1 Division of Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

2 Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

3 Department of Medicine, Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

4 Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

5 Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Unity Health Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

6 Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

7 Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Drs. B. N. Hryciw and Seely conceived the study concept. Dr. B. N. Hryciw designed the study protocol and completed the search and data extraction alongside Dr. N. Hryciw. Dr. Rochwerg completed the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation analysis. Dr. Burns provided extensive feedback and editing. All authors participated in data analysis, interpretation and the creation and revision of the article.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (journals.lww.com/ccmjournal).

Dr. Seely is Founder and Chief Operating Officer for Therapeutic Monitoring Systems, a company dedicated to research, development, and commercialization of variability-derived clinical decision support tools, including a tool designed to improve extubation decision-making. However, there is no direct relationship with this study, its methodology or results. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.

Drs. B. N. Hryciw and N. Hryciw are co-first authors and contributed equally to this study.

For information regarding this article, E-mail: [email protected]

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