By Jeff Craven

Cur­rent­ly, there are no FDA-ap­proved ther­a­pies or vac­cines for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caus­es Covid-19. The Na­tion­al In­sti­tute of Al­ler­gy and In­fec­tious Dis­eases (NI­AID) with­in the Na­tion­al In­sti­tutes of Health (NIH) is lead­ing the fund­ing of fed­er­al re­search and re­sponse to Covid-19, while some com­pa­nies in the US are choos­ing to fund their own Covid-19 re­search. In­ter­na­tion­al­ly, the UK Med­i­cines and Health­care prod­ucts Reg­u­la­to­ry Agency (MHRA) and Eu­ro­pean Med­i­cines Agency (EMA) have called for tar­get­ed ef­forts to de­vel­op ther­a­pies against Covid-19.

Ex­perts es­ti­mate it could take be­tween 12-18 months to de­vel­op a vac­cine ready for mar­ket, which as­sumes the process from con­cep­tion to mar­ket avail­abil­i­ty goes smooth­ly. This track­er lists the ma­jor vac­cine can­di­dates in de­vel­op­ment for pre­ven­tion of Covid-19.

Phase II/III vac­cine can­di­date

Or­ga­ni­za­tions: Uni­ver­si­ty of Mel­bourne and Mur­doch Chil­dren’s Re­search In­sti­tute (Aus­tralia); Rad­boud Uni­ver­si­ty Med­ical Cen­ter (The Nether­lands); Faust­man Lab at Mass­a­chu­setts Gen­er­al Hos­pi­tal (MGH) (Unit­ed States)

Vac­cine can­di­date: Bacil­lus Cal­mette-Guerin (BCG) live-at­ten­u­at­ed vac­cine for Covid-19

Orig­i­nal in­di­ca­tion: Tu­ber­cu­lo­sis (TB) pe­di­atric vac­cine

De­tails: The BCG vac­cine has been im­pli­cat­ed in help­ing to com­bat oth­er in­fec­tions out­side TB by boost­ing the im­mune sys­tem to fight sim­i­lar in­fec­tions. In 2017, the World Health Or­ga­ni­za­tion (WHO) re­port­ed the BCG vac­cine may be ef­fec­tive against lep­rosy and oth­er non­tu­ber­cu­lous my­cobac­te­ria such as bu­ruli ul­cer dis­ease. Oth­er pa­pers have posit­ed the vac­cine is ef­fec­tive in pre­vent­ing acute res­pi­ra­to­ry tract in­fec­tions in el­der­ly pa­tients, oth­er res­pi­ra­to­ry in­fec­tion and sep­sis. A re­cent non-peer re­viewed pa­per in the preprint serv­er medRx­iv has sug­gest­ed coun­tries with BCG vac­ci­na­tion pro­grams at child­hood are far­ing bet­ter in the fight against Covid-19 com­pared with coun­tries that do not re­quire BCG vac­ci­na­tion.

Sta­tus: The ran­dom­ized, con­trolled, Phase 3 BRACE tri­al in Aus­tralia is cur­rent­ly re­cruit­ing and aims to re­cruit 4,170 health­care work­ers in hos­pi­tals in Aus­tralia (NCT04327206). Re­searchers in The Nether­lands launched the ran­dom­ized, par­al­lel-as­sign­ment, phase 3 BCG-CORO­NA tri­al on March 31 and plan to en­roll 1,500 health­care work­ers to re­ceive the BCG vac­cine or place­bo (NCT04328441). The Faust­man Lab is cur­rent­ly eval­u­at­ing the BCG vac­cine’s ef­fec­tive­ness in type 1 di­a­betes and is seek­ing fund­ing to launch tri­al to as­sess whether the vac­cine helps pre­vent COVID-19 in health­care work­ers, ac­cord­ing to in­de­pen­dent re­port­ing from the New York Times.

Phase I vac­cine can­di­dates

Com­pa­ny: Mod­er­na

Vac­cine can­di­date: mR­NA-1273

De­tails: Mod­er­na is the Mass­a­chu­setts-based biotech com­pa­ny be­hind mR­NA-1273, a vac­cine can­di­date de­vel­oped us­ing pri­or stud­ies of re­lat­ed coro­n­avirus­es, such as se­vere acute res­pi­ra­to­ry syn­drome (SARS) and Mid­dle East res­pi­ra­to­ry syn­drome (MERS).

Study De­sign: A Phase 1, open-la­bel, dose-rang­ing clin­i­cal tri­al of 45 healthy par­tic­i­pants be­tween 18-55 years old

Insti­tu­tion: Kaiser Per­ma­nente Wash­ing­ton Health Re­search In­sti­tute

Sta­tus: Re­cruit­ing was com­plet­ed on 19 March 2020

Clin­i­cal­Tri­als.gov Iden­ti­fi­er: NCT04283461

Fund­ing: NI­AID

Com­pa­ny: CanSi­no Bi­o­log­ics

Vac­cine can­di­date: Ad5-nCoV

De­tails: Chi­na’s CanSi­no Bi­o­log­ics has de­vel­oped a re­com­bi­nant nov­el coro­n­avirus vac­cine that in­cor­po­rates the ade­n­ovirus type 5 vec­tor (Ad5).

Study De­sign: A Phase 1 clin­i­cal tri­al of 108 par­tic­i­pants be­tween 18 and 60 years old who will re­ceive low, medi­um, and high dos­es of Ad5-nCoV

In­sti­tu­tion: Tongji Hos­pi­tal; Wuhan, Chi­na

Sta­tus: Pre­lim­i­nary safe­ty da­ta from the Phase 1 tri­al al­low the com­pa­ny to plan to ini­ti­ate a Phase 2 tri­al, ac­cord­ing to a com­pa­ny an­nounce­ment. No fur­ther de­tails were pro­vid­ed.

Chi­nese Clin­i­cal Tri­al Reg­istry Iden­ti­fi­er: ChiC­TR2000030906

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: The Uni­ver­si­ty of Ox­ford

Vac­cine can­di­date: ChA­dOx1

De­tails: The Ox­ford Vac­cine Group at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Ox­ford have iden­ti­fied a new vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19, a chim­panzee ade­n­ovirus vac­cine vec­tor called ChA­dOx1. The team has pre­vi­ous­ly de­vel­oped a MERS vac­cine.

Sta­tus: Re­cruit­ment is un­der­way of up to 510 healthy adult vol­un­teers aged 18-55 years to be en­rolled in a Phase 1 clin­i­cal tri­al, ac­cord­ing to the uni­ver­si­ty. More in­for­ma­tion on the tri­al is avail­able here.

Com­pa­ny: In­ovio Phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals

Vac­cine can­di­date: INO-4800

De­tails: In­ovio is de­vel­op­ing a DNA vac­cine for SARS-CoV-2 that is in line with oth­er DNA vac­cines the com­pa­ny is de­vel­op­ing, such as for the MERS coro­n­avirus. The vac­cine is in­ject­ed in­tra­der­mal­ly through a de­vice which In­ovio plans to scale pro­duc­tion of while they wait for re­sults of INO-4800.

Study de­sign: A non-ran­dom­ized, open la­bel tri­al of 40 healthy vol­un­teers who will re­ceive one or two in­tra­der­mal in­jec­tions (1.0 mg) of INO-4800 at base­line and at 4 weeks, fol­lowed by elec­tro­po­ra­tion.

Sta­tus: On 6 April, In­ovio an­nounced the start of their Phase 1 clin­i­cal tri­al (NCT04336410) at sites in Philadel­phia and Kansas City.

Pre-clin­i­cal vac­cine can­di­dates

Com­pa­nies: Pfiz­er and BioN­Tech

Vac­cine can­di­date: BNT162

De­tails: Pfiz­er and BioN­tech have an­nounced an agree­ment to col­lab­o­rate on de­vel­op­ing an mR­NA-based Covid-19 vac­cine orig­i­nal­ly de­vel­oped by BioN­Tech. The com­pa­nies had pre­vi­ous­ly agreed to de­vel­op an mR­NA-based in­fluen­za vac­cine in 2018.

Sta­tus: Clin­i­cal test­ing is ex­pect­ed to be­gin in April 2020

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: Uni­ver­si­ty of Pitts­burgh’s Cen­ter for Vac­cine Re­search

Vac­cine can­di­date: PittCo­V­acc

De­tails: Re­searchers at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Pitts­burgh have re­ceived a $4.9 mil­lion grant from CEPI to de­vel­op a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date.

Sta­tus: On April 2, Uni­ver­si­ty of Pitts­burgh School of Med­i­cine sci­en­tists an­nounced they had de­vel­oped a can­di­date Covid-19 vac­cine that is ef­fec­tive in mice, de­liv­ered through a fin­ger­tip patch. Ac­cord­ing to a pa­per pub­lished in EBio­Med­i­cine, the vac­cine cre­ates an­ti­bod­ies in mice that the re­searchers be­lieve is suf­fi­cient to neu­tral­ize the virus.

Com­pa­ny: No­vavax

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: Biotech com­pa­ny No­vavax an­nounced in March that it has pro­duced sev­er­al re­com­bi­nant nanopar­ti­cle vac­cine can­di­dates for Covid-19 and is vet­ting them in an­i­mal test­ing.

Sta­tus: No­ravax hopes to be­gin clin­i­cal test­ing in late spring of 2020. The com­pa­ny not­ed they are see­ing pos­i­tive re­sults af­ter a few weeks of test­ing, ac­cord­ing to orig­i­nal re­port­ing from a CBS af­fil­i­ate.

Com­pa­ny: Cure­Vac

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: Cure­Vac an­nounced they are de­vel­op­ing an mR­NA-based Covid-19 vac­cine “with­in a few months,” ac­cord­ing to a press re­lease.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny plans to start clin­i­cal tri­als in the sum­mer and have iden­ti­fied two study cen­ters.

Com­pa­ny: Generex Biotech­nol­o­gy

Vac­cine can­di­date: Ii-Key pep­tide Covid-19 vac­cine

De­tails: Biotech com­pa­ny Generex sub­sidiary Nu­Generex Im­muno-On­col­o­gy is spear­head­ing a vac­cine project to cre­ate an Ii-Key pep­tide vac­cine against Covid-19.

Sta­tus: In a com­pa­ny press re­lease dat­ed 27 Feb­ru­ary, Generex said they want­ed to pro­duce a vac­cine can­di­date that could be test­ed in hu­mans “with­in 90 days.”

Com­pa­ny: Vaxart

Vac­cine can­di­date: Oral re­com­bi­nant COVID-19 vac­cine

De­tails: Vaxart an­nounced their agree­ment with Emer­gent Bioso­lu­tions to de­vel­op and man­u­fac­ture their oral re­com­bi­nant vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny plans to ini­ti­ate a Phase 1 clin­i­cal study “ear­ly in the sec­ond half of 2020,” ac­cord­ing to a press re­lease.

Com­pa­ny: Im­pe­r­i­al Col­lege Lon­don

Vac­cine can­di­date: Self-am­pli­fy­ing RNA vac­cine

De­tails: Im­pe­r­i­al Col­lege Lon­don re­searchers are de­vel­op­ing a self-am­pli­fy­ing RNA vac­cine for Covid-19. They de­vel­oped a vac­cine can­di­date with­in 14 days of re­ceiv­ing the se­quence from Chi­na.

Sta­tus: An­i­mal test­ing is un­der­way; the re­searchers aim to be­gin clin­i­cal tri­als in the sum­mer of 2020.

Com­pa­ny: Med­ica­go

Vac­cine can­di­date: Plant-based Covid-19 vac­cine

De­tails: Med­ica­go, which re­cent­ly de­vel­oped a sea­son­al re­com­bi­nant quadri­va­lent virus-like par­ti­cle (VLP) in­fluen­za vac­cine, re­port­ed they cre­at­ed a coro­n­avirus VLP 20 days af­ter work­ing with the SARS-CoV-2s gene.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny says their vac­cine is in the pre-clin­i­cal test­ing stage, and they ex­pect to be­gin hu­man test­ing in Ju­ly or Au­gust of 2020.

Com­pa­ny: Takis Biotech

Vac­cine can­di­date: DNA-based vac­cine for Covid-19

De­tails: The part­ner­ship be­tween Takis Biotech and Ap­plied DNA Sci­ences has re­sult­ed in four DNA vac­cine can­di­dates for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: Takis ex­pects pre­clin­i­cal test­ing re­sults in April 2020; their fi­nal vac­cine can­di­date could be­gin hu­man test­ing by fall, ac­cord­ing to a com­pa­ny press re­lease.

Com­pa­nies: John­son & John­son and BAR­DA

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: John­son & John­son has an­nounced their in­ten­tion to de­vel­op a Covid-19 vac­cine, us­ing their Ad­Vac and PER.C6 sys­tems, which were al­so used to de­vel­op the com­pa­ny’s Ebo­la vac­cine. Sta­tus: J&J says they plan to have a vac­cine can­di­date by the end of March, with hu­man tri­als start­ing in No­vem­ber 2020.

Com­pa­ny: Al­tim­mune

Vac­cine can­di­date: In­tranasal Covid-19 vac­cine

De­tails: Al­tim­mune has de­vel­oped a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date us­ing the same tech­nol­o­gy they used build their in­fluen­za vac­cine, Naso­VAX. The Covid-19 vac­cine would be de­liv­ered in­tranasal­ly in a sin­gle dose.

Sta­tus: Ac­cord­ing to a com­pa­ny press re­lease, an­i­mal test­ing is be­gin­ning, and clin­i­cal test­ing is slat­ed for Au­gust 2020 or lat­er.

Re­search in ad­di­tion­al vac­cine can­di­dates

Com­pa­nies: Glax­o­SmithK­line, SanofiClover Bio­phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals and Xi­a­men In­no­vax

Vac­cine can­di­date: Covid-19 S-Trimer along with var­i­ous vac­cine ad­ju­vant can­di­dates

De­tails: GSK has en­tered in­to a col­lab­o­ra­tion agree­ment with Chi­nese com­pa­ny Clover Phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals to use its ad­ju­vant tech­nol­o­gy for Clover’s Covid-19 can­di­date S-Trimer. GSK al­so has part­nered with Chi­nese com­pa­ny Xi­a­men In­no­vax Biotech and Sanofi, of­fer­ing its vac­cine ad­ju­vant tech­nol­o­gy to the both com­pa­nies.

Sta­tus: In a press re­lease, GSK says its S-Trimer can­di­date is be­ing “rapid­ly de­vel­oped,” and pre-clin­i­cal stud­ies are be­ing planned. On 14 April, Sanofi and GSK an­nounced their plan to col­lab­o­rate on an ad­ju­vant­ed vac­cine and bring it to clin­i­cal tri­als by the sec­ond half of 2020.

Com­pa­ny: BIO­CAD

Vac­cine can­di­date: mR­NA vac­cine can­di­date

De­tails: Russ­ian biotech com­pa­ny BIO­CAD an­nounced it is de­vel­op­ing an mR­NA vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: BIO­CAD said it ex­pects to be­gin an­i­mal test­ing in April 2020.

Com­pa­ny: Heat Bi­o­log­ics

Vac­cine can­di­date: gp96-based vac­cine

De­tails: The biotech com­pa­ny Heat Bi­o­log­ics an­nounced it is pair­ing with the Uni­ver­si­ty of Mi­a­mi to use the gp96 heat shock pro­tein back­bone to de­vel­op at least one Covid-19 vac­cine.

In­sti­tu­tion: Uni­ver­si­ty of Mi­a­mi Miller School of Med­i­cine

Sta­tus: Added to WHO’s draft land­scape of Covid-19 vac­cines

Com­pa­nies: CSL and The Uni­ver­si­ty of Queens­land

Vac­cine can­di­date: Mol­e­c­u­lar clamp vac­cine for Covid-19

De­tails: Re­searchers at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Queens­land have achieved a proof-of-con­cept vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

In­sti­tu­tion: The Uni­ver­si­ty of Queens­land

Sta­tus: In a press re­lease, the uni­ver­si­ty said they will be­gin fur­ther de­vel­op­ment pri­or to pre-clin­i­cal test­ing.

Com­pa­ny: Sanofi and Trans­late Bio

Vac­cine can­di­date: Re­pur­posed SARS vac­cine and mR­NA vac­cine can­di­date

De­tails: Sanofi an­nounced in Feb­ru­ary that is was de­vel­op­ing a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date un­der its egg-free, re­com­bi­nant DNA plat­form us­ing work from a pre­vi­ous SARS vac­cine and in part­ner­ship with the Bio­med­ical Ad­vanced Re­search and De­vel­op­ment Au­thor­i­ty (BAR­DA). Sanofi al­so an­nounced in late March that they were part­ner­ing with Trans­late Bio to cre­ate an mR­NA vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny hopes to have a vac­cine can­di­date for lab test­ing with­in 6 months, ac­cord­ing to orig­i­nal re­port­ing from STAT.

Com­pa­ny: Ex­preS2ion Biotech­nolo­gies

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: Den­mark-based Ex­preS2ion won a Eu­ro­pean Union (EU) Hori­zon 2020 grant to fund a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny said they plan to per­form a Phase 1/2a clin­i­cal tri­al and aim to be­gin clin­i­cal test­ing with­in 12 months.

Com­pa­ny: Uni­ver­si­ty of Saskatchewan Vac­cine and In­fec­tious Dis­ease Or­ga­ni­za­tion-In­ter­na­tion­al Vac­cine Cen­tre

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: The Uni­ver­si­ty of Saskatchewan’s Vac­cine and In­fec­tious Dis­ease Or­ga­ni­za­tion-In­ter­na­tion­al Vac­cine Cen­tre (VI­DO-In­ter­Vac) is de­vel­op­ing a vac­cine for Covid-19, re­cent­ly re­ceived $1 mil­lion to ac­cel­er­ate Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date test­ing.

Sta­tus: Pre­clin­i­cal.

Com­pa­ny: Epi­Vax

Vac­cine can­di­date: Ii-Key pep­tide vac­cine

De­tails: Epi­Vax is de­vel­op­ing two Ii-Key pep­tide vac­cine can­di­dates against Covid-19.

Sta­tus: Epi­Vax’s CEO said a vac­cine could be ready with­in 5-6 months if the com­pa­ny re­ceives the right lev­el of fund­ing.

Com­pa­ny: Coda­genix

Vac­cine can­di­date: Live at­ten­u­at­ed Covid-19 vac­cine

De­tails: Coda­genix an­nounced in Feb­ru­ary that it had used the nCoV genome to map out sev­er­al vac­cine can­di­date genomes for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny said the next step is to grow and test the vac­cine virus­es in vi­vo be­fore ini­ti­at­ing clin­i­cal tri­als, but gave no time­line for when test­ing would be­gin.

Com­pa­ny: Zy­dus Cadi­la

Vac­cine can­di­date: DNA and/or live at­ten­u­at­ed re­com­bi­nant Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date

De­tails: In­dia’s Zy­dus Cadi­la an­nounced in Feb­ru­ary they are re­search­ing two vac­cine can­di­dates for Covid-19. The first would use a DNA vac­cine tar­get­ing the vi­ral en­try mem­brane pro­tein of the virus, while the sec­ond us­es a live at­ten­u­at­ed re­com­bi­nant measles virus tar­get­ed to Covid-19.

Sta­tus: No de­tails have been re­leased at this time.

Com­pa­ny: Sino­vac

Vac­cine can­di­date: For­ma­lin-in­ac­ti­vat­ed and alum-ad­ju­vant­ed can­di­date vac­cine for Covid-19

De­tails: Sino­vac is pur­port­ed­ly work­ing on a for­ma­lin-in­ac­ti­vat­ed and alum-ad­ju­vant­ed can­di­date vac­cine for Covid-19, ac­cord­ing to the WHO draft land­scape of Covid-19 vac­cines.

Sta­tus: No de­tails have been re­leased at this time.

Com­pa­ny: Geo­vax and Bravo­vax

Vac­cine can­di­date:

De­tails: In Jan­u­ary, Chi­nese biotech com­pa­nies Geo­vax and Bravo­vax an­nounced they would col­lab­o­rate to cre­ate a mod­i­fied vac­cinia ankara virus like par­ti­cles (MVA-VLP) vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: Geo­vax said it’s cur­rent­ly in the process of nar­row­ing their vac­cine can­di­dates down from three to one, and from there will move to test­ing in hu­mans.

Com­pa­ny: Gr­ef­fex

Vac­cine can­di­date: Ade­n­ovirus-based vec­tor vac­cine for Covid-19

De­tails: Ge­net­ic en­gi­neer­ing com­pa­ny Gr­ef­fex is de­vel­op­ing an ade­n­ovirus-based vec­tor vac­cine for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny re­cent­ly an­nounced its vac­cine can­di­date has en­tered the an­i­mal test­ing stage.

Com­pa­ny: Wal­ter Reed Army In­sti­tute of Re­search and Unit­ed States Army Med­ical Re­search In­sti­tute of In­fec­tious Dis­eases

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: Wal­ter Reed, to­geth­er with the U.S. Army Med­ical Re­search In­sti­tute of In­fec­tious Dis­eases, is work­ing on a Covid-19 vac­cine. Re­searchers at Wal­ter Reed had pre­vi­ous­ly de­vel­oped a MERS vac­cine, and is us­ing that work to help them cre­ate a vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: Wal­ter Reed has de­vel­oped sev­er­al vac­cine can­di­dates, and have be­gun test­ing in an­i­mals, but have not yet in­di­cat­ed when they would be­gin clin­i­cal test­ing in hu­mans.

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: MI­GAL Galilee Re­search In­sti­tute

Vac­cine can­di­date: Mod­i­fied avian coro­n­avirus vac­cine

De­tails: The in­sti­tute said it plans to cre­ate a new Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date by adapt­ing its re­search in de­vel­op­ing a vac­cine for the ge­net­i­cal­ly-sim­i­lar avian coro­n­avirus In­fec­tious Bron­chi­tis Virus (IBV).

Sta­tus: On 27 Feb­ru­ary, the in­sti­tute said it planned to cre­ate the vac­cine with­in the next 8-10 weeks, will seek safe­ty ap­proval with­in 90 days, and is in dis­cus­sion with part­ners for hu­man tri­als.

Com­pa­ny: AJ­Vac­cines

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: In March, Dan­ish-based vac­cine man­u­fac­tur­er AJ­Vac­cines said they would use mod­ern anti­gen tech­nol­o­gy to de­vel­op a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date that would have a “high pro­tec­tion with a low re­ac­to­genic­i­ty and fa­vor­able safe­ty pro­file.”

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny has not giv­en a time­line for fur­ther de­vel­op­ment or test­ing.

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: Bay­lor Col­lege of Med­i­cine

Vac­cine can­di­date: Re-pur­posed SARS vac­cine for Covid-19; S1 or RBD pro­tein vac­cine can­di­date

De­tails: Re­searchers at the Bay­lor Col­lege of Med­i­cine say they have a shelved vac­cine from the 2003 SARS out­break that could be re­pur­posed for use in the Covid-19 pan­dem­ic. They are al­so de­vel­op­ing an S1 or RBD pro­tein vac­cine as a tar­get­ed vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: The uni­ver­si­ty has not re­leased de­tails on de­vel­op­ing or test­ing at this time.

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: In­sti­tut Pas­teur

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: In­sti­tut Pas­teur is part­ner­ing with the Coali­tion for Epi­dem­ic Pre­pared­ness In­no­va­tions (CEPI) to de­vel­op a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date.

Sta­tus: No oth­er de­tails have been re­leased at this time.

Com­pa­ny: Tonix Phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals and South­ern Re­search

Vac­cine can­di­date: Horse­pox vac­cine with per­cu­ta­neous ad­min­is­tra­tion

De­tails: Bio­phar­ma­ceu­ti­cals com­pa­ny Tonix is part­ner­ing with South­ern Re­search to de­vel­op a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date based on the com­pa­ny’s horse­pox vac­cine, TNX-1800, is work­ing

Sta­tus: Tonix hasn’t of­fered a time­line for fur­ther de­vel­op­ment or test­ing.

Or­ga­ni­za­tions: Fu­dan Uni­ver­si­ty, Shang­hai Jiao­Tong Uni­ver­si­ty, and RNACure Bio­phar­ma

Vac­cine can­di­date: mR­NA vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19

De­tails: Fu­dan Uni­ver­si­ty has en­tered in­to a part­ner­ship with Shang­hai JiaoTang Uni­ver­si­ty, and RNACure to de­vel­op a Covid-19 mR­NA vac­cine can­di­date. They are us­ing two meth­ods to de­vel­op an mR­NA-based vac­cine: us­ing mR­NA to ex­press the re­cep­tor-bind­ing do­main of the spike pro­tein of Covid-19 to in­duce neu­tral­iz­ing-an­ti­bod­ies, and de­vel­op­ing mR­NAs that can in­struct the host to pro­duce virus-like par­ti­cles sim­i­lar to SARS-CoV-2.

Sta­tus: No de­tails on fur­ther de­vel­op­ment or test­ing are avail­able at this time.

Com­pa­ny: Arc­turus Ther­a­peu­tics and Duke-NUS Med­ical School

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: Arc­turus and Duke are part­ner­ing to de­vel­op a Covid-19 vac­cine can­di­date that us­es Arc­turus’ self-repli­cat­ing RNA and nanopar­ti­cle non-vi­ral de­liv­ery sys­tem.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­nies have not re­leased fur­ther de­tails about de­vel­op­ment or test­ing.

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: Pe­ter Do­her­ty In­sti­tute for In­fec­tion and Im­mu­ni­ty

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: The Do­her­ty In­sti­tute has re­ceived $3.2 mil­lion from the Jack Ma foun­da­tion to ac­cel­er­ate the cre­ation of a Covid-19 vac­cine with an ac­tive and pas­sive plat­form.

Sta­tus: No oth­er de­tails have been re­leased at this time.

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: Tu­lane Uni­ver­si­ty

Vac­cine can­di­date: The Tu­lane Na­tion­al Pri­mate Re­search Cen­ter has launched a Covid-19 re­search pro­gram to help de­vel­op a vac­cine can­di­date.

Sta­tus: The or­ga­ni­za­tion has not es­tab­lished a time­line for test­ing, but has in­di­cat­ed it will use a pri­mate mod­el for an­i­mal test­ing.

Com­pa­ny: Sor­ren­to Ther­a­peu­tics, Inc. and Smart­Pharm Ther­a­peu­tics Inc.

Vac­cine can­di­date: Gene-en­cod­ed an­ti­body vac­cine can­di­date

De­tails: In late March, Sor­ren­to Ther­a­peu­tics an­nounced a col­lab­o­ra­tion with Smart­Pharm Ther­a­peu­tics to de­vel­op a next-gen­er­a­tion, gene-en­cod­ed an­ti­body vac­cine for Covid-19.

Sta­tus: In a press re­lease, Smart­Pharm Ther­a­peu­tics said it hopes to have a can­di­date with­in sev­er­al months.

Or­ga­ni­za­tion: Uni­ver­si­ty of Bris­tol (Imophoron)

Vac­cine can­di­date: No name an­nounced

De­tails: On 7 April, Imophoron, a spin-out com­pa­ny from the Uni­ver­si­ty of Bris­tol’s Bris­Syn­Bio re­search cen­ter, has an­nounced it is pro­duc­ing sev­er­al vac­cine can­di­dates for Covid-19 us­ing its AD­Domer plat­form.

Sta­tus: Vac­cine de­vel­op­ment is in a pre-clin­i­cal stage, ac­cord­ing to a press re­lease from the uni­ver­si­ty.

Com­pa­ny: IMV

Vac­cine can­di­date: DPX-COVID-19

De­tails: IMV, a biotech com­pa­ny based in Cana­da, an­nounced its in­tent to cre­ate a vac­cine can­di­date for Covid-19 based off DPX-Sur­vivac, a T-cell ac­ti­vat­ing im­munother­a­py anti­gen vac­cine cur­rent­ly be­ing test­ed in tri­als for ef­fec­tive­ness against re­cur­rent ovar­i­an can­cer, ad­vanced and re­cur­rent sol­id tu­mors, and sur­vivin-ex­press­ing dif­fuse large B-cell lym­phoma DL­B­CL.

Sta­tus: The com­pa­ny is de­vel­op­ing a phase 1 clin­i­cal study of 48 healthy sub­jects and plans to be­gin the tri­al in the sum­mer of 2020, ac­cord­ing to a press re­lease.

For a look at all End­points News coro­n­avirus sto­ries, check out our spe­cial news chan­nel.


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