"The 2 vaccines- Bharat Biotech vaccine and DNA vaccine of Zydus Cadila have completed phase 1 and will begin phase 2 while third is Oxford vaccine", said Dr Balram Bhargava, DG, ICMR while addressing a press conference here. Whoever develops the vaccine first, India or China will have to scale it up, Bhargava was quoted as saying. The two firms aim to combine the Sanofi-developed antigen, which stimulates the production of antibodies, with GSK's adjuvant technology which bolsters the immune response triggered by a vaccine. The good news is that 26 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are already in clinical testing.

The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has given the Serum Institute of India (SII) permission to conduct phase 2 and 3 human trials of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine candidate in the country.

French drugmaker Sanofi (SNYNF) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) will be granted up to $2.1 billion by the USA government for the development of their coronavirus vaccine candidate, including clinical trials, as well, for manufacturing scale-up and delivery of an initial 100 million doses. As per recent figures, more than 40,574 patients have recovered in the past 24 hours.

"As per the study design, each subject will be administered two doses four weeks apart (first dose on day one and second dose on day 29) following which the safety and immunogenicity will be assessed at predefined intervals", the official said.

Russian vaccines: Russia is planning to launch a nationwide vaccination campaign in October.

According to the company, 1,600 people aged above 18 years will participate in the trials across 17 selected sites.

"The global need for a vaccine to help prevent COVID-19 is massive, and no single vaccine or company will be able to meet the global demand alone", said Thomas Triomphe, Global Head of Sanofi Pasteur. However, Chief Scientist of the World Health Organization, Soumya Swaminathan said India still has a much lower testing rate compared to some other countries and the country needs to increase testing.

US Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said the portfolio of vaccines being assembled under Operation Warp Speed "increases the odds that we will have at least one safe, effective vaccine as soon as the end of this year". The EU wants to ink deals with six drugmakers for their coronavirus vaccine for 450 million citizens.

Oxford University's vaccine, called AZD1222, is being manufactured by pharmaceutical major AstraZeneca and the United Kingdom government has ordered 100 million doses ahead of time.

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