Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stop and starts. It is characterised by repeated interruptions while sleeping. If you snore loudly and feel tired even after a full night sleep you might have sleep apnea.
Sleep apnea has two types:
1: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), caused by a physical blockage of the airway.
2: Central sleep apnea (CSA), due to a failure of the brain to signal the muscles to breathe.
Obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common type of sleep apnea characterized by repeated partial or complete blockages of the upper airway during sleep. These blockages can lead to pauses in breathing, often lasting for 10 seconds or more. OSA is typically caused by relaxed throat muscles and tissues collapsing into the airway, preventing adequate airflow.
Key features of OSA include:
1. Loud Snoring
2. Frequent Awakenings
3. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
4. Fatigue and Poor Concentra    tion.
5. Morning Headaches.
6. High Blood Pressure
7. Increased Risk Factors: Obesity, older age,  family history of OSA, and certain anatomical factors can increase the risk of developing OSA.
Central sleep apnea
Central sleep apnea is associated with high blood sugar that depletes vitamin B1 which is essential in maintaining brain stem normal function specially breathing centre which connects to a nerve called a phrenic nerve.
The phrenic nerve controls your diaphragm (the large dome-shaped muscle between your abdominal and chest cavities). It’s essential to breathing. Your nerve sends signals that cause your diaphragm to contract (become thicker and flatter). Nerve which comes down from brainstem goes right to the diaphragm so entire movement of diaphragm is controlled by it. When this nerve is cut, you are not going to breathe. So what happens is that this part of nervous system is under autonomic nervous system. That works automatically but you can influence it too so you can stop breathing if you want and if you forget to breathe then the autonomic nervous system kicks in and starts breathing while sleeping.
Unlike obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where there is a physical obstruction in the airway. CSA is primarily a neurological issue.
       1.     Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: In CSA, there is often a distinct pattern of breathing known as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. 
This pattern involves gradual increases and decreases in breathing effort, followed by a pause in breathing.
2. Lack of Snoring: Unlike OSA, CSA is usually not associated with loud snoring because there is no physical blockage of the airway.
3. Daytime Fatigue: Individuals with CSA often experience excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue due to disrupted sleep.
4. Underlying Medical Conditions: CSA is sometimes associated with certain medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, stroke, brainstem lesions, and opioid use.
Anything or any pressure that actually narrows your Airways such as obesity, large tonsils, and changes in hormonal levels can increase risk for obstructive sleep apnea.
Beyond memory problems, sleep apnea can also cause physical, and measurable brain damage by starving your brain.
Obstructive sleep apnea 
It can cause serious irreversible damages to the heart and can lead to heart failures sleep apnea causes an increase in the blood pressures around your heart and on some of the chambers of your heart itself
Central sleep apnea 
It can have various health implications and potential damages if left untreated or if it occurs in conjunction with certain underlying medical conditions. Some potential consequences and damages associated with CSA already discussed above.
Hence it also decreases quality of life. Ongoing sleep disturbances and associated health issues can significantly reduce a person’s overall quality of life and ability to perform daily tasks.
Lifestyle and behavioral changes can help treat sleep apnea symptom. A number of steps are recommended by health experts as a first-line treatment for sleep apnea, such as changing sleep positions, avoiding alcohol and certain medications, and exercising regularly.
Foods to avoid 
Bananas: They cause an increase in mucus production that can make it difficult to breathe.
 High-Fat Meats: Beef, pork, and fried meats should be consumed in moderation to decrease your fat intake. Refined Carbs: The high sugar content can lead to obesity if consumed regularly.
Dairy products that are high in fat can increase your mucus production, which can make your breathing problems associated with sleep apnea even worse.
For this reason, avoid frequently consuming whole milk, cream, and certain high-fat cheeses, such as cheddar and Swiss.

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