According to the Mayo Clinic, here are some biofeedback methods and devices.
Brain Wave and Neurofeedback
With this type of biofeedback, a therapist attaches sensors to your scalp to monitor brain activity using an electroencephalograph (EEG). According to the 2020 Therapeutic Advances in Urology article mentioned above, this technique is often used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Breathing bands placed around your abdomen and chest help monitor your breathing patterns. This type of biofeedback may be helpful in the treatment of asthma, per the aforementioned research paper.
Heart Rate Feedback
This type of biofeedback can involve a couple of approaches: finger or earlobe sensors with a device used to detect blood volume changes that show your heart rate or heart rate variability (photoplethysmography), or sensors placed on your chest, lower torso, or wrists to measure your heart rate using an electrocardiograph (ECG). This may be used for stress management, research has found.
Muscle Contraction Feedback
Placing sensors over your skeletal muscles with an electromyograph (EMG) can monitor the electrical activity that causes muscle contraction. This type of feedback is often used to help treat urinary and fecal incontinence, and in rehabilitation settings.
Sweat Gland Activity
With this type, the therapist attaches sensors around your fingers, palm, or wrist with an electrodermograph (EDG) to measure sweat gland activity. This method may help in the management of stress and anxiety.
Attaching sensors to your fingers or feet can measure blood flow to your skin. This may also be used to help people manage stress and anxiety.
If seeing a specialist isn’t possible, there are consumer wearables and home biofeedback devices on the market, such as headbands that monitor your brain activity while you meditate, and wrist-worn sensors that monitor your breathing, though it’s important to note that these devices have varying degrees of accuracy and usefulness.
One portable biofeedback device, RESPeRATE, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for helping reduce stress and lowering blood pressure. Another example is the HeartMath Inner Balance sensor, which monitors heart rate variability.
Devices like these can be an entry point for those who can’t pay for biofeedback therapy, since the device may be added as a complementary approach under the guidance of your primary healthcare team. Just make sure to do some research beforehand, and as always, ask your professional healthcare provider before trying anything new.