WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard|WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard With Vaccination Data [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 20]. Available from: covid19.who.int/.
Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 9]. Available from: www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_3.
COVID-19-Situation épidémiologique|Coronavirus Covid-19 [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 20]. Available from: covid-19.sciensano.be/fr/covid-19-situation-epidemiologique.
Khiabani K, Amirzade-Iranaq MH. Are saliva and deep throat sputum as reliable as common respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2 detection? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Infect Control [Internet]. 2021 Mar [cited 2021 Apr 9]; Available from: linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196655321001401.
Soedarsono S, Febriani A, Hasan H, Widyoningroem A. Management of severe COVID-19 patient with negative RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2: role of clinical, radiological, and serological diagnosis. Radiol Case Reports [Internet]. 2021 Mar [cited 2021 Apr 9]; Available from: linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1930043321001874.
Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Buitrago-Garcia D, Simancas-Racines D, Zambrano-Achig P, Del Campo R, Ciapponi A, et al. False-negative results of initial RT-PCR assays for COVID-19: a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(12):e0242958.
What tests could potentially be used for the screening, diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 and what are their advantages and disadvantages? - The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 9]. Available from: www.cebm.net/covid-19/what-tests-could-potentially-be-used-for-the-screening-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-covid-19-and-what-are-their-advantages-and-disadvantages/.
Wynants L, Van Calster B, Collins GS, Riley RD, Heinze G, Schuit E, et al. Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19: systematic review and critical appraisal. BMJ. 2020;369:26.
Gupta RK, Marks M, Samuels THA, Luintel A, Rampling T, Chowdhury H, et al. Systematic evaluation and external validation of 22 prognostic models among hospitalised adults with COVID-19: an observational cohort study. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(6). doi.org/10.1183/13993003.03498-2020.
Locquet M, Diep AN, Beaudart C, Dardenne N, Brabant C, Bruyère O, et al. A systematic review of prediction models to diagnose COVID-19 in adults admitted to healthcare centers. Arch Public Health. 2021;79:1–15. doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00630-3.
Wolff RF, Moons KGM, Riley RD, Whiting PF, Westwood M, Collins GS, et al. PROBAST: a tool to assess the risk of bias and applicability of prediction model studies. Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):51.
Vieceli T, de OliveiraFilho CM, Berger M, Saadi MP, Salvador PA, Anizelli LB, et al. A predictive score for COVID-19 diagnosis using clinical, laboratory and chest image data. Brazilian J Infect Dis. 2020;24(4):343–8.
Tordjman M, Mekki A, Mali RD, Saab I, Chassagnon G, Guillo E, et al. Pre-test probability for SARS-Cov-2-related infection score: the PARIS score. PLoS ONE. 2020;15:e0243342.
Kurstjens S, van der Horst A, Herpers R, Geerits MWL, Kluiters-De Hingh YCM, Göttgens EL, et al. Rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients at the emergency department using routine testing. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020;58(9):1587–93.
Aldobyany A, Touman A, Ghaleb N, Alsaggaf R, Murtaza N, Hamada A, et al. Correlation between the COVID-19 respiratory triage score and SARS-COV-2 PCR test. Front Med. 2020;7. Available from: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33365322/.
Nakakubo S, Suzuki M, Kamada K, Yamashita Y, Nakamura J, Horii H, et al. Proposal of COVID-19 clinical risk score for the management of suspected COVID-19 cases: a case control study. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1).
Fink DL, Khan PY, Goldman N, Cai J, Hone L, Mooney C, et al. Development and internal validation of a diagnostic prediction model for COVID-19 at time of admission to hospital. QJM An Int J Med. 2020;114:699–705.
Saegerman C, Gilbert A, Donneau A-F, Gangolf M, Diep AN, Meex C, et al. Clinical decision support tool for diagnosis of COVID-19 in hospitals. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(3):e0247773. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247773.
Corman VM, Landt O, Kaiser M, Molenkamp R, Meijer A, Chu DK, et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Eurosurveillance. 2020;25(3):2000045. doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045.
Hosmer Jr. DW, Lemeshow S, Rodney XS. Applied Logistic Regression, 3rd Edition | Wiley [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2021 Apr 8]. 528 p. Available from: www.wiley.com/en-us/Applied+Logistic+Regression%2C+3rd+Edition-p-9780470582473.
Steyerberg EW, Vickers AJ, Cook NR, Gerds T, Gonen M, Obuchowski N, et al. Assessing the performance of prediction models: a framework for traditional and novel measures. Epidemiology. 2010;21:128–38.
Lindhiem O, Petersen IT, Mentch LK, Youngstrom EA. The importance of calibration in clinical psychology. Assessment. 2020;27:840–54.
Stevens RJ, Poppe KK. Validation of clinical prediction models: what does the “calibration slope” really measure? J Clin Epidemiol. 2020;1(118):93–9.
McGraw KO, Wong SP. Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychol Methods. 1996;1(1):30–46.
Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. J Chiropr Med. 2016;15(2):155.
Measuring Agreement: Models, Methods, and Applications|Wiley [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 20]. Available from: www.wiley.com/en-us/Measuring+Agreement%3A+Models%2C+Methods%2C+and+Applications-p-9781118078587.
Hallgren KA. Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: an overview and tutorial. Tutor Quant Methods Psychol. 2012;8(1):23.
Aguayo GA, Donneau AF, Vaillant MT, Schritz A, Franco OH, Stranges S, et al. Agreement between 35 published frailty scores in the general population. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(4):420–34.
Liu Y, De A. Multiple imputation by fully conditional specification for dealing with missing data in a large epidemiologic study. Int J Stat Med Res. 2015;4(3):287–95.
Rubin DB, Wiley J, York N, Brisbane C, Singapore T. Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. In: Rubin DB, editor. Hoboken: Wiley. doi.org/10.1002/9780470316696.
Harrell E, Frank M. Package “rms” Title Regression Modeling Strategies [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 8]. Available from: github.com/harrelfe/rms.
GitHub-BavoDC/CalibrationCurves: The package with the val.prob.ci.2 code, formerly called the val.prob.ci.2 package. [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 8]. Available from: github.com/BavoDC/CalibrationCurves/.
GitHub-cran/BlandAltmanLeh: This is a read-only mirror of the CRAN R package repository. BlandAltmanLeh—Plots (Slightly Extended) Bland-Altman Plots [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 20]. Available from: github.com/cran/BlandAltmanLeh.
Vanbelle S. Comparing dependent kappa coefficients obtained on multilevel data. Biometrical J. 2017;59(5):1016–34.
Matthias Gamer A, Matthias Gamer M. Package “irr” Title Various Coefficients of Interrater Reliability and Agreement [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2021 Apr 20]. Available from: www.r-project.org.
Package “psych” Title Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 20]. Available from: personality-project.org/r/psych/.
Vieceli T, de Oliveira Filho CM, Berger M, Saadi MP, Salvador PA, Anizelli LB, et al. A predictive score for COVID-19 diagnosis using clinical, laboratory and chest image data. Brazilian J Infect Dis. 2020;24(4):343–8.
Aldobyany A, Touman A, Ghaleb N, Alsaggaf R, Murtaza N, Hamada A, et al. Correlation between the COVID-19 respiratory triage score and SARS-COV-2 PCR test. Front Med. 2020;7: 605689.
Tordjman M, Mekki A, Mali RD, Saab I, Chassagnon G, Guillo E, et al. Pre-test probability for SARS-Cov-2-related infection score: the PARIS score. PLoS ONE. 2020;15: e0243342.
Assel M, Sjoberg DD, Vickers AJ. The Brier score does not evaluate the clinical utility of diagnostic tests or prediction models. Diagnostic Progn Res. 2017;1(1):1–7. doi.org/10.1186/s41512-017-0020-3.
Soltan AAS, Yang J, Pattanshetty R, Novak A, Yang Y, Rohanian O, et al. Real-world evaluation of rapid and laboratory-free COVID-19 triage for emergency care: external validation and pilot deployment of artificial intelligence driven screening. Lancet Digit Heal. 2022;4(4):e266–78.
Gilbert A, Ghuysen A. Triage in the time of COVID-19. Lancet Digit Heal. 2022;4:e210–1. doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500.
Martha JW, Wibowo A, Pranata R. Prognostic value of elevated lactate dehydrogenase in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Postgrad Med J. 2021;1–6. Available from: pmj.bmj.com/.
Contou D, Fraissé M, Pajot O, Tirolien JA, Mentec H, Plantefève G. Comparison between first and second wave among critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to a French ICU: no prognostic improvement during the second wave? Crit Care. 2021;25(1):1–4. doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03449-6.
Iftimie S, Lopez-Azcona AF, Vallverdu I, Hernandez-Flix S, De Febrer G, Parra S, et al. First and second waves of coronavirus disease-19: a comparative study in hospitalized patients in Reus, Spain. PLoS One. 2021;16. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC8011765/.
Collins GS, Ogundimu EO, Altman DG. Sample size considerations for the external validation of a multivariable prognostic model: a resampling study. Stat Med. 2016;35(2):214–26. doi.org/10.1002/sim.6787.
Steyerberg EW. Clinical prediction models: a practical approach to development, validation, and updating (Ser. Statistics for biology and health). Berlin: Springer; 2019.
Bar S, Lecourtois A, Diouf M, Goldberg E, Bourbon C, Arnaud E, et al. The association of lung ultrasound images with COVID-19 infection in an emergency room cohort. Anaesthesia. 2020;75(12):1620–5.
McDonald SA, Medford RJ, Basit MA, Diercks DB, Courtney DM. Derivation with internal validation of a multivariable predictive model to predict COVID-19 test results in emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2020;28(2):206–14.
Huang D, Wang T, Chen Z, Yang H, Yao R, Liang Z. A novel risk score to predict diagnosis with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in suspected patients: a retrospective, multicenter, and observational study. J Med Virol. 2020;92(11):2709–17.
Sung J, Choudry N, Bachour R. Development and validation of a simple risk score for diagnosing COVID-19 in the emergency room. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148:1–17.
Callejon-Leblic MA, Moreno-Luna R, Del Cuvillo A, Reyes-Tejero IM, Garcia-Villaran MA, Santos-Peña M, et al. Loss of smell and taste can accurately predict COVID-19 infection: a machine-learning approach. J Clin Med. 2021;10(4):570.
Gupta-Wright A, Macleod CK, Barrett J, Filson SA, Corrah T, Parris V, et al. False-negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 and a diagnostic risk score: a retrospective cohort study among patients admitted to hospital. BMJ Open. 2021;11(2): e047110.
Plante TB, Blau AM, Berg AN, Weinberg AS, Jun IC, Tapson VF, et al. Development and external validation of a machine learning tool to rule out COVID-19 among adults in the emergency department using routine blood tests: a large, multicenter, real-world study. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(12): e24048.