Finding an effective and safe vaccine typically takes years of research and testing. But in the case of the coronavirus, there is no time to lose and the goal is to develop one in record time. Politicians promise to have it before the year is out, but WHO is wary of a hastily approved vaccine. In fact, if achieved in 2021, it would be by far the fastest vaccine ever developed.

Ensuring the safety and efficacy of a vaccine can take decades.

For HIV and

zika has not yet

found vaccine

Ensuring the safety and efficacy of a vaccine can take decades.

For HIV and

zika has not yet

found vaccine

Ensuring the safety and efficacy of a vaccine can take decades.

For HIV and Zika not yet

vaccine has been found

Ensuring the safety and efficacy of a vaccine can take decades.

For HIV and Zika not yet

vaccine has been found

And is that for a vaccine to be suitable for approval, it must go through four previous phases. Preclinical tests take place in cells and animals, such as mice or monkeys, and phases 1, 2 and 3 in humans. In phase 1, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to rule out serious effects and to evaluate biological effects, including the induced immune response. In phase 2 hundreds of people are tested to assess the induced immune response, adjust the dose and confirm safety. Phase 3 shows that the vaccine is safe and effective in a trial of tens of thousands of people.

Five years had to pass for the Ebola vaccine to be approved for use. The possible protection against the coronavirus is to be achieved in about 18 months.

Fastest vaccine time (Ebola)

Production to

small scale

Production to

larger scale

Goal of the covid-19 vaccine

Production to

small and

larger scale

Fastest vaccine time (Ebola)

Production to

small scale

Production to

larger scale

Goal of the covid-19 vaccine

Production to

small and

larger scale

Fastest vaccine time (Ebola)

Production to

small scale

Production to

larger scale

Goal of the covid-19 vaccine

Production to

small and

larger scale

Fastest vaccine time (Ebola)

Production to

small scale

Production to

larger scale

Goal of the covid-19 vaccine

Production to

small and

larger scale

The WHO estimates that in the summer of 2021 the vaccine will begin to be available to risk groups, but it will not be until 2022 when mass vaccination can begin. And is that for a vaccine to be approved it must meet all safety protocols. Despite this, 40% of Spaniards affirm that they would not be vaccinated with the first available immunization.

How does a vaccine work?

The objective of vaccines is to subject the human body to contact with the virus (or parts of it) so that it activates its immune response and generates defenses.

There are several types of vaccine depending on the part of the virus that is used for its development.

Depending on the type of vaccine, the virus multiplies inside the cell or not

The dendritic cells find parts of the virus and present it to the immune system

This produces T lymphocytes, that destroys infected cells, and B lymphocytes, It creates antibodies that block the virus.

There are several types of vaccine depending on the part of the virus that is used for its development.

Depending on the type of vaccine, the virus multiplies inside the cell or not

The dendritic cells find parts of the virus and present it to the immune system

This produces T lymphocytes, that destroys infected cells, and B lymphocytes, It creates antibodies that block the virus.

There are several types of vaccine depending on the part of the virus that is used for its development.

The dendritic cells

find parts of the virus

and present it to the immune system

This produces T lymphocytes, what

destroys infected cells,

Y B lymphocytes, what do you think

antibodies that block the virus.

Depending on the type of

vaccine the virus multiplies

inside the cell or not

There are several types of vaccine depending on the part of the virus that is used for its development.

The dendritic cells

find parts of the virus

and present it to the immune system

This produces T lymphocytes, that destroys cells

infected, and B lymphocytes, that creates antibodies

that block the virus.

Depending on the type of

vaccine the virus multiplies

inside the cell or not

Particles

Similar

to the virus

Particles

Similar

to the virus

Particles

similar to the virus

Particles

similar to the virus

Particles

similar to the virus

Particles

similar to the virus

Particles

similar to the virus

Particles

similar to the virus

They start from the coronavirus itself, but modifying it to attenuate its infectious action or cancel it completely.

He virus

attenuated

it multiplies

in the cell

The cell

dendritic

locate

directly

he virus

inactivated

And it is located

by cell

dendritic

They start from the coronavirus itself, but modifying it to attenuate its infectious action or cancel it completely.

He virus

attenuated

it multiplies

in the cell

The cell

dendritic

locate

directly

he virus

inactivated

And it is located

by cell

dendritic

They start from the coronavirus itself, but modifying it to attenuate its infectious action or cancel it completely.

The dendritic cell

locate directly

he inactivated virus

He attenuated virus

multiplies in the cell

And it is located

by cell

dendritic

They start from the coronavirus itself, but modifying it to attenuate its infectious action or cancel it completely.

The dendritic cell

locate directly

he inactivated virus

He attenuated virus

multiplies in the cell

And it is located

by cell

dendritic

Other viruses are used to introduce the RNA of the coronavirus into the cell to generate the spike proteins and the immune system to identify them.

He virus

measles with

the genes of

spicule I know

multiply

in the cell

The cell

dendritic

locate

directly

he adenovirus

And the virus spike

is located by the

dendritic cell

Other viruses are used to introduce the RNA of the coronavirus into the cell to generate the spike proteins and the immune system to identify them.

He virus

measles with

the genes of

spicule I know

multiply

in the cell

The cell

dendritic

locate

directly

he adenovirus

And the virus spike

is located by the

dendritic cell

Other viruses are used to introduce the RNA of the coronavirus into the cell so that it generates the spike proteins and the immune system identifies them.

The dendritic cell

locate directly

he adenovirus

And the virus spike

is located by the

dendritic cell

He measles virus

with spicule genes

multiplies in the cell

Other viruses are used to introduce the RNA of the coronavirus into the cell so that it generates the spike proteins and the immune system identifies them.

The dendritic cell

locate directly

he adenovirus

And the virus spike

is located by the

dendritic cell

He measles virus

with spicule genes

multiplies in the cell

The genetic material of the coronavirus is introduced into the cell directly to generate the spike protein and for the immune system to react.

For DNA to enter the cell, the

electroporation

He RNA enters the cell and makes it manufacture viral proteins

He DNA transforms into RNA within the nucleus of the cell and causes the cell to make viral proteins

The viral proteins are located by the dendritic cells

The genetic material of the coronavirus is introduced into the cell directly to generate the spike protein and for the immune system to react.

For DNA to enter the cell, the

electroporation

He RNA enters the cell and makes it manufacture viral proteins

He DNA transforms into RNA within the nucleus of the cell and causes the cell to make viral proteins

The viral proteins are located by the dendritic cells

The genetic material of the coronavirus is introduced into the cell directly to generate the spike protein and for the immune system to react.

He RNA enters the cell

and makes this manufacture

viral proteins

The viral proteins

are located by the

dendritic cells

He DNA becomes

in RNA within the nucleus

of the cell and makes it

manufacture viral proteins

For DNA to enter the cell is

necessary the electroporation: pulses

electrical inducing creation

of pores in the cell membrane

The genetic material of the coronavirus is introduced into the cell directly to generate the spike protein and for the immune system to react.

He RNA enters the cell

and makes this manufacture

viral proteins

The viral proteins

are located by the

dendritic cells

He DNA becomes

in RNA within the nucleus

of the cell and makes it

manufacture viral proteins

For DNA to enter the cell is

necessary the electroporation: pulses

electrical inducing creation

of pores in the cell membrane

They consist of directly introducing proteins

coronavirus in the body and identified by the immune system.

Particles

Similar

to the virus

The viral proteins directly entered are located by the dendritic cells

The empty virus incapable of infecting is localized by dendritic cells

They consist of directly introducing proteins

coronavirus in the body and identified by the immune system.

Particles

Similar

to the virus

The viral proteins directly entered are located by the dendritic cells

The empty virus incapable of infecting is localized by dendritic cells

They consist of directly introducing proteins

coronavirus in the body and identified by the immune system.

The viral proteins introduced

are directly located by the

dendritic cells

Particles

Similar

to the virus

The empty virus incapable of

infect is located by

the dendritic cells

They consist of directly introducing proteins

coronavirus in the body and identified by the immune system.

The viral proteins introduced

are directly located by the

dendritic cells

Particles

Similar

to the virus

The empty virus incapable of

infect is located by

the dendritic cells

Source: The data is extracted from Milken Institut, which tracks all vaccines in development from reliable public sources such as WHO, universities, media and companies that can be consulted here.



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