Difference between Meta'omics and Multi'omics

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Hi there!!! I have a basic question which may seem silly to you. Forgive me for that
Actually I don't know what does actually mean by metaomic study? I am familiar with the term multiomics, but metaomics seems a new term to me. Can anyone please help me clarifying the confusion?
Thanks


Omics

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Based on our literature search from last year (GitHub, paper) I can say that the term "meta-omics" (and its variants) is not too frequently used in the context of integrative analysis of multiple different omics (like transcriptome + proteome + genome) - so it might often mean something different too. Let's look at the usage in PubMed abstracts:

19837627    s on metabolomics data management, normalization, meta-omics data analysis, and an integrative a...
24624120     high-resolution molecular approaches, so called “meta-omics”, are now allowing concrete linkage...
26315987    nd us through the application of high-resolution "meta-omics". Metaproteomics offers the ability...
28724401    l diversification within the lichen microbiota by meta-omics. nRecent evidence of specific bact...
28744486    odontal ligament and alveolar bone. We employed a meta-omics approach that included microbial 16...
29157743     Next generation microbiological risk assessment meta-omics: The next need for integration. The dev
29427518    ast few years, the application of high-throughput meta-omics methods has provided great progress...
29656009    enomics, transcriptomics, proteomics metabolomics meta-omics and combined omics as powerful stra...
30285475    per reviews studies in which application of these meta-omics technologies has led to a better un...
30728080                                       An integrated meta-omics approach reveals substrates involved in
30945796    oding data sets were integrated in a multivariate meta-omics analysis (multi-block PLS-DA from t...
30992350    treatment was not modified based on the presented meta-omics results. The course of action of th...
31186307    niches of constituent populations, and functional meta-omics becomes a proxy to characterize the...
31796563    hanomassiliicoccaceaenxoxFnMethylobacternxoxFnOur meta-omics data suggested that the nMetha...
31803221    s, encompassing microbial communities, omics, and meta-omics as well as clinical or chemistry va...
31810497    ional and translational microbiome research using meta-omics approaches. The gut microbiome has ...
31884359    ion of antibiotic resistance genes: An integrated meta-omics study. Livestock manure is consider...
32047482    on that must be sifted through, particularly with meta-omics data. Software pipelines have been ...
32318338    of the microbiome in cancer is being recognized (nmeta-omicsnn        n3.2. Data Management...
32516966    Characterization. Recent advances in the field of meta-omics sciences and related bioinformatics...
32579720    s, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and meta-omics are reviewed. The ability to interp...

I would say that four different themes emerge:

  1. Integrative analysis of multiple different omics where 1 sample = 1 organism, effectively a synonym for multi-omics. This mostly occurs in older studies (19837627) from time before multi-omics term became more popular. I would avoid such usage as it might be misleading.
  2. Integrative analysis of multiple different omics where 1 sample = multiple taxa (like in metagenome). I initially thought that it would be common but after re-checking the papers "meta-omics" does not seem to be used to mean this at all. One close example is 30945796 which integrated metagenome and metabolome using a typical multi-omics method, but in context of metagenomic study ("multivariate meta-omics analysis"). In fact many studies doing so use "integrated meta-omics" (see point 4),
  3. Meta-analysis of data from the same platform/omic but collected in different experiments where 1 sample = multiple taxa. For example, 30304367 describes a meta-analysis method for combining multiple transcriptomic datasets.
  4. meta-omics used as a catch-all term for metagenomics, metaproteomics, metametabolomics etc as in:
    • 24624120 which also proposes to integrate metagenomes with metabolomics data,
    • 28724401 which analyses metagenome, metaproteome and metatranscriptome together,
    • 28744486 looks at metagenome and metametabolomics,
    • 26315987,
    • 29427518 (which refers to (2) as "multi meta-omics"),
    • 30285475 ("meta-omics technologies"),
    • 30992350,
    • 31796563,
    • 31810497 ("meta-omics techniques", (2) referred to as "integration of multiple meta-omics"),
    • 31884359 ((2) referred to as "integrated meta-omics")
    • 32047482 ("The integration of data sets generated in multi-omics research is by no means trivial [...], particularly with meta-omics data.")
    • 32318338 ("the role of the microbiome in cancer is being recognized (170); the integration of metagenomic, and
      perhaps meta-omics data (171), could provide key insights")
    • 32516966
    • 32579720
    • 29157743 is a review/call to action of multi-omics in context of metagenomics, metaproteomics, metametabolomics, etc,
    • 30728080 integrated metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and targeted metabolomics datasets (2 is "integrated meta-omics")
    • 31186307 discusses integration of metabolomics and metagenomics (2 is "integrated meta-omics")
    • 31803221 describes a framework for integration of longitudinal microbiome datasets with other types of data


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