Strategies to improve vaccine efficacy are still required. The immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is strongly improved by electroporation (EP). The skin is populated with a wide variety of immune cells, making it an attractive tissue for vaccine delivery. Here we describe a method for the EP-mediated intradermal delivery of DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates, as a model for preclinical development of human vaccines, using noninvasive needleless electrodes.



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