Question:

Write about the electroporation and gene gun methods of introducing foreign genes into plants.

Plant biotechnology:

The purpose of plant biotechnology is to manipulate the genetic potential of plants. Techniques can be traced back to the late 1850s and 1860s. In this time, the technique referred to as hydroponics was discovered. This technique demonstrated that plants could be grown without placing the roots in the soil. From these now considered "simple" experiments, plant biotechnology has evolved.

Answer and Explanation:

One method which attempts at genetic transfer is electroporation. In this method, a brief high-voltage electrical pulse is applied to a solution which contains the protoplast or plant tissue and subsequent DNA. The electrical pulse causes the transient opening of the pores in the plasma membrane of the protoplast or plant tissue cells and the DNA enters. The hybrid cell is then grown on a solid growth medium so that callus can develop. If this growth is successful, the callus will form somatic embryos, and then plantlets can be nurtured to grow into adult, fertile plants.

Another method of gene transfer is particle bombardment. Using this technique high-velocity microprojectile (small gold or tungsten beads) are used to deliver RNA or DNA into cells. The RNA or DNA is coated on the surface of the beads. These beads are shot from a modified firearm known as a gene gun, at a plant cell target. These targets included a piece of callus or leaf.

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