In the world's biggest vaccination drive conducted in India against the deadly COVID-19 pandemic, three vaccines - Serum Institute of India's Covishield, Bharat Biotech's Covaxin, and Russian-made Sputnik V are being used to innoculate the population.
However, by year-end India is likely to have more than half a dozen COVID-19 vaccines. With more vaccines in the market, this will reduce the gap between supply and demand and also bring down the prices of the jabs. Here's a look at some of the vaccines ready to enter the Indian markets by year-end.
Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII) is also producing protein-based COVID-19 vaccine NVX-CoV2373 under the brand name 'Covovax'.
This vaccine was developed by the US biotechnology company Novovax. SII’s production of Covovax has already begun.
Once Novavax gets the required approvals in terms of efficacy trials abroad, it is expected that SII will do the same in India.
Covovax is expected to be rolled out in two to three months. Twenty crore doses of the vaccine are likely to be produced by December.
Pune-based Gennova Biopharmaceuticals has developed India's first mRNA COVID-19 vaccine called HGC019.
Phase I trials for the vaccine candidate began last month and so far 120 volunteers have been covered.
The Gennova Biopharmaceuticals has been granted Rs 250 crore by the government. It is likely to be launched early next year.
Bharat Biotech's nasal vaccine candidate called intranasal vaccine BBV154 is currently under Phase I trials.
As per the manufacturer, this vaccine creates an immune response at the site of infection (in the nasal mucosa).
This helps to block both infection and transmission of the COVID-19 virus.
Bharat Biotech is expected to roll out ten crore doses of its nasal vaccine by the end of the year.
Zydus Cadila in Gujarat is producing an intradermal COVID-19 vaccine called ZyCoV-D.
It is India's first indigenously developed DNA vaccine candidate and is currently being tested on children.
The company is expected to provide five crore doses by the end of the year.
ZyCoV-D is likely to be rolled out in a month's time. Zydus Cadila will apply for emergency use authorisation in two weeks.
Hyderabad-based Biological E has developed a vaccine candidate called Corbevax which is currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials.
Corbevax is a protein subunit vaccine, similar to inactivated whole-cell vaccines such as Covaxin, and does not contain live components of the virus.
The government said it will make an advance payment of Rs 1,500 crore to Biological E to reserve 30 crore doses of Corbevax.
Thirty-crore doses of Corbevax are expected to be rolled out between August and December.
Of these, at least 7.5 crore doses of Corbevax will be available by this year's September month.
Biological E is also making an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.
It entered into a licensing agreement with Providence Therapeutics Holdings to manufacture the Canadian company's mRNA vaccine in India.
The vaccine, named PTX-COVID19-B, is under development in Canada at the moment.
Biological E is also bringing Johnson and Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine to India.
The Indian company has a deal to produce about 600 million doses of the vaccine called Janssen.
Janssen has already been approved for use in the United States, the European Union, Thailand, and South Africa among others.
In India, six companies will produce Russia's COVID-19 vaccine Sputnik V.
This vaccine is expected to be the most used in India, apart from Covishield and Covaxin, based on the way in which its production is being ramped up.
The manufacturing companies include Hetero Biopharma, Gland Pharma, Panacea Biotec, Stelis Biopharma, Virchow Biotech, and Serum Institute of India.
The companies are on track to make millions of doses of the Russian vaccine in a bid to alleviate the country's current vaccine shortage.