Electroporation has been widely used in delivering foreign biomolecules into cells, but there is still much room for improvement, such as cell viability and integrity. In this manuscript, we investigate the distribution and the toxicity of pH changes during electroporation, which significantly decreases cell viability. A localized pH gradient forms between anode and cathode leading to a localized distribution of cell death near the electrodes, especially cathodes. The toxicity of hydroxyl ions… CONTINUE READING

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