How to distinguish orthologs from paralogs?

1

Hi, imagine we have two sequences from two different lineages of E. Coli, which are more than 80% similar based on blast results. How can we know whether these genes are ortholog or paralog?


ortholog


evolution


paralog


homolog

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A common strategy to identify orthologs is called the reciprocal best hit (RCBH):

  • If the two sequences are their best mutual match across the whole
    genome of the two lineage, then they are probably direct orthologs (XA' and YA' on the image below for instance).

  • If other sequences in the two lineages are better matches, then the two
    sequences could be actually the orthologs of their respective paralog instead (XA' with YA'', what is called below an out-paralog).

enter image description here


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