COVID-19 Vaccines

World-class scientists have accelerated the clinical development process to develop COVID-19 vaccines. The goal of these 'active' COVID-19 vaccine candidates is to prevent SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, from getting into cells, replicating itself, which then infects a person, says the FDA.

The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape includes innovative platforms such as DNA and RNA, virus-like particle, peptide, viral vector, recombinant protein, live attenuated virus, an inactivated virus approaches.

COVID-19 Vaccines: Limited Availability

On December 11, 2020, the U.S. FDA approved the Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine, an experimental (BNT162b2) vaccine for Emergency Use against the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. This vaccine is authorized in several countries, such as Canada and the United Kingdom.

And on December 18, 2020, the FDA issued emergency authorization for the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine, known as mRNA-12-73.

Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine (BNT162b2)

Pfizer and BioNTech's COVID-19 Vaccine (BNT162b2) is an mRNA vaccine that encodes an optimized SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike glycoprotein in a 2-dose (0, 21d) regimen. In a phase 3 study, the vaccine candidate was more than 90% effective in preventing COVID-19 in the first interim efficacy analysis. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) has been approved for use in the USA, UK, Canada, and Bahrain's Kingdom.

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA-1273)

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine (mRNA-1273) is an mRNA vaccine candidate against the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus encoding for a prefusion stabilized form of the Spike protein. mRNA-1273 is a two-dose (0, 28d) regimen. The U.S. FDA granted an Emergency Use Authorization on December 18, 2020.

CHINA: Ad5-nCoV SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

The Ad5-nCoV vaccine candidate is a genetically engineered vaccine candidate with the replication-defective adenovirus type 5 as the vector to express SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The vaccine candidate is built upon CanSinoBIO’s adenovirus-based viral vector vaccine technology platform. This vaccine candidate is a single-dose regimen.  

RUSSIA: Sputnik V Vaccine

The COVID-19 vaccine Sputnik V is an adenoviral-based vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Sputnik V deploys two different adenovirus vectors (rAd26 and rAd5) for the first and second vaccination, boosting its effect. On August 1, 2020, the Russian Health Minister Mikhail Murashko announced 'clinical trials had been declared completed.'

COVID-19 Vaccine: Phase 3 Clinical Trials

Ad26.COV2-S (JNJ-78436735) vaccine

Johnson and Johnson's Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. investigational SARS-CoV-2 viral vector vaccine is an adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector-based vaccine.  Announced the launch of its large-scale, pivotal, multi-country Phase 3 trial (ENSEMBLE) for its COVID-19 vaccine candidate in a single-dose regimen—Last Update Posted: December 3, 2020.

AZD1222 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

AstraZeneca - University of Oxford's Jenner Institute's AZD1222 vaccine uses a replication-deficient chimpanzee viral vector based on a weakened version of a common cold virus (ChAdOx1) that causes infections in chimpanzees and contains the genetic material of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein. This viral vector vaccine candidate will require a two-dose regimen (0, 28d).

New Crown COVID-19 Vaccine

An inactivated 'new crown' vaccine created by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products under the China National Pharmaceutical Group, Sinopharm, and the Wuhan Institute of Virology entered phase 3 clinical trial in Morocco. The New Crown COVID-19 inactivated #vaccine candidate was found 86% effective reports UAE.

CoronaVac SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

Sinovac Biotech's CoronaVac SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine candidate is based on an inactivated pathogen. A phase II clinical trial showed that the vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies 14 days after the vaccination with a 0 and 14-day schedule. The neutralizing antibody seroconversion rate is above 90%, which indicates the vaccine candidate can induce a positive immune response. A phase 3 trial is underway in Turkey, Brazil, and Indonesia to assess the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency evaluation.

EpiVacCorona Vaccine 

Russia's Vektor State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology EpiVacCorona vaccine contains fragments extracted from the virus — synthetic peptide antigens. The antigens-based vaccine provokes an immune reaction against COVID-19 and promotes the further development of immunity.

NVX-CoV2373 vaccine

Novavax's NVX-CoV2373 is a prefusion protein subunit coronavirus vaccine candidate created using Novavax’s recombinant nanoparticle technology to generate antigen derived from the coronavirus spike protein and contains Novavax’ patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant to enhance the immune response and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies. This vaccine will require a two-dose  (0, 21d) regimen.

COVID-19 Vaccine: Phase 2 Clinical Trials

Sanofi and GSK COVID-19 Adjuvanted Vaccine

Sanofi and GSK announced a delay in launching this vaccine candidate. They plan a Phase 2b study with an improved antigen formulation. If data are positive, a global Phase 3 study could start in Q2 2021. This study's positive results would lead to regulatory submissions in the second half of 2021, hence delaying the vaccine’s potential availability from mid-2021 to Q4 2021.

CVnCoV Vaccine

CureVac's CVnCoV is an mRNA vaccine candidate that utilizes nucleotides without chemical modifications in the mRNA. On September 29, 2020, the first participant was dosed in a Phase 2a clinical trial of its COVID-19 vaccine candidate, CVnCoV. The dose-confirmation study, entitled CV-NCOV-002, is being conducted in Peru and Panama.

RHB-107 COVID-19 Vaccine

RedHill Biopharma novel COVID-19 candidate RHB-107 (upamostat) is an orally administered novel serine protease inhibitor with demonstrated antiviral and potential tissue-protective effects. RHB-107 has demonstrated strong inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in a human bronchial cell model. It targets a host cell component involved in viral replication, minimizing the potential for resistance due to viral mutations.

Brilife VSV Coronavirus Vaccine Candidate

The Israel Institute for Biological Research Indiana vesiculovirus COVID-19 vaccine candidate BriLife's phase 2 study will expand to 960 people, with various dose levels, beginning December 2020.

COVID-19 Vaccine: Phase 1 Clinical Trials

 INO-4800 DNA vaccine

Inovio's DNA medicines are composed of optimized DNA plasmids, which are small circles of double-stranded DNA synthesized or reorganized by a computer sequencing technology and designed to produce a specific immune response in the body. On July 30, 2020, Inovio announced INO-4800 vaccination generated antibodies neutralizing both the earlier strain of the coronavirus and the mutant variant (D614G), which has emerged with greater infectivity and now accounts for about 80% of newly circulating virus.

Vaxart COVID-19 Oral Vaccine

Vaxart's VXA-CoV2-1 vaccine candidate is based on an oral H1 flu tablet with positive clinical study results. Phase 1, an open-label, dose-ranging study, will be conducted in healthy adults ages 18 to 55. The study’s primary objective is to examine the safety and reactogenicity of 2-doses of the vaccine.

V591 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

Merck's V591 SARS-CoV-2 replicating viral vector vaccine candidate uses a measles virus vector platform to deliver the antigens to the immune system to spur antibody production against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The Phase 1/2 clinical trial is currently recruiting and will Assess Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of V591 in Healthy Participants.

VLA2001 Vaccine

Valneava SE's VLA2001 consists of inactivated whole virus particles of SARS-CoV-2 with high S-protein density, combined with two adjuvants, alum and CpG 1018. And, VLA2001-201 is the first-in-human Phase 1/2 study that will evaluate three dose levels of VLA2001 (low, medium, high) for safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity in a two-dose schedule with intra muscular vaccinations three weeks apart.

AV-COVID-19 Vaccine

Aivita Biomedical's AV-COVID-19 AuDendritic cell vaccine candidate consists of autologous dendritic cells loaded with antigens from SARS-CoV-2. In a Phase 1/2 clinical trial "Adaptive Phase IB-II Randomized Clinical Trial Of Preventive Vaccine Consisting Of Autologous Dendritic Cells Loaded With Antigens From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), With Or Without GM-CSF, In Subjects Negative For COVID-19 Infection And Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies".

S-Trimer (SCB-2019) COVID-19 Vaccine

The Sichuan 'Clover' Biopharmaceuticals S-Trimer (SCB-2019) recombinant subunit vaccine candidate is targeted for the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 disease. The vaccine conducts a phase 1 clinical trial in Australia, testing different boosters provided by GSK and Dynavax. Clover's S-Trimer is a trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-protein subunit vaccine candidate.

Beijing BBIBP-CorV COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

A randomized, double-blind, placebo parallel controlled phase I/II clinical trial evaluates the new inactivated coronavirus vaccine (2019-CoV) (Vero cells) in healthy people aged 3 years and older. 

Covaxin SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

Covaxin is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. The coronavirus strain was isolated from an asymptomatic COVID-19 patient at NIV, Pune. 

CoVLP Vaccine

The GSK and Medicago collaboration intends to develop a COVID-19 candidate vaccine combining Medicago’s recombinant Coronavirus Virus-Like Particles (CoVLP) with GSK’s pandemic adjuvant system. CoVLPs mimic the virus's structure responsible for COVID-19 disease, allowing them to be recognized by the immune system. On November 10, 2020, the companies reported '100 % of subjects who received an adjuvanted vaccine candidate developed significant antibody and cellular immune responses after two doses.'

CPI-006 Novel Immunotherapy

Corvus is studying an agonistic (immunostimulatory) humanized monoclonal antibody, designated as CPI-006, which has demonstrated a potential new approach to immunotherapy of infectious diseases and cancer. To date, over 90 cancer patients have been treated with CPI-006 in the Corvus Phase 1/1b study, with dosing as high as 24 mg/kg every three weeks.

AdCOVID Vaccine

AdCOVID is based on Altimmune Inc.'s adenovirus-based intranasal vaccine platform and expresses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.  AdCOVID is designed to guard the respiratory tract from viral invasion and provide downstream protection against the viral spread by stimulating both mucosal and systemic antibodies (IgA and IgG) and cell-mediated immunity.

EXG-5003 Vaccine

Elixirgen Therapeutics's EXG-5003 is a temperature-sensitive self-replicating RNA vaccine expressing the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. EXG-5003 was optimized for intradermal injection with potential dose-sparing and safety benefits. Human clinical trials are expected to begin at Fujita Health University Hospital in Aichi, Japan, in Q1 2021.

GRAd-COV2 Vaccine

ReiThera Srl RT-CoV-2 is a Phase I, open-label, dose-escalation multicenter clinical trial to assess the candidate vaccine's safety and immunogenicity GRAd-COV2 in Italian healthy volunteers aged 18-55 years and 65-85 years inclusive. GRAd-COV2 is based on a novel replication-defective Gorilla Adenovirus and encodes for SARS-COV-2 full-length prefusion stabilized Spike protein.

CDX-005 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

CDX-005 is an intranasal, live-attenuated vaccine candidate that is generated using Codagenix’s proprietary deoptimization technology. CDX-005 is designed to produce immunity against all SARS-CoV-2 proteins, not just the spike surface protein.

hAd5-COVID-19 Vaccine

ImmunityBio hAd5 COVID-19 vaccine candidate targets the inner nucleocapsid and the outer spike protein, engineered to activate both T cells and antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Phase 1 study launched in California during October 2020.

Coronavirus Virus-Like Particle Vaccine

Medicago's Coronavirus Virus-Like Particle vaccine began Phase 1 testing in human volunteers on July 14, 2020. Medicago plans to initiate Phase 2 trials in early November and Phase 3 trials shortly after, in December 2020.

bacTRL-Spike Vaccine Candidate

The Phase 1 trial of bacTRL-Spike™ Vaccine for Prevention of COVID-19 is being conducted in partnership with Nucleus Network in Brisbane, Australia. Preliminary data are anticipated in early 2021.

ZyCoV-D COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

Cadila Healthcare (Zydus Cadila) said it has completed enrolment and dosing of 1,000 volunteers in phase-2 clinical trials of its potential Covid-19 vaccine, ZyCoV-D, and plans to submit the data to the Drug Controller General of India.

CoVepiT COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

OSE Immunotherapeutics's CoVepiT is a prophylactic vaccine based on optimized epitopes selected to induce a lasting sentinel T lymphocyte immune response against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

ARCT-021 (LUNAR-COV19) Vaccine Candidate

Arcturus combines its self-replicating mRNA STARR™ Technology with its LUNAR® RNA medicine delivery technology to develop a prophylactic vaccine against COVID-19. Arcturus's LUNAR-COV19 vaccine is developed in collaboration with the Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School is developing an mRNA vaccine to prevent COVID19 coronavirus infection.

hAd5-COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

ImmunityBio and NantKwest are currently enrolling 35 healthy adults aged 18 to 55 years old in the Phase 1 study for the hAd5-COVID-19 vaccine candidate. This study shows hAd5 S+N COVID-19 vaccine candidate, which delivers two distinct proteins, stimulates T-cell responses of volunteers recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating that the S and N antigens from the vaccine are recognized by SARS-COV-2 reactive human T cells.

COVID-19 Subunit Vaccine Candidate

Biological E. Limited, a Hyderabad-based vaccine, and pharmaceutical company, initiated a Phase I/II clinical trial of its COVID-19 subunit vaccine candidate in India. The Phase I/II clinical trial will evaluate the vaccine candidate's safety and immunogenicity, consisting of the Receptor Binding Domain of the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 at three dose levels adjuvanted with CpG 1018 plus alum, in about 360 healthy subjects in the age range of 18 to 65 years. The vaccination schedule consists of two doses for each study participant, administered via intramuscular injection 28 days apart.

COH04S1 SARS-CoV-2 Prevention Vaccine

The City of Hope announced it had initiated a phase 1 clinical trial for the investigational vaccine, known as COH04S1, which aims to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can block the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus from entering cells and also spur abundant T cells that are thought to provide the elusive long-term protection that could protect against future outbreaks.

Coronavirus FAQs

Vaccination decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic should be discussed between patients and their healthcare providers, says the U.S. CDC.

Note: Content sources on this webpage include, but are not limited to, the WHO, the CDC, industry studies, and Precision Vax takes reasonable steps to verify the accuracy of the information presented in these landscape documents, WHO does not make any (and hereby disclaims all) representations and warranties regarding the accuracy, completeness, fitness for a particular purpose (including any of the aforementioned purposes), quality, safety, efficacy, merchantability and/or non-infringement of any information provided in these landscape documents and/or of any of the products referenced therein.

The content was Fact-Checked by Dr. Robert Carlson and other healthcare professionals.

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