Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia, increasing the risk of stroke, heart failure and death, and a growing epidemic. Electroporation ablation is emerging in cardiac ablation for atrial fibrillation as a fast, tissue-specific and non-thermal alternative to existing technologies tied by their thermal action to shortcomings in efficacy, speed and risk. Studies so far have aimed to translate the success of irreversible electroporation from tumour treatment, with its kilovolt pulses, to cardiac ablation. However, these high voltages may be less appealing for cardiac ablation from clinical, technical and regulatory standpoints. A novel ablation technique combining electroporation and electrolysis in a single pulse E2 uses lower voltages. A custom E2 ablation system was developed and tested on an in vivo tissue model. Histopathological analysis showed lesions of clinically relevant depth, achieved without any acute complications or severe muscle contractions. Lesions were mapped onto a numerical model developed to refine further prototyping. This study provides preliminary prototype validation and the methodological foundation for dose optimisation towards endocardial application.

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