Application of electric pulses after local injection of DNA temporarily opens cell membranes and facilitates DNA uptake. Delivery of plasmid DNA by electroporation to alter gene expression

in tissue has also been explored in vivo. This approach may constitute an alternative to viral gene transfer, or to transgenic or knock-out animals. Among the most frequently electroporated target tissues are skin, muscle, eye, and tumors. Moreover, different regions in the central nervous system (CNS), including the developing neural tube and the spinal cord, as well as prenatal and postnatal brain have been successfully electroporated. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the literature describing electroporation of the CNS with a focus on the adult brain. In addition, the mechanism of electroporation, different ways of delivering the electric pulses, and the risk of damaging the target tissue are highlighted. Electroporation has been successfully used in humans to enhance gene transfer in vaccination or cancer therapy with several clinical trials currently ongoing. Improving the knowledge about in vivo electroporation will pave the way for electroporation-enhanced gene therapy to treat brain carcinomas, as

BMS-777607 purchase well as CNS disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and depression. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, responsible for causing nosocomial infections, has been becoming a significant global MK-4827 cost health issue. In this article, we report the complete genome sequence of bacteriophage B phi-B1251 (YMC/09/02/B1251 ABA BP), which causes lysis

of a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strain. The bacteriophage belongs to the family Podoviridae and has a double-stranded circular DNA genome with a length of 45,364 bp and a 39.05% G + C content. Genome analysis showed that it had no similarity to other previously reported bacteriophages capable of infecting A. baumannii.”
“Peripheral nerve injuries that induce gaps larger than 1-2 cm require bridging strategies for repair. Autologous nerve grafts are still the gold standard for such interventions, although alternative treatments, as well as treatments to improve the therapeutic efficacy of autologous nerve grafting are generating increasing interest. Investigations are still mostly experimental, although some clinical studies have been undertaken. In this review, we aim to describe the developments in bridging technology which aim to replace the autograft. A multi-disciplinary approach is of utmost importance to develop and optimise treatments of the most challenging peripheral nerve injuries. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Escherichia coli is recognized as one of the most abundant avian bacterial pathogens.

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