Elsevier

Available online 10 February 2020, 107482

Bioelectrochemistry

Highlights

E2 is the combination of reversible electroporation and electrolysis.

E2’s cell killing mechanism is ascribed to a synergistic effect of both components.

Cell death is initiated within the first two minutes after E2 application.

However, cell death occurs significantly delayed.

There is significant but innocuous temperature increase during E2 application.

Abstract

Electrolytic Electroporation (E2) is the combination of reversible electroporation and electrolysis. It has been proposed as a novel treatment option to ablate tissue percutaneously. The present in vitro study in cells in suspension was performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of action of E2. Different types of experiments were performed to isolate the effects of the electrolysis and the electroporation components of the treatment. Additionally, thermal simulations were performed to determine whether significant temperature increase contributes to the effect. The results indicate that E2’s cell killing efficacy is due to a combinational effect of electrolysis and reversible electroporation that takes place within the first two minutes after E2 application. The results further show that cell death after E2 treatment is significantly delayed. These observations suggest that cell death is induced in permeabilized cells due to the uptake of electrolysis species. Thermal simulations revealed a significant but innocuous temperature increase.

Keywords

Electroporation

electrolysis

electrochemical treatment

electrolytic electroporation

irreversible electroporation

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