Hochstetter 2005 tested a 45‐minute training session on physiotherapy breathlessness management including pursed lip and diaphragmatic breathing, 'blow‐as‐you‐go', positioning and pacing techniques. The effect of the session was tested measuring breathlessness on a Borg scale after ascending and descending a flight of stairs (12 steps) at day one and three.

Wu 2006 tested the effects of breathing training on quality of life (including breathlessness) and activities of daily living. Participants in the intervention group received two weeks breathing training three times a day for 15 minutes (panic management, pursed‐lip breathing, diaphragmatic breathing). Participants were asked to practice at home for the next three months (Wu 2006). A VAS as part of a quality of life scale was used for the measurement of breathlessness.

Pursed‐lip breathing was also tested in Garrods study where participants were asked to perform a shuttle walking test either with pursed lip breathing or with normal breathing. Assessments were taken on a modified Borg scale before and immediately after the walk as well as noting the time to recover to pre‐exercise breathlessness (Garrod 2005).

Source: paraquee.com/when-helping-a-client-with-emphysema-the-nurse-employs-several-steps-to-teach-pursed-lip-breathing

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