The incorporation of exogenous molecules into live cells is essential for both biological research and therapeutic applications. In particular, for the emerging field of super-resolution microscopy of live mammalian cells, it remains a challenge to deliver tailored, often cell-impermeable, fluorescent probes into live cells for target labeling. Here, utilizing the outstanding mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of graphene, we report a facile approach that enables both high-throughput delivery of fluorescent probes into adherent mammalian cells and in situ super-resolution microscopy on the same device. ~90% delivery efficiencies are achieved for free dyes and dye-tagged affinity probes, short peptides, and whole antibodies, thus enabling high-quality super-resolution microscopy. Moreover, we demonstrate good spatiotemporal controls, which, in combination with the ready patternability of graphene, allow for the spatially selective delivery of two different probes for cells at different locations on the same substrate.