U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Selected Adverse Events Reported after COVID-19 Vaccination," July 21, 2021

The Associated Press, "Conservative media offers mixed messages on COVID-19 vaccine," July 21, 2021

The University of Pennsylvania Annenberg Public Policy Center, "Public Trust in CDC, FDA, and Fauci Holds Steady, Survey Shows," July 20, 2021

Media Matters for America, "Despite Facebook's COVID-19 promises, anti-vaccine groups are thriving," July 20, 2021

NewsGuard, "Report for Governments and the WHO," July 20, 2021

Brendan Nyhan on Twitter, July 20, 2021

Renee DiResta on Twitter, July 18, 2021

NewsGuard, "The Top COVID-19 Vaccine Myths Spreading Online," July 13, 2021

Business Insider, "99.5% of COVID-19 deaths in the US are now in unvaccinated people, CDC head says," July 9, 2021

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Myths and Facts about COVID-19 Vaccines," July 7, 2021

Center for Countering Digital Hate, "The Disinformation Dozen," March 24, 2021

PolitiFact, "Deaths of JetBlue pilots falsely connected to COVID-19 vaccine," July 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, saline injections are not part of a COVID-19 vaccine plot," July 20, 2021

PolitiFact, "Instagram post misleads on door-to-door COVID-19 vaccination efforts," July 25, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, vaccines do not cause sudden infant death syndrome," July 12, 2021

PolitiFact, "Social media post misrepresents preliminary data on miscarriages and COVID-19 vaccines," July 9, 2021

PolitiFact, "No evidence of ‘graphene oxide’ that’s ‘toxic’ in Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine," July 8, 2021

PolitiFact, "Journal discredits study it published claiming a COVID-19 vaccine causes deaths," July 2, 2021

PolitiFact, "Video of a microchip reader finding a chip in a vaccinated woman’s arm was posted as a joke," July 1, 2021

PolitiFact, "CDC says more young people hospitalized from vaccine than COVID-19 itself? False," June 30, 2021

PolitiFact, "No evidence for post about funeral directors seeing deaths among vaccinated people," June 29, 2021

PolitiFact, "Social media posts falsely link British Airways pilot deaths to vaccine," June 28, 2021

PolitiFact, "Scientists developing mRNA vaccines before outbreak isn’t evidence COVID-19 pandemic was created," June 25, 2021

PolitiFact, "mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were tested in humans, have proven to be safe, effective," June 25, 2021

PolitiFact, "Christian Eriksen, Danish soccer player who collapsed, didn’t receive the Pfizer vaccine," June 14, 2021

PolitiFact, "No proof for speculation that COVID-19 vaccine deaths will rival COVID-19 deaths," June 11, 2021

PolitiFact, "Sherri Tenpenny makes false COVID-19 vaccine magnetism claim to Ohio lawmakers," June 9, 2021

PolitiFact, "Claim about 920 miscarriages caused by COVID-19 vaccination lacks evidence," June 8, 2021

PolitiFact, "No proof for researcher claim that COVID-19 vaccines’ spike protein is a ‘toxin,'" June 7, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, vaccine ‘shedding’ will not give unvaccinated people natural immunity," June 1, 2021

PolitiFact, "Claim from Giuliani on Covid-19 spread ‘wrong on every level,'" May 31, 2021

PolitiFact, "Instagram post misleads on vaccine efficacy by conflating two different measures," May 18, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, a video doesn’t prove the COVID-19 vaccines allow people to be tracked through a 5G network," May 28, 2021

PolitiFact, "There’s no proof that COVID-19 vaccine has injured or killed more than 900 children," May 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "COVID-19 vaccination status doesn’t impact life insurance policies," May 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, an Ohio doctor didn’t die from the COVID-19 vaccine," May 24, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, Fauci’s wife didn’t issue emergency use authorizations for COVID-19 vaccines," May 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, video doesn’t prove AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine contains Bluetooth chip," May 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, the Moderna vaccine does not contain an ingredient that’s for 'research use only,'" May 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, video doesn’t prove AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine contains Bluetooth chip," May 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, HIPAA doesn’t prohibit businesses from asking about your vaccination status," May 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "University of Miami researchers looked at effects of COVID-19, not vaccines," May 19, 2021

PolitiFact, "Instagram post falsely claims COVID-19 vaccines ‘skipped all animal trials,'" May 18, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, these magnet videos don’t prove the COVID-19 vaccines contain microchips," May 17, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, The Death Rate For Vaccinated People Is Not Higher Than That Of Unvaccinated People," May 10, 2021

PolitiFact, "Tucker Carlson’s misleading claim about deaths after COVID-19 vaccine," May 6, 2021

PolitiFact, "Debunking the anti-vaccine hoax about ‘vaccine shedding,'" May 6, 2021

PolitiFact, "Report that teen died 2 days after a COVID shot was unverified, isn’t confirmed," May 6, 2021

PolitiFact, "Tucker Carlson’s misleading claim about deaths after COVID-19 vaccine," May 6, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, Red Cross isn't warning vaccinated people not to donate blood," May 4, 2021

PolitiFact, "Federal VAERS database is a critical tool for researchers, but a breeding ground for misinformation," May 3, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, there is no evidence that spending time around vaccinated people causes death or disease," April 30, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, it’s not illegal for a college or employer to require a COVID vaccine," April 29, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, Bill Gates isn’t fighting to keep vaccine ingredients secret. They’re already public," April 27, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, you don’t need to avoid getting pregnant after getting a COVID-19 vaccine," April 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, women’s cycles and fertility are not affected by being around vaccinated people," April 21, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, the government doesn’t use a ‘national ID’ to track you after receiving COVID-19 vaccine," April 16, 2021

PolitiFact, "Tucker Carlson falsely claims COVID-19 vaccines might not work," April 15, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, Moderna’s chief medical officer didn’t say mRNA alters DNA," April 14, 2021

PolitiFact, "Fact-checking unproven claims that rapper DMX suffered heart attack after getting COVID-19 vaccine," April 12, 2021

PolitiFact, "COVID-19 vaccines have not led to 6,000% increase in patient deaths, as post suggests," April 6, 2021

PolitiFact, "COVID-19 vaccines did not cause a 366% increase in miscarriages, as article claims," April 2, 2021

PolitiFact, "The COVID-19 vaccine is not an ‘operating system’ run by Bill Gates," April 1, 2021

PolitiFact, "Instagram post overlooks FDA sign-off on COVID-19 vaccines," March 31, 2021

PolitiFact, 'No, it’s not safer to skip the COVID-19 vaccine to avoid permanent side effects," March 31, 2021

PolitiFact, "Yes, data shows COVID-19 vaccines are safe despite quick timeline," March 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "The COVID-19 vaccines do not contain aluminum," March 22, 2021

PolitiFact, "Claim blaming COVID vaccine for Hank Aaron, Marvin Hagler deaths lacks evidence," March 16, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, COVID-19 vaccines do not contain nanoparticles that will allow you to be tracked via 5G networks," March 12, 2021

PolitiFact, "No, Biden didn’t promote ‘mandatory’ COVID-19 vaccines in primetime address," March 12, 2021

PolitiFact, "Misleading video suggests Dr. Anthony Fauci said vaccines don’t protect people from COVID-19," March 8, 2021

PolitiFact, "COVID-19 vaccine does not cause death, autoimmune diseases," March 4, 2021

PolitiFact, "The coronavirus vaccine doesn’t cause Alzheimer’s, ALS," Feb. 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "Receiving COVID-19 vaccine does not enroll you in a government tracking system or medical experiment," Feb. 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "Deaths after vaccination don’t prove that COVID-19 vaccine is lethal," Feb. 16, 2021

PolitiFact, "No evidence that the COVID-19 vaccine caused Hank Aaron’s death," Jan. 26, 2021

PolitiFact, "Norway deaths after COVID-19 shot were among very frail elderly, not proved to be caused by vaccine," Jan. 19, 2021

PolitiFact, "COVID-19 vaccines don’t use experimental technology, don’t track humans," Jan. 4, 2021

PolitiFact, "Anti-vaccine video of fainting nurse lacks context," Dec. 21, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, the new coronavirus vaccines are not more dangerous than COVID-19," Dec. 18, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, chip on COVID-19 vaccine syringes would not be injected or track people," Dec. 25, 2021

PolitiFact, "Biden did not ‘confirm’ or support an agenda to microchip Americans," Dec. 11, 2020

PolitiFact, "Social media post falsely claims a federal law would require vaccination against COVID-19," Dec. 11, 2020

PolitiFact, "Two vaccine trial participants died, but the FDA didn’t connect their deaths to the vaccine," Dec. 11, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, Pfizer’s head of research didn’t say the COVID-19 vaccine will make women infertile," Dec. 10, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, COVID-19 vaccines won’t alter your DNA and control you," Nov. 18, 2020

PolitiFact, "The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine does not contain aborted fetal tissue," Nov. 18, 2020

PolitiFact, "Bill Gates didn’t say this about COVID-19 vaccines," Aug. 4, 2020

PolitiFact, "There’s no plot to microchip people during COVID-19 tests," May 28, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, the Gates Foundation isn’t pushing microchips with all medical procedures," May 20, 2020

PolitiFact, "Blog post wrong on what Bill Gates said about COVID-19 vaccine," May 20, 2020

PolitiFact, "Bill Gates did not say a COVID-19 vaccine could kill nearly 1 million people," May 19, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, Democrats aren’t pushing microchips to fight coronavirus," April 21, 2020

PolitiFact, "Facebook posts falsely claim Dr. Fauci has millions invested in a coronavirus vaccine," April 15, 2020

PolitiFact, "Post about Bill Gates’ work on vaccine tracking distorts research, timeline," April 9, 2020

PolitiFact, "No, the US isn’t developing a vaccine or ‘antivirus’ with a chip to track people," April 3, 2020

Email interview with Imran Ahmed, CEO of the Center for Countering Digital Hate, July 20, 2021

Email interview with Jennifer Granston, Chief Customer Officer and Head of Insights at Zignal Labs, July 20, 2021

Phone interview with John Gregory, senior analyst and deputy health editor for NewsGuard, July 20, 2021

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