Electroporation involves applying electric field pulses to cells, leading to the alteration or destruction of cell membranes. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) creates permanent defects in cell membranes and induces cell death. By directly targeting IRE to tumors, percutaneous nonthermal ablation is possible. The history of IRE, evolution of concepts, theory, biological applications, and clinical data regarding its safety and efficacy are discussed.

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