The impact of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT on management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) is well-established. However, whether and how PSMA PET/CT affects the management of patients undergoing scans for other clinical indications remains unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on initial and subsequent management decisions in a cohort of PCa patients referred for various indications ("basket trial") excluding the two main classical indications: BCR and presurgical staging. Methods: This was a prospective study of 197 patients that aimed to determine the impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT on PCa stage and management. Indications for PSMA PET/CT were: initial staging of non-surgical candidates (30 patients) and re-staging after definitive treatment (n = 168). The re-staging cohort comprised: patients re-staged with known advanced metastatic disease (n = 103), after androgen deprivation therapy only (n = 16), after surgery with serum PSA levels <0.2 ng/ml (n = 13), after radiation therapy (RT) not meeting the Phoenix criteria (n = 22) and after other primary local treatments [i.e. high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), focal laser ablation, cryoablation, hyperthermia or irreversible electroporation] (n = 13). Patients with BCR and candidates for curative surgery were excluded. Impact on management was assessed using pre- and post-PET questionnaires completed by referring physicians, electronic chart review and/or patient telephone encounters. Results: PSMA PET/CT changed disease stage in 135/197 (69%) patients (38% up-stage, 30% down-stage and no changes in stage in 32%). Management was affected in 104/182 (57%) patients. Specifically, PSMA PET/CT impacted management of patients who were re-staged after RT without meeting the Phoenix criteria for BCR, after other definitive local treatments and with advanced metastatic disease in 13/18 (72%), 8/12 (67%) and 59/96 (61%), respectively. Conclusion: PSMA PET/CT has a profound impact on stage and management of PCa patients outside of the two main classical indications (BCR and presurgical staging) across all examined clinical scenarios.

Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2020 Jan 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Ida Sonni, Matthias Eiber, Wolfgang P Fendler, Rejah M Alano, Sitaram S Vangala, Amar U Kishan, Nicholas Nickols, Matthew B Rettig, Robert Reiter, Johannes Czernin, Jérémie Calais

University of California, Los Angeles, USA, United States., Technical University of Munich, Germany., University Hospital Essen, Germany.

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