on myriad factors, including making a determination as to whether the vaccine’s benefits outweigh its known risks and determination of the vaccine’s efficacy and, if approved, whether it will be commercially successful; decisions by regulatory authorities impacting labeling or marketing, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters that could affect the availability or commercial potential of a vaccine, including development of products or therapies by other companies; disruptions in the relationships between us and our collaboration partners, clinical trial sites or third-party suppliers; the risk that demand for any products may be reduced or no longer exist; risks related to the availability of raw materials to manufacture a vaccine; challenges related to our vaccine’s formulation, dosing schedule and attendant storage, distribution and administration requirements, including risks related to storage and handling after delivery by Pfizer; the risk that we may not be able to successfully develop other vaccine formulations, booster doses or potential future annual boosters or re-vaccinations or new adapted vaccines, including variant based vaccines; the risk that we may not be able to maintain or scale up manufacturing capacity on a timely basis or maintain access to logistics or supply channels commensurate with global demand for our vaccine, which would negatively impact our ability to supply the estimated numbers of doses of our vaccine within the projected time periods as previously indicated; whether and when additional supply agreements will be reached; uncertainties regarding the ability to obtain recommendations from vaccine advisory or technical committees and other public health authorities and uncertainties regarding the commercial impact of any such recommendations; challenges related to public vaccine confidence or awareness; uncertainties regarding the impact of COVID-19 on Pfizer’s business, operations and financial results; and competitive developments.

    A further description of risks and uncertainties can be found in Pfizer’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and in its subsequent reports on Form 10-Q, including in the sections thereof captioned “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Information and Factors That May Affect Future Results”, as well as in its subsequent reports on Form 8-K, all of which are filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and available at www.sec.gov and www.pfizer.com.

    About BioNTech
    Biopharmaceutical New Technologies is a next generation immunotherapy company pioneering novel therapies for cancer and other serious diseases. The Company exploits a wide array of computational discovery and therapeutic drug platforms for the rapid development of novel biopharmaceuticals. Its broad portfolio of oncology product candidates includes individualized and off-the-shelf mRNA-based therapies, innovative chimeric antigen receptor T cells, bi-specific checkpoint immuno-modulators, targeted cancer antibodies and small molecules. Based on its deep expertise in mRNA vaccine development and in-house manufacturing capabilities, BioNTech and its collaborators are developing multiple mRNA vaccine candidates for a range of infectious diseases alongside its diverse oncology pipeline. BioNTech has established a broad set of relationships with multiple global pharmaceutical collaborators, including Genmab, Sanofi, Bayer Animal Health, Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, Regeneron, Genevant, Fosun Pharma, and Pfizer. For more information, please visit www.BioNTech.de.

    BioNTech Forward-looking Statements
    This press release contains “forward-looking statements” of BioNTech within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements may include, but may not be limited to, statements concerning: BioNTech’s efforts to combat COVID-19; the collaboration between BioNTech and Pfizer including the program to develop a COVID-19 vaccine and COMIRNATY (COVID-19 vaccine, mRNA) (BNT162b2) (including an application submission to the FDA for EUA of a potential booster  dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for children 5 through 11 years of age, who have previously received a two-dose primary series of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, and planned submissions to other regulatory agencies, qualitative assessments of available data, potential benefits, expectations for clinical trials, the anticipated timing of regulatory submissions, regulatory approvals or authorizations and anticipated manufacturing, distribution and supply); our expectations regarding the potential characteristics of BNT162b2 in our clinical trials, real world data studies, and/or in commercial use based on data observations to date; the ability of BNT162b2 or a future vaccine to prevent COVID-19 caused by emerging virus variants; the expected time point for additional readouts on efficacy data of BNT162b2 in our clinical trials; the nature of the clinical data, which is subject to ongoing peer review, regulatory review and market interpretation; the timing for submission of data for BNT162, or any future vaccine, in additional populations, or receipt of, any marketing approval or emergency use authorization or equivalent, including or amendments or variations to such authorizations; the development of other vaccine formulations, booster doses or potential future annual boosters or re-vaccinations or new variant based vaccines; our contemplated shipping and storage plan, including our estimated product shelf life at various temperatures; the ability of BioNTech to supply the quantities of BNT162 to support clinical development and market demand, including our production estimates for 2022; challenges related to public vaccine confidence or awareness; decisions by regulatory authorities impacting labeling or marketing, manufacturing processes, safety and/or other matters that could affect the availability or commercial potential of a vaccine, including development of products or therapies by other companies; disruptions in the relationships between us and our collaboration partners, clinical trial sites or third-party suppliers; the risk that demand for any products may be reduced or no longer exist; the availability of raw material to manufacture BNT162 or other vaccine formulation; challenges related to our vaccine’s formulation, dosing schedule and attendant storage, distribution and administration requirements, including risks related to storage and handling after delivery; and uncertainties regarding the impact of COVID-19 on BioNTech’s trials, business and general operations. Any forward-looking statements in this press release are based on BioNTech current expectations and beliefs of future events and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially and adversely from those set forth in or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: the ability to meet the pre-defined endpoints in clinical trials; competition to create a vaccine for COVID-19; the ability to produce comparable clinical or other results, including our stated rate of vaccine effectiveness and safety and tolerability profile observed to date, in the remainder of the trial or in larger, more diverse populations upon commercialization; the ability to effectively scale our productions capabilities; and other potential difficulties.

    For a discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties, see BioNTech’s Annual Report as Form 20-F for the Year Ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2022, which is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. All information in this press release is as of the date of the release, and BioNTech undertakes no duty to update this information unless required by law.



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    As fatigued as we all are of COVID-19, it would be disrespectful today not to recognize and mourn the horrible milestone we'll likely cross by Monday — the deaths of 1 million Americans to a virus that could and should have been snuffed out last year had it not become another ridiculous political culture war talking point.

    One million of us dead is not just a number.

    It is one million people who, had we never heard of this virus in early 2020, would still be breathing and laughing and loving among us.

    And one million of us dead is something none of us would ever have imagined possible in the modern and technical world in which we live. Even now, it's hard sometimes to wrap our heads around the impact of one million dead.

    Thanks to a wonderful recent Washington Post opinion video about this unprecedented American tragedy, here are some eye openers:

    Within weeks of the first reported U.S. COVID death, that of a middle-aged man in Washington state, the virus had killed more people than all of the plane crashes in the U.S. in the previous 20 years.

    By late March 2020, it had killed more people than were lost in Hurricane Katrina's 2005 hit on New Orleans.

    By early April that year, COVID had killed more Americans than all the service members killed in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan combined.

    About two weeks later, the virus was killing so regularly that it was like being hit by a 9/11 terrorist attack every other day, and by late May it had claimed its first 100,000 lives.

    By December, 300,000 of us were gone, and by March: 542,000.

    During the winter of 2021, about 2,500 people died daily — roughly the equivalent of having a Pearl Harbor attack every day for three consecutive months.

    Vaccinations slowed the disease, and July 2021 saw the lowest monthly toll in more than a year — 8,600.

    But then came vaccine resistance. And the delta variant. In September and October another 100,000 of us succumbed and COVID's cumulative toll of 744,000 deaths that fall surpassed the losses of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the U.S.

    On delta's heels came omicron and more than 2,000 a day died in January and February this year — more than 125,000 deaths in two months.

    The Washington Post notes:

    "Historians estimate the death toll for the American Civil War to be about 750,000 military and 50,000 civilian deaths. COVID killed tens of thousands more people, in about half the time."

    Today, coronavirus cases and hospitalizations are rising in a majority of American states in what appears to be the first widespread increase since the peak of omicron early this year, according to The New York Times.

    Virus cases are up here, too: As of Friday, 14-day changes in cases per 100,000 residents were up 88% in Tennessee, up 55% in Georgia and up 67% in Alabama, the Times reports.

    Nationally, 78% of people are vaccinated, 66% are fully vaccinated and 31% are boosted.

    In our states? Nowhere close.

    Our fully vaxed numbers hover between 51% and 55% and in the last two weeks, cases of the highly contagious BA.2 subvariant of omicron have more than doubled in states across the country from West Virginia to Utah.

    There is some good news in the Times report. Though it's clearly too soon to count COVID as over, new data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows more than 60% of Americans have been infected with the virus at least once, "lending credence to the belief that the modest effects [milder cases] of this surge could reflect growing immunity from previous infections and vaccinations.

    That is encouraging. Still, it doesn't bring back the 1 million lives we've lost — 1,151 here in Hamilton County.

    Hug your family and friends. And stay safe out there.

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