This study introduces the use of high-frequency pulsed electric fields for tissue electroporation. Through the development of finite element models and the use of analytical techniques, electroporation with rectangular, bipolar pulses is investigated. The electric field and temperature distribution along with the associated transmembrane potential development are considered in a heterogeneous skin fold geometry. Results indicate that switching polarity on the nanosecond scale near the charging time of plasma membranes can greatly improve treatment outcomes in heterogeneous tissues. Specifically, high-frequency fields ranging from 500 kHz to 1 MHz are best suited to penetrate epithelial layers without inducing significant Joule heating, and cause electroporation in underlying cells.



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